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Cohort differences in obesity-related health indicators among 70-year olds with special reference to gender and education.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
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2003 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 18, no 9, 883-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to describe cohort differences in health indicators among four birth cohorts of 70-year old men and women from Göteborg, Sweden, born in 1901/2, 1905/6, 1911/12, and 1922. With special reference to gender, education, and obesity, it is hypothesized that changes in health among elderly men and women may not be occurring in a uniform manner. The variables studied were: systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides, cholesterol, height, weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, current smoking, and alcohol consumption, plus selected prevalent diseases. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test for secular trends and effect modification by gender. Most trends in metabolic and lifestyle indicators varied in relation to gender as well as education. For instance, later-born male cohorts were more overweight than earlier-born groups while the later-born female cohorts had similar relative weights but a more centralized fat patterning. These cohort differences further varied by education where later-born men with less education and later-born women with higher education tended to be more overweight, compared to earlier-born cohorts. Finally, significant cohort differences in previously diagnosed myocardial infarction, stroke, and diabetes mellitus at age 70 were observed in men only. Interaction terms revealed that the gender difference was statistically significant only in the case of diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, secular trends in many obesity-related health indicators among 70-year old Swedish cohorts were dependent on both gender and socio-economic factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 18, no 9, 883-90 p.
Keyword [en]
Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Education, Gender, Gerontology, Obesity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3399PubMedID: 14561048OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-3399DiVA: diva2:748252
Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Socio-economic Status and Health in Women: Population-based studies with emphasis on lifestyle and cardiovascular disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-economic Status and Health in Women: Population-based studies with emphasis on lifestyle and cardiovascular disease
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate socio-economic status in relation to morbidity and mortality, in particular cardiovascular disease among women using data from two population based studies from Sweden. The secondary aim was to explore mechanisms potentially linking socio-economic status to health, assessing for example dental, dietary, and lifestyle factors. Samples: The Population Study of Women in Gothenburg Sweden was begun in 1968-69. A representative random sample of 1,622 women was selected according to date of birth and within the strata 38, 46, 50, 54, and 60 years of age; the participation rate was 90 percent. The Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg (H-70) are based on representative samples of 70-year olds from Göteborg, Sweden who participated in a series of cross sectional and longitudinal studies between1971 and 2000. Participation rates ranged from 86 percent for men and 83 percent for women in the 1901/2 birth cohort to 65 percent for men and 69 percent for women in the 1930 birth cohort. Main results: High socio-economic status was associated with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease [RR 0.49; CI 0.24 – 0.99] in middle aged women independently of risk factors such as smoking and obesity;moreover opposing monotonic trends were seen for mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease in relation to socio-economic status. Tooth loss, a proxy for cumulative lifetime oral infection was also associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women independently of socio-economic factors such as the husband’s occupational category, income, and educational level. Among 70-year old cohorts, later-born women were heavier and had higher body mass index than earlier-born women within the high education group only. However, secular increases in waist-hip ratio were seen in both educational groups. Compared to earlier-born cohorts of 70-year old men, later-born cohorts had higher body mass index and cholesterol levels across social strata, and heart disease and diabetes mellitus became more prevalent. Among the elderly, secular trends indicated greater improvements in cardiovascular risk factors among women than men, with exception to smoking and alcohol consumption. Diet quality and food selection were assessed in relation to socio-economic status in the youngest cohort of 70-year olds born in 1930. Socio-economic disparities in diet quality were detected in men but not in women. Conclusions: From a public health perspective, it is suggested that risk factor patterns should be investigated in association with socio-economic status in order to expose health inequalities, and to develop more equitable interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nordic School of Public Health NHV Göteborg, Sweden, 2005. 86 p.
Series
NHV Reports and Doctor of Public Health-Theses, ISSN 0283-1961 ; Report 2005:3
Keyword
cardiovascular disease, dental health, diet, epidemiology, obesity, women, socio-economic status.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3401 (URN)91-7997-093-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved

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