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Physical growth during the first year of life.: A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Research Institute for Child Health, National Hospital of Pediatrics, 18/879 La Thanh road, Hanoi, Dong Da district, Vietnam..
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
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2012 (English)In: BMC pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, 26- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length) of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations.

METHODS: Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis.

RESULTS: Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education.

CONCLUSION: Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal education and economic conditions lead to poor nutrition for mothers and children in turn causing inferior birth weight and growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 12, 26- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3595DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-26PubMedID: 22409903OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-3595DiVA: diva2:781408
Available from: 2015-01-16 Created: 2015-01-16 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Birth weight and growth during the first two years of life: a study in urban and rural Vietnam
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Birth weight and growth during the first two years of life: a study in urban and rural Vietnam
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Differences in health and living conditions between urban and rural settings can be seen as an important example of gaps between population groups. Birth weight and child growth are important predictors for the future health of a person and at aggregate level, for the public health of a population.The general aim of this thesis is to describe and discuss birth weight, physical growth and breastfeeding of children, as well as associated factors, from birth to 24 months of age in urban and rural areas of Vietnam, thus contributing to the evidence base for health strategy and policy.

Methods: Two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Hanoi were used; urban Dodalab and FilaBavi in the rural part. To study rural birth weight 1999 to 2010 information was obtained for 10,114 newborn in FilaBavi. To study urban rural growth disparities 2008-2010, 1,466 children were followed for two years after birth with measurements of weight and length. A study of breastfeeding included 2,572 mothers followed for one year after delivery. Background information about households and mothers was taken from routine surveys in the two sites.

Results: The mean birth weight in FilaBavi remained stable at about 3,100 grams, over the 12 years studied despite rapid economic and technological development. At the individual level we found birth weight to be associated with household economy and the education of mothers. In the urban rural comparison, the mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 and 3,203 g as compared with 3,105 and 3,057 g for the rural infants. Children in the urban area grew faster than those in the rural area. There were markedly higher frequencies of stunting in the rural area compared with the urban. The initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area. Both birth weight and child growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother’s education.

Conclusion: The results of the studies presented in this thesis show that there are large and important differences in child birth weight, child growth and infant breastfeeding between urban and rural areas. There are also major differences between the areas with respect to education and economic resources. All predictors of child birth weight and growth discussed are directly or indirectly associated with the social and economic conditions. Globalization and urbanization means obvious risks for increasing gaps between as well as within the rural and urban areas. Large discrepancies in a society will lead to serious public health problems in all segments of the population, not only the underprivileged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic School of Public Health NHV Göteborg, Sweden, 2014. 64 p.
Series
NHV Reports and Doctor of Public Health-Theses, ISSN 0283-1961 ; NHV Report 2014:1
Keyword
Key words: Birth weight, child growth, breast feeding, urban rural discrepancy, Vietnam
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3607 (URN)978-91-86739-65-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-28, Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Box 12133, 40242 Göteborg, Sweden, 13:45 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-20 Created: 2015-01-20 Last updated: 2015-01-22Bibliographically approved

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