Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Psychotropic drugs among the elderly: Population-based studies on indicators of inappropriate utilisationin relation to socioeconomic determinants and mental disordersEva LesénGothenburg,
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Drug utilisation among the elderly is complex due to multiplemorbidities, extensive drug utilisation and an increased sensitivity to drugs. One of the most common drug groups utilised in this population is psychotropic drugs, which include antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antidepressants. In appropriat eutilisation of drugs among the elderly is an issue of great public health importance.

Aims: The overall aim of this thesis is to assess and analyse potentially in appropriat eutilisation of psychotropic drugs among the elderly in Sweden. The specific aims are to assess to what extent the indicator “concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs”captures the utilisation of Potentially Inappropriate Psychotropics (PIP) among theelderly, and to analyse potentially inappropriate utilisation of psychotropic drugs inrelation to time, mental disorders, institutionalisation, and socioeconomic determinants among the elderly in Sweden.

Methods: Data from individual-based registers on dispensed drugs and socioeconomic determinants in 2006, the Gothenburg 95+ Study (1996-1998), and aggregated drug sales statistics from 2000-2008 were used. The agreement between the two indicators“concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs” and PIP was assessed. Utilisationof psychotropic drugs and PIP was assessed in relation to mental disorders and institutionalisation among the 95-year olds, and in relation to socioeconomic determinants among individuals aged 75 years and older. Further, trends over time inutilisation of PIP and recommended drugs were analysed.

Results: During 2006, about half of the elderly aged 75 years and older utilised psychotropic drugs and one fifth of all elderly utilised PIP. One fourth of individualsutilising PIP were captured by the indicator “concurrent use of three or morepsychotropic drugs”. In 1996-1998, less than one tenth of the 95-year olds with depression utilised antidepressants, while hypnotics and anxiolytics were more common. Individuals with low income and the non-married were more likely to utilise PIP compared to those with high income and the married, respectively. During 2000-2008, utilisation of PIP decreased and utilisation of recommended psychotropic drugs increased.

Conclusions: There are substantial problems in the utilisation of psychotropic drugsamong the elderly. This thesis found that the agreement between two indicators of inappropriate psychotropic drug utilisation was poor, which emphasises the importance of choosing relevant indicators. The findings also show socioeconomic inequities inpsychotropic drug utilisation among the elderly, a low utilisation of antidepressants among 95-year olds diagnosed with depression, and a trend towards the utilisation of recommended rather than inappropriate psychotropic drugs among the elderly

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Användning av läkemedel bland äldre är komplicerat på grund avmultisjuklighet, användning av flera läkemedel och en ökad känslighet för läkemedel.En av de vanligaste läkemedelsgrupperna hos äldre är psykofarmaka, som inkluderarantipsykotika, ångestdämpande, sömnmedel och antidepressiva läkemedel. Olämpliganvändning av läkemedel bland äldre är ett betydande folkhälsoproblem.

Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen är att beskriva och analyserapotentiellt olämplig användning av psykofarmaka bland äldre i Sverige. De specifikasyftena är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning indikatorn ”samtidig användning av treeller fler psykofarmaka” fångar användningen av potentiellt olämpliga psykofarmaka(PIP) bland äldre och att analysera potentiellt olämplig användning av psykofarmaka irelation till förändring över tid, psykiatriska diagnoser, boendeform och socioekonomiska determinanter bland äldre i Sverige.

Metod: Avhandlingen baseras på data från individbaserade register över läkemedelsköp och socioekonomiska determinanter under 2006, Göteborg 95+ studien (1996-1998)samt aggregerade data över läkemedelsförsäljning under 2000-2008. Överensstämmelsen mellan de två indikatorerna ”samtidig användning av tre eller flerpsykofarmaka” och PIP undersöktes. Användning av psykofarmaka och PIP studerades i relation till psykiatriska diagnoser och boendeform hos 95-åringar och i relation till socioekonomiska determinanter hos de som var 75 år och äldre. Vidare analyseradesförändring över tid i användning av PIP och rekommenderade psykofarmaka.

Resultat: Hälften av alla äldre som var 75 år och äldre använde psykofarmaka under2006 och en femtedel av alla äldre använde PIP. En fjärdedel av individerna somanvände PIP fångades av indikatorn ”samtidig användning av tre eller flerpsykofarmaka”. Bland 95-åringarna med depression år 1996-1998 använde färre än enav tio antidepressiva läkemedel, medan sömnmedel och ångestdämpande läkemedel varvanligare. PIP var vanligare hos de äldre med låg inkomst och bland de som inte vargifta, jämfört med individer med hög inkomst och de gifta. Under 2000-2008 minskade användningen av PIP medan användningen av rekommenderade psykofarmaka ökade.

Slutsatser: Det finns fortfarande stora problem i äldres användning av psykofarmaka.Avhandlingen visar en låg överensstämmelse mellan två indikatorer för olämpliganvändning av psykofarmaka, vilket pekar på betydelsen av att välja relevantaindikatorer. Avhandlingen visar också på socioekonomiska ojämlikheter i användningenav psykofarmaka hos äldre, en låg användning av antidepressiva läkemedel bland 95-åringar med depression och en ökning i användningen av rekommenderade istället förolämpliga psykofarmaka bland äldre

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic School of Public Health NHV Göteborg, Sweden , 2011. , 80 p.
Series
NHV Reports and Doctor of Public Health-Theses, ISSN 0283-1961 ; NHV Report 2011:2
Keyword [en]
drug utilisation, psychotropic drugs, elderly, inappropriate drugs, quality indicators, mental disorders, socioeconomic determinants, Sweden
Keyword [sv]
läkemedelsanvändning, psykofarmaka, äldre, olämpliga läkemedel, kvalitetsindikatorer, psykiatriska diagnoser, socioekonomiska determinanter, Sverige
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3721ISBN: 978-91-86739-09-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-3721DiVA: diva2:786364
Public defence
2011-05-06, Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Göteborg, Sweden, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-02-09 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2015-02-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study.
2010 (English)In: BMC public health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, 118- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drugs are commonly utilised among the elderly. This study aimed to analyse whether two socioeconomic determinants - income and marital status - are associated with differences in utilisation of psychotropic drugs and potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs among elderly in Sweden.

METHODS: All individuals aged 75 years and older who had purchased a psychotropic drug in Sweden during 2006 were included (68.7% women, n = 384712). Data was collected from national individual-based registers. Outcome measures were utilisation of three or more psychotropic drugs and utilisation of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs, as classified by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.

RESULTS: Individuals with low income were more likely to utilise three or more psychotropic drugs compared to those with high income; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.14). The non-married had a higher probability for utilising three or more psychotropic drugs compared to the married (aOR 1.22; CI 1.20-1.25). The highest probability was observed among the divorced and the never married. Potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs were more common among individuals with low compared to high income (aOR 1.14; CI 1.13-1.16). Compared to the married, potentially inappropriate psychotropic drug utilisation occurred more commonly among the non-married (aOR 1.08; CI 1.06-1.10). The never married and the divorced had the highest probability.

CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between socioeconomic determinants and psychotropic drug utilisation. The probability for utilising potentially inappropriate psychotropics was higher among individuals with low income and among the non-married.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3720 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-10-118 (DOI)20214796 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2015-02-09Bibliographically approved
2. There is a trend in the utilization of psychotropics among elderly towards recommended drugs.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>There is a trend in the utilization of psychotropics among elderly towards recommended drugs.
2010 (English)In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 19, no 10, 1095-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To analyse trends in sales of potentially inappropriate psychotropic substances (PIPS) in relation to drugs recommended by Drug and Therapeutics Committees (DTC drugs) among 75-year olds and among individuals born 1925 in Sweden.

METHODS: Trends in sales of PIPS and DTC drugs among 75-year olds and among individuals born 1925 in Sweden during 2000-2008 were analysed with linear regression models. Sales were measured as defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants and day. PIPS were defined according to a proposal from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. The selection of DTC drugs was based on a review of recommendations from local DTCs.

RESULTS: Among 75-year olds, PIPS sales decreased 38% and DTC drugs sales increased 31% from 2000 to 2008. The hypnotic PIPS decreased 45%, while the DTC hypnotics increased 36%. The total sales of PIPS to individuals born in 1925 decreased 12% from 2000 to 2008. The DTC drugs increased 115%. Sales of hypnotic PIPS decreased 12%, and the hypnotic DTC drugs increased 120%.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate a trend towards the utilization of DTC drugs rather than PIPS.

Keyword
drug utilization; elderly; Sweden; potentially inappropriate drugs; psychotropic drugs
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3718 (URN)10.1002/pds.1967 (DOI)20712025 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2015-02-09Bibliographically approved
3. Psychotropic drug use in relation to mental disorders and institutionalization among 95-year-olds: a population-based study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychotropic drug use in relation to mental disorders and institutionalization among 95-year-olds: a population-based study.
Show others...
2011 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 23, no 8, 1270-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychotropic drug use is high among the elderly, but research on how psychotropic drugs are used among individuals aged 90 years and older is limited. An increased knowledge on this topic may contribute to improved prescribing patterns in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the use of psychotropic drugs in relation to mental disorders and institutionalization among 95-year-olds and to identify use of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs.

METHODS: All 95-year-olds born in 1901-1903 living in nursing homes or community settings in Gothenburg, Sweden were invited to participate. The response rate was 65% and 338 95-year-olds were examined (263 women, 75 men). Psychotropic drug use in relation to mental disorders and institutionalization was assessed. Information on drug use was collected primarily from multi-dose drug dispensing lists. Participants were examined by trained psychiatrists using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and a battery of cognitive tests. Dementia, depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R).

RESULTS: Sixty percent of the 95-year-old participants used psychotropic drugs; hypnotics were most common (44%). Potentially inappropriate psychotropics were observed in one third (33%). Antidepressants were used by 7% of the participants without dementia who fulfilled criteria for a depressive disorder, while 56% used hypnotics and 30% used anxiolytics.

CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use and the nonspecific nature of these treatments among 95-year-olds indicate a need for improvement in prescribing patterns.

Keyword
psychotropic drugs; drug utilization; mental disorders; dementia; depression; nonagenarians
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3719 (URN)10.1017/S1041610211000524 (DOI)21447258 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2015-02-09Bibliographically approved
4. To what extent does the indicator "concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs" capture use of potentially inappropriate psychotropics among the elderly?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To what extent does the indicator "concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs" capture use of potentially inappropriate psychotropics among the elderly?
2009 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 65, no 6, 635-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The indicator "concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs" has been used as a measure of quality in drug use among the elderly. The aim of our study was to assess to what extent the indicator captures the use of specific psychotropics associated with an increased risk of adverse events among the elderly, i.e., potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs (PIP).

METHODS: All individuals aged 75 years and older in Sweden purchasing prescribed psychotropic drugs in 2006 constituted the study population (n = 384,904). Data on purchased psychotropic drugs from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register were used. The overlap between individuals with the indicator and individuals using PIP was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratio as outcome measures.

RESULTS: Among the psychotropic drug users, 15% had the indicator and 39% used PIP. The proportion of individuals with the indicator among all individuals using PIP was 27% (sensitivity). The proportion of individuals without the indicator among all individuals not using PIP was 93% (specificity). The positive predictive value was 72%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. Differences in outcome measures were observed between different categories of PIP.

CONCLUSIONS: The indicator "concurrent use of three or more psychotropics" can be technically easy to use, but PIP is more specific. Three quarters of all individuals who used PIP in this study were not captured by the indicator. However, two thirds of all individuals with the indicator used PIP. When selecting instruments to assess appropriateness in drug therapy in the elderly, clinical relevance should be balanced against convenience of use.

Keyword
Elderly, Inappropriate drugs . Polypharmacy . Psychotropic drugs . Quality indicators . Registries
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-3717 (URN)10.1007/s00228-009-0623-x (DOI)19219427 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2015-02-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

NHV Report 2011:2(817 kB)236 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 817 kBChecksum SHA-512
5740eac02265204000212dd11fa50179db716420ffc4dd188241d6a1c05862a96065852deb5340f8b48ab35283f405c26bbc13dc613eebb0177aa6dd59221f34
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Nordic School of Public Health NHV
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 236 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 101 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf