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  • 1. Aamodt, Solveig
    et al.
    Madslien, Ottar
    Identification and assessment of exposure scenario minimum requirements2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is from a project on the identification and assessment of minimum requirements for exposure scenarios (ESs) as required in Article 14-3 of Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 on REACH. A list of minimum requirements is proposed in the report. The list of minimum requirements together with two practical ES examples was used as a basis for a survey sent to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and others. Responses from 70 companies were received, approximately half of which were identified as SMEs. The survey responses show that ESs vary to a great extent, and that harmonisation/standardisation of ESs is desired. The responses also show that there is a significant need for increased understanding and knowledge on ESs, particularly among SMEs. Recommendations are made on harmonisation of legal requirements for ES content, with some concrete recommendations for compilers of ESs, downstream users, industry/industry organisations and national enforcement authorities.

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  • 2. Aho, Jatta
    et al.
    Järvinen, Kaisa
    Saari, Pauliina
    Horváth, Magda
    Leino, Katri
    Kontiokar, Venla
    Joelsson, Anna
    Asker, Andreas
    Eklöv, Isak
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Collin, Christine
    Hald, Julie
    Sjöstrand Cochard, Karin
    LCA for treatment of wood waste in the Nordics2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of several scenarios for wood waste’s treatment were studied via life cycle assessment (LCA). The scenarios were modelled via both attributional and consequential approaches to LCA. The ALCA results indicate that producing insulation from wood waste appears to be a good alternative to incineration, whereas incineration outperforms the production of all the other recycled products studied (particle board, composite, bioethanol, biochar, and textile fibre). When the substituting products and marginal energy are considered in the CLCA, other recycled products too seem to show good environmental performance relative to incineration. Textile fibre from wood waste is a solid alternative to producing viscose and cotton, and if marginal energy with even smaller environmental impacts than biomass were used, other products could well become compelling alternatives.

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  • 3. Ahonen, Hanna-Mari
    Nordic Dialogue on Voluntary Compensation: Working together towards and beyond carbon neutrality2021Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Dialogue on Voluntary Compensation aims to inform Nordic and international stakeholders on using voluntary compensation of greenhouse gas emissions as part of their broader efforts towards and beyond carbon neutrality. Specifically, the Dialogue’s goal is to promote the high integrity, transparency and harmonisation of voluntary compensation, and alignment with the principles and long-term goals of the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This brochure provides an overview of the goals and activities under the Nordic Dialogue on Voluntary Compensation.

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  • 4. Ahonen, Hanna-Mari
    et al.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    Spalding-Fecher, Randall
    Voluntary compensation of greenhouse gas emissions: International guidance and initiatives2021Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of non-state actors are taking steps towards and beyond carbon neutrality and making claims about their climate impact and contribution to mitigation, so as to contribute to the Paris Agreement’s long-term goal to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Voluntary compensation of greenhouse gas emissions enables actors to take responsibility for their remaining emissions by supporting additional mitigation outcomes that occur outside the actors’ boundaries. This report maps key international guidance and initiatives relevant to voluntary compensation. It aims to foster a common knowledge base on high-integrity use of voluntary compensation as part of actors’ broader mitigation efforts towards and beyond carbon neutrality. It was prepared under the Nordic Dialogue on Voluntary Compensation.

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  • 5. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea: Valuation of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of the ecosystem services and associated benefits provided by the Baltic Sea, including information on the approaches of assessing and valuing ecosystem services being applied in the Baltic Sea region. It also identifies the main challenges in ecosystem service assessments in the Baltic Sea, and outlines the way forward in applying assessment tools in regional and national policies.Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection of the Baltic Sea. The existing studies on the value of improved marine environment are useful in assessing the importance and value of some marine ecosystem services, but further work is still needed on describing ecosystem services and their interactions, and evaluating how policy changes affect these services and human well-being.

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  • 6. Andreasen, Birgitta
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Fischer, Stellan
    Haglund, Peter
    Rostkowski, Pawel
    Reid, Malcom J.
    Samanipour, Saer
    Schlabach, Martin
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    Dam, Maria
    Maximizing output from non-target screening2021Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to dig deeper into the data material already generated in the Suspect screening in Nordic countries: Point sources in city areas (TemaNord: 2017:561) to further optimize the benefits of the major work that has already been done. Samples (effluent, sediment, and biota) from all of the Nordic countries were carefully selected, sampled and analysed by a consortium of some of the Nordic region’s most experienced scientific groups in analyses of emerging environmental contaminants. But where perhaps the full potential of the generated data is still to be realized. This project will try to further identify and describe the substances already detected, to be able to better understand what substances we in modern Nordic societies release into the sea via our wastewater. 

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  • 7. Angelsen, Arild
    et al.
    Gierløff, Caroline Wang
    Beltrán, Angelica Mendoza
    Elzen, Michel den
    REDD credits in a global carbon market: Options and impacts2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How can REDD credits be included in a future global carbon market, and what are the impacts of inclusion? We analyze ten different scenarios through 2020, varying the global emission caps and the REDD rules. An inclusion of REDD credits without any adjustments in the global cap will lower carbon prices significantly and cause crowding out. The cap must move towards the 2 degrees climate target if REDD inclusion is to maintain high carbon prices and strong incentives for emissions reductions in other sectors. At the same time, reaching the 2 degree target without full REDD inclusion will increase global mitigation costs by more than 50%.

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  • 8. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 9. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Wik, Ola
    Engelse, Christian J.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Oberender, Anke
    Hjelmar, Ole
    Wahlström, Margareta
    ENCORT-CDW: Evaluation of the European recovery target for construction and demolition waste2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present EU target for recovery of construction and demolition waste does not promote sustainability. Interpretations of waste and recovery definitions rather than resource efficiency and safe handling affect the monitoring. The general weight-based target has to be altered to favour recycling of resource-rich materials, not only of high weight materials. High grade recycling should be distinguished and prioritized to ensure safe recovery. This requires improved knowledge on waste generation and handling as well as on emissions of dangerous substances. A common Nordic approach is advocated.

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  • 10. Asikainen, Anna
    et al.
    Stadelmann, Martin
    Mobilizing private finance for climate action in the global South: Nordic experiences and the way forward2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, the Nordic countries have increased their efforts to support developing economies in the mobilization of private finance. It is now time to take stock of the success stories. Regardless of the progress, several barriers limit the Nordic ability to scale up private climate finance even more. This brief presents ideas for addressing some of these the barriers and increasing the ambition in mobilizing private finance, including considerations on de-risking solutions and the applicability of Article 6 under the Paris Agreement. The brief was produced as part of the Nordic Public-Private Platform on Mobilization of Climate Finance Mobilization, and ahead of the global climate conference in Katowice, December 2018. It builds on previous studies funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, such as “Mobilizing climate finance flows – Nordic approaches and opportunities”.

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  • 11. Ask, Amalie
    et al.
    Cusa, Marine
    Danielsen, Jóhannis
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Strand, Jakob
    Plastic characterization in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis)2020Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern fulmars are pelagic seabirds known to ingest plastic, but so far most of the knowledge is on the physical characteristics of the plastic. However, plastic is a catch-all for many different types of polymers and we wanted to investigate what kinds of polymers the northern fulmars are ingesting. We did this by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and found that both northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands and north-east Greenland had ingested mostly plastic made of polyethylene, followed by polypropylene and polystyrene. There were differences in the physical type of plastic ingested; fulmars from the Faroe Islands had ingested significantly more pellets compared to fulmars from NE Greenland. Thus, the physical, not polymer, composition of plastics appears to be most relevant in assessing regional differences of ingested plastic by fulmars.

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  • 12. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Pauw, Pieter
    Sælen, Håkon
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 13. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement: Lessons Learned and Ways Forward2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 14. Bakka, Loella
    et al.
    Kvien, Ingvild
    Joint Nordic Control of E-commerce: Nordic Enforcement project 20232023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Enforcement Group has checked the compliance level for e-commerce of consumer goods. We focused on three types of business models: marketplaces, dropshipping stores and web shops. A total of 412 products were analysed for restricted substances. 152 (37 %) of the products were non-compliant. The dropshipping stores had the highest non-compliance rate (70 %). They seem however to be unaware of their responsibility for product safety. The results also confirm that products bought from outside the EU/EEA has a higher risk of non-compliance, compared to the products bought within the EU/EEA. The non-compliance rate for the non-EU/EEA companies was 66 %. The national authorities lack powers to demand correction from actors outside the EU. However, there are new rules governing the e-commerce actors coming into force, with the aim to contribute to safer products.

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  • 15. Barth, Sabin
    et al.
    Lindsay McKinnon, David
    Nordic Network for Circular Construction2023Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Network for circular construction.Report from work package 2 about barriers and possibilites within circular construction, A state of the art report from the five Nordic countries, The situation in the countries during 2018-2022. 

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  • 16. Barthelmes, Alexandra
    et al.
    Couwenberg, John
    Risager, Mette
    Tegetmeyer, Cosima
    Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands and Climate in a Ramsar context: A Nordic-Baltic Perspective2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in the Nordic Baltic region and elsewhere in the world store large amounts of carbon and are at the same time important for conservation of biodiversity. Thus peatlands are space-effective carbon stocks, but when drained carbon and nitrogen are released as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and as nitrate to the surface water, while methane will be released when rewetting.

    New knowledge reveals that one of the most efficient means to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are the restoration of drained peatlands by reestablish former high water tables on organic soils.

    This project on synergies between climate change mitigation and the restoration of peatlands has been conducted under a regional Ramsar initiative covering the Nordic and Baltic countries (NorBalWet), with support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report contains chapters on peatlands and their role in climate change mitigation, individual country chapters and the role of the Ramsar Convention.

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  • 17. Barua, Sepul Kanti
    et al.
    Berg, Peer
    Bruvoll, Annegrete
    Cederberg, Christel
    Drinkwater, Kenneth F.
    Eide, Arne
    Eythorsdottir, Emma
    Guðjónsson, Sigurður
    Gudmundsson, Leo A.
    Gundersen, Per
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Jarp, Jorun
    Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger
    Kantanen, Juha
    Kettunen-Præbel, Anne
    Løvendahl, Peter
    Meuwissen, Theo
    Olesen, Jørgen E.
    Portin, Anders
    Rognli, Odd Arne
    Stiansen, Jan Erik
    Climate change and primary industries: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation in the Nordic countries2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a profound impact on natural resources, and thus on the primary industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) in the Nordic countries. Climate change induces risks but also creates possibilities for new production systems on land and in the ocean. Climatic changes also represent great challenges for policy-making and management regimes. The current knowledge base on natural resources in the Nordic region needs to be expanded to fully address the impacts of climate change. In particular it is important to address the need for improved policies and new policy instruments. The research programme Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation in Nordic Primary Industries is a coordinated set of thematic research networks with the objective to create a Nordic knowledge base on climate change interactions with primary industries in the Nordic region.

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  • 18. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Lander Svendsen, Nina
    Borgman, Elvira
    Sepponen, Susanna
    Luoma, Päivi
    Jørgen Hansen, Ole
    Pre-study: Indicators on circular economy in the Nordic countries2020Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic and continuously measurement of the progress towards the circular economy can inform decision making and policies, and thus strengthen the circular transition. However, this pre-study, mapping circular economy indicators across the Nordic countries on both national and sub-national level, reveals that as of 2020, data streams and indicators are missing for the inner loops of the circular economy. A monitoring system embracing only selected aspects of the circular economy (where data is readily available) risks exaggerating the focus on these areas and downgrade the importance of other areas where data is unattainable, even though the latter may (in principle) be creating more circular value (such as prolonging products’ lifetimes). 

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  • 19. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Gislason, Stefan
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    WEEE Plastics Recycling: A guide to enhancing the recovery of plasticsfrom waste electrical and electronic equipment2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this guide is to inform and assist different stakeholders in the Nordic region to enhance the recycling of plastic materials from WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Waste. It presents recommendations to various parties: consumers, authorities and policy-makers, recyclers and waste operators, as well as electronics producers.The guide was compiled as part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more at www.norden.org/greengrowth or in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org

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  • 20. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Stare, Malin
    Løkke, Søren
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Plastic value chains: Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This project identifies thousands of tonnes per annum of potential enhanced plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Plastics recycling does not always feature prominently in waste treatment. Recycling is technologically viable although the market and economic landscape is challenging. Easy export markets for waste plastic are largely closed and near-source treatment is increasingly needed. Concerns include issues of quality and worries about hazardous materials. Positively engaging electronics producers - beyond the bare punitive requirements within extended responsibility schemes – is a crucial driver for further developments.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 21. Behrens, Jane W.
    et al.
    van Deurs, Mikael
    Puntila-Dodd, Riikka
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Policy brief: Round goby – a threat or a new resource?2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Originating from the Ponto-Caspian region, the invasive round goby has since 1990 spread in the Baltic Sea region, now with established populations throughout the area. The fish is a strong competitor for food, shelter and nesting sites, and has a high tolerance towards a broad range of temperatures and salinities. In many places, it exerts negative effects on the local fish fauna and benthic community, and its presence may compromise descriptors of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Furthermore, Marine protected areas, constructed to protect valuable and threatened species or habitats, may be compromised by its presence. Notably however, round goby is also an emerging prey for larger fish, marine mammals and birds, thus providing positive effects to the invaded ecosystems. In some areas, it also supports fisheries, adding positively to society.

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  • 22. Bergman, Per
    Verifying the Efficacy of Biocidal Products and Treated Articles: - a comparative study of regulatory techniques2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One requirement in the biocides regulation (528/2012/EU) is that the efficacy of the biocidal product has to be demonstrated when applying for approval. It has to be shown that the product really has the intended effect on the harmful organism. How such a requirement will affect the marketing of articles treated with biocides is an interesting question that is discussed in the report. The study aims at giving an overview of different types of efficacy requirements in the biocidal rules but also and in other types of neighbouring regulations.

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  • 23.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Huerta Morales, Alberto
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bioenergy Development in Finland and Sweden: The cases of North Karelia, Jämtland, and Västernorrland2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper looks into rural bioenergy development in Finland and Sweden.The first chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in North Karelia in Finland. It aims at identifying the enabling factors behind the relatively successful local bioenergy development and considers how the bioenergy development has impacted sustainable local and regional development in North Karelia. The working paper is based on desk studies and interviews conducted with stakeholders in North Karelia in 2016.The second chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Jämtland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015.The third chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Västernorrland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015–2016.This working paper is one of the outputs of the TRIBORN project: Triple Bottom Line Outcomes for Bioenergy Development and Innovation in Rural Norway. The project investigates how to increase the production of bioenergy in ways that promote sustainable rural development understood as positive economic, social and environmental outcomes. The Working Paper provided valuable input into the development of the Policy recommendations on Bioenergy and rural development in Europe (Nord­regio Policy Brief 2017:3).The TRIBORN (Securing triple bottom line outcomes from bioenergy development and innovation in rural Norway, project no 233640/E50) is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (2014-2017). Read more about the TRIBORN Project here: http://www.nibio.no/prosjekter/triborn

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  • 24. Bjønness, Kathrine
    et al.
    Jónsson, Kári
    Danielsson, Helena
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Sander Poulsen, Tomas
    Forsberg, Tommi
    Keller, Nicole
    Stefani, Martina
    Skyrudsmoen, Lene
    F-gas methodologies and measurements in the Nordic Countries2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This project report is a part of the NMR KOL project Nordic Policy Cluster for F-gases with the purpose of comparing the Nordic countries’ methodologies and regulations related to the use of F-gases.Fluorinated gases (F-gases, including HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) are a range of potent greenhouse gases that are used in a number of different applications and products for refrigeration, foams, aerosols, and technical installations.The report contains a survey and an overview of F-gas methodologies used for UNFCCC reporting, as well as an account of emissions and regulations in the Nordic countries.The objective with the analysis was to provide an overview of differences and similarities within the Nordic countries in relation to F-gases. The analysis shall enable harmonization of data collection, emission factors, choice of methods, and regulatory instruments.

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  • 25. Blom, Cécile
    et al.
    Hanssen, Linda
    Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated substances in articles2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFAS) make up a large group of substances that have been used for decades. There has been increasing focus on this group of substances as some of them have shown to be extremely persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. There is however, a large number of these compounds in use and for many of them there is little knowledge about the health and environmental properties. This project is a follow up of a NORAP project from 2012 where the main conclusion was the limited knowledge of which perfluorinated substances are used, and in what amounts. Our aim for this study was thus to gather more information on the use and the incidence of these substances in some every-day products

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  • 26. Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla
    et al.
    Røsrud Borgen, Anders
    Nipen, Maja
    Chlorinated paraffins in urban air in Nordic Countries2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Screening Group, NILU performed a study on short-, medium- and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs) in urban air. Tire wear particles have been suggested to be a source for CPs and elevated urban concentrations of CPs. Air samples were here collected in three Nordic capitals (Finland, Iceland and Norway) in wintertime and in summertime. Higher concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were observed in wintertime than in summertime in Norway and Finland but no difference was observed in Iceland. Elevated concentrations of MCCPs and LCCPs were found at individual sites, but the concentrations at the urban sites were not consistently higher than at a background monitoring site. The results therefore showed no clear relationship to traffic. Instead, sources may be more diffusive and local sources seem to differ.

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  • 27. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Analysis of PFASs and TOF in products2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs) are a large group of substances used in industrial and consumer applications. There are thousands of PFASs on the global market, for many of which there is little information on their use. This study is a follow-up of a NORAP project from 2015 where different household products were analysed for PFASs. Here we further analysed these products for total organic fluorine (TOF) together with new analyses for individual PFASs and TOF in product types that are known to or suspected to contain PFASs. The analyses of new products showed that PFASs are widely used. The comparisons between analysed individual PFASs and TOF concentrations showed that for most samples the detected individual PFAS constituted only a very minor part of the TOF, illustrating large data gaps in our knowledge on which PFASs that are being used in these products.

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  • 28. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Andersson, Alicja
    Moore, Gregory
    Nordic Workshop on PFASs: Outcomes2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The “Nordic workshop on joint strategies for per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs)” was hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency in Stockholm, Sweden on 5-6 April, 2017.The aim of the workshop was to gather scientific and regulatory experts, identify common issues related to PFASs, recommend priorities and steps/strategies forwards and facilitate continued information exchange and cooperation. Participants consisted primarily of Nordic delegates but also representatives from other regions and arenas e.g. the European Commission, the EEA, the ECHA PFAS network.Conclusions discussed at the workshop can be considered as being supported by the several Nordic agencies and non-Nordic agencies.The outcomes of the workshop are detailed in this short communication and concern both general and specific considerations

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  • 29. Boutrup, Susanne
    et al.
    Jaakko, Mannio
    Dam, Maria
    Mønster, Tina
    Joint Nordic screening of emerging pollutants: Strategy and results2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This brochure highlights the work conducted by the Joint Nordic screening group. The activities in the Joint Nordic Screening Group can be divided into three areas: 1) Joint screening studies, 2) Sharing knowledge by organizing seminars and 3) literature studies.

    The aim of the joint Nordic screening studies is to obtain a snapshot of the occurrence of emerging pollutants in the environment. A Nordic cooperation on screening studies is an advantage for increased representativity of the results since it is possible to include a larger number of samples in a larger area than normally in national studies. In addition, it is cost effective and makes it easy to compare results with neighbouring countries.

    The group has its own webpage, from where the reports can be downloaded.

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  • 30. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Enggaard, Mattias
    Jessen, Jes Erik
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Sköld, Christopher
    Berghäll, Elina
    Two approaches to pricing pollution2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison is the commonly used Cap and Trade method with an alternative and novel method for pricing pollution: The aim was to conduct a practical approach to clarify advantages and challenges of the respective mechanisms. Shortly, the report promotes:

    1) Levying a Fee which is sufficiently high and adjusted sufficiently often for a Fee.

    2) Letting the Futures Market and other hedging and insurance instruments indicate the price (the average abatement cost) which can be levied without harming the economy.

    3) Securing a repayment of a sufficiently large fraction of the revenue from the Fee.

    These three parts or components are all essential to the mechanism. Still, key questions remain unanswered in this report. This project was launched by the Working Group for SCP (HKP) in collaboration with the Working Group on Environment and Economy (MEG) under the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 31. Buhl-Mortensen, Pål
    et al.
    Ólafsdóttir, Steinunn H.
    Burgos, Julian
    Ragnarsson, Stefán Áki
    Steingrund, Petur
    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene
    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs): Applying management tools to measure human impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In NovasArc I spatial distribution of VMEs within the sub-arctic waters were predicted. NovasArc II updated the predictions with new observations to produce spatially estimates of the predictive uncertainty and the outputs of the earlier models were updated and validated. We discuss how the model output could be used in the development of criteria and indicators relevant to management of benthic habitats including the Good Environmental Status descriptors 1 and 6 in the MSFD, and the OSPAR common indicator “Physical damage of predominant and special habitats”. Also we explore the relevance of our results against the Performance Indicator Scores used in the certification requirements for Marine Stewardship Council. The results were discussed with stakeholders to exchange experiences and views regarding best practices for sustainable fisheries in light of management goals.

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  • 32. Bylund, Anna
    et al.
    Stibolt, Mogens
    Gustavsson, Nicklas
    Indicators for chemical information transfer in the textile value chain2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This new Nordic report aims to feed into discussions related to indicators for the envisaged global target on improved chemical information throughout the textile value chain. It provides input from stakeholders in the textile industry and the study gives two suggestions for possible indicators to be developed.

    Textile companies commonly make use of Restricted Substance Lists, RSLs to collect chemical information. Use of commonly agreed RSLs of a similar scope could be used to indicate increases in chemical information flow as they require a certain amount of information to be complied. A second indicator could be measuring the amount/share/percentage of a company’s production for which there is transparency or traceability when it comes to chemical content. This information would have the potential to provide textile recyclers with useful information.

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  • 33. Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Johansson, Mathias
    Persson, Henrik
    Andersen, Jes Sig
    Bjerrum, Max
    Andersen, Kim Sig
    Hvidberg, René Borch
    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC and other pollutants from residential wood combustion in the Nordic countries2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC, CH4, NMVOC and PM2.5 from domestic biomass combustion in the Nordic countries have been made, covering ten central heating boilers and nine residential heaters. BC emissions expressed as Elemental Carbon (EC) varied between 0,5 and 35 mg/MJ for boilers and between 3 and 122 mg/MJ for heaters. PM2,5 emissions varied between 14 and 1975 mg/MJ for boilers and between 35 and 821 mg/MJ for heaters. This work was conducted within the Nordic Council of Minister´s project “Improved emission inventories of Short Lived Climate Pollutants, SLCP”. The work was performed by SP Technical Research Institute in cooperation with Teknologisk Institut, Denmark.The results presented here comprise the technical basis for emission factors developed and reported in TN2017:570

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  • 34. Christensen, Jakob Dybdal
    et al.
    Therkelsen, Jens
    Georgiev, Ivo
    Sand, Henrik
    Data centre opportunities in the Nordics: An analysis of the competitive advantages2018Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic region attracts an increasing level of significant investments in new data centres. This seems to be no coincidence as the Nordics scores comparatively higher on factors such as "Reliable power supply", "Low energy prices", "Political stability", "Faster time-to-market" and "Abundance of energy and other resources" compared to more traditional European data centre regions. All factors that are deemed most important by data centre investors. This report estimates that the Nordics by 2025 could attract annual data centre construction investments in the order of EUR 2-4.3 bn. by 2025. This is based on the forecast of the future demand worldwide for data centre services – as well as the strong value proposition of the Nordic countries towards large datacenter investments.

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  • 35. Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    Jepsen, Nis
    Kivi, Rigel
    Hansen, Georg H.
    Larsen, Niels
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    Air Quality in the Nordic Countries and Climate Changes in the Arctic: LINKA2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report use ozone measurement data retrieved in the Arctic with balloon borne ozone sondes for the last 20-30 years. Four stations with the best data series have been selected. Using a Monte Carlo method the yearly period is subtracted from the data and the remains, the anomalies, are correlated towards the area of the Polar Front, the temperature rise of the Nortern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and towards one another. It was found that the NAO correlates negatively with ozone anomalies for all four stations albeit the correlations are weak. Besides, the polar front area correlates weakly positive with the ozone anomalies for three out of the four stations. These results, together with the observation that the ozone-anomalies have a brief decorrelation time, indicate that most of the variability in the anomalies should be found in local conditions.

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  • 36.
    Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    DMI.
    Jepsen, Nis
    DMI.
    Kivi, Rigel
    FMI.
    Hansen, Georg H.
    NILU.
    Larsen, Niels
    DMI.
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    DMI.
    Time series analysis of Arctic tropospheric ozone as short-lived climate force2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone soundings from 9 Nordic stations with rather different data coverage have been homogenized followed by an interpolation to standard tropospheric pressure levels. A Bayesian model was applied which included a low-frequency variability, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for variability in seasonal amplitude and phasing, and noise. Regarding the low-frequency variability it was found that only Scoresbysund, Ny Aalesund and Sodankyla showed statistical significant changes with a maximum near 2007 followed by a decrease. We hypothesize that this decrease could be explained by an observed decrease in nitrogen oxide in Europe.

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  • 37. Craig, Nic
    Accelerating low-carbon construction with wood – a Nordic Policy Snapshot2021Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Realising the Nordic vision of a carbon-neutral and circular built environment will be all but impossible without addressing the emissions from construction materials and processes. Sustainably sourced wood, as the only major renewable building material and a resource that the Nordic region has in abundance, has the potential to make a significant contribution to reducing carbon emissions from construction, supporting the shift towards a circular and bio-based economy. 

    This publication gives an overview of the policies and initiatives helping and hindering progress in wood in construction in each Nordic country, identifying joint challenges and opportunities, and posing six questions that must be addressed going forward. 

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  • 38. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja Marie
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Policy Brief: Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations for Nordic policymakers:Resource related ecodesign obligations will be a necessary part of the future policy mix, though not all parts of the policy puzzle is yet in place. The Nordic policymakers can begin processes in order to realise strategic opportunities. Examples of such policies would be to continue the development of resource efficiency criteria in the Nordic eco-labelling and public procurement in order to pave the way for an uptake in EU eco-labelling and in the Ecodesign Directive. By continuously developing resource related criteria in voluntary policy instruments a platform for legal standard setting will be created that can be applied for ecodesign. See also the main report Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers at http://www.norden.org/sv/publikationer/publikationer/2014-511

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  • 39. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive: A review of opportunities and barriers2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes the potential to apply certain types of legal standards. There is a need for continuous development of indicators and methods in order to allow for a broader range of legal standards in the future. The study provides some short and long term recommendations on the way forward.

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  • 40. Darpö, Jan
    Nordic Environmental Permitting Processes: Results from a comparative study of environmental law and processes in Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental permitting procedures have been in the focus of the public debate in all the Nordic countries for some years, leading us to perform a study comparing the decision-making procedures in the five Nordic countries. We focused on two scenarios for starting and changing industrial activities. First, we describe environmental law, the permit procedure and system for supervision and enforcement in each country. Thereafter, highlights are presented from two workshops with representatives from the administrations and different stakeholders in our countries. The discussion focuses on whether the environmental permitting systems are integrated or divided into different procedures, case processing time, time limited or 'eternal' permits, changes in given permits and the relation between the permitting body and the supervising and enforcing authorities of the regulation in given permits.

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  • 41. de Vries, Adriana N.
    et al.
    Lusher, Amy L.
    Carlsson, Pernilla
    Pólsdóttir, Jórun D.
    Hammer, Sjúrður
    Chambers, Catherine
    Microplastic in cod stomachs: Methods for laboratories in rural communities2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This project developed a best practice guide for the standardization of the analysis of plastics in fish stomachs which can be applied in small-scale laboratories with limited infrastructure, which is typical of rural Arctic areas. In order to monitor plastic in the North Atlantic marine environment and understand potential impacts of plastics for commercially important fish stocks, it is important to standardize methods. This study also used the new method to provide a comparison between cod stomachs in Norway, Iceland and Faroe Islands and found a distribution of microplastics particles ranging from 0-27% in detection frequency. 

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  • 42. Dinesen, ​Lars
    et al.
    Højgård Petersen, Anders
    Rahbek, Carsten
    Synergy in conservation of biodiversity and climate change mitigation: Nordic peatlands and forests2021Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We are facing two global environmental crises, the loss of biodiversity and climate change. Both crises should be handled within the forthcoming decades. Actions implemented to mitigate one challenge should not worsen the other. The two crises are interlinked. Biodiversity, together with geophysical and climatic factors form and maintain ecosystems, which contribute to climate change mitigation by capturing CO2 and store carbon. But the current climate change worsen the negative impact of the main drivers causing biodiversity loss. This leads to further degradation of ecosystems, which in turn may weaken the functionality of ecosystems that reduce the ability of nature to capture and store carbon. The project identified eight cases related to nature-based solutions enacted in the Nordic countries and identifies synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

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  • 43. Eide, Arne
    et al.
    Ese, Ann-Christin
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Fisheries Management and Global Warming: Effects of climate change on fisheries in the Arctic region of the Nordic countries2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The FIMAGLOW project is a Nordic project with the aim to study possible drivers and impacts of global warming on Arctic fisheries. Two workshops has been held, serving to identify the relevant set of institutions and people, updating the research community on on-going research projects and initiatives in this realm, and pointing to some critical issues for further research. The material presented in the workshops is collected in this report, which hopefully then may serve as a stepping stone for further explorations of this important issue. A web site for the FIMAGLOW program has been set up and is available at the URL: http://fimaglow.maremacentre.com. The website includes program information and tentative programs for the workshops. MaReMA Centre at Norwegian College of Fisheries Science is organizing the program, Alf Håkon Hoel and Arne Eide being the project managers.

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  • 44. Ekanger, Ivar
    et al.
    Brunvatne, Jon Olav
    Busk, Helena
    Alriksson, Agnetha
    Larsson, Svante
    Källsmyr, Hans
    Jónsson, Björn B.
    Gasseholm, Karsten
    Torniainen, Tatu
    Arpiainen, Leena
    Jóhannesson, Torfi
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Hansson, Per
    Tunberg, Maria
    Hansson, Philip
    Det nordiska skogsbruket: utmaningar i en framtid präglad av mer extremväder2019Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det brann på många håll i Norden under 2018 och flera bränder var betydligt större än normalt. Bränderna krävde akuta åtgärder och testade både den nationella beredskapen och det internationella samarbetet. För att stå bättre rustade inför kommande extremväder och omfattande skogsbränder behöver samarbetena mellan de nordiska länderna intensifieras. Nordiska ministerrådet inrättade därför under hösten 2018 en arbetsgrupp för att systematisera de nordiska ländernas erfarenheter från bränderna samt för att föreslå samarbetsområden som kan bidra till ett mer motståndskraftigt nordiskt skogsbruk. Arbetsgruppen lägger fram åtta förslag till nordiska samarbetsområden. Förslagen inkluderar insatser på kort och lång sikt och berör både skogsnäringen och räddningstjänsten.

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  • 45. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Daw, Tim
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Norström, Albert
    Persson, Åsa
    Peterson, Garry
    Rockström, Johan
    Schultz, Maria
    Török, Ellika Hermansson
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia ()
    Global Sustainability & Human Prosperity: – contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014 (oppl. 2014:527)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a Post-2015 agenda and Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, provide a global window of opportunity to address both social needs and environmental challenges together. This discussion paper by the Stockholm Resilience Centre looks into the links between human wellbeing and the biosphere, and describes why and how these links should influence the formulation of the new SDGs. It explores what we can learn from the MDGs, and how existing international agreements can be reflected in the Post-2015 MDG process. The paper also seeks to contribute to the elaboration of targets, including process-oriented targets and scalable indicators suitable for a rapidly changing world.

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  • 46. Engelbrecht Hansen, Amalie
    et al.
    Fischer-Bogason, Rikke
    Borgman, Elvira
    Stafsing, Linda
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Hossi, Salla
    Nature Risk: An analysis of use and applicability in the Nordic countries2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report generates an overview of the use of the nature risk concept, describes the scope, and assesses the applicability in the Nordic countries, and in international organisations. The concept of nature-related risks is found to be mainly in use in the financial sector. The application of the term has increased rapidly in recent years, with numerous efforts to implement the concept. Moreover, similar concepts precede, within the same scope; the earliest being biodiversity risk. It is recommended that each of the Nordic countries take active steps to implement the concept of nature risk in relevant policies, regulations and sectors. It is also recommended that the Nordic countries follow the international development on nature risk and related policy areas, such as the EU taxonomy and the TNFD framework, and ensure that national policy is aligned with the international agenda.

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  • 47. Engleryd, Anna
    et al.
    Åström, Stefan
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    Klemetz, Viktor
    Salter, John
    Genberg, Johan
    Air Pollution Management in a World under Pressure: Saltsjöbaden VII Workshop2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is under pressure. In recent times we have seen increased threats to nature, health and welfare, and society as a whole. With more than 7 million premature deaths annually and far more people suffering from poor air quality, air pollution is a global threat. The numbers are increasing and the earlier assumption that there are safe levels of air pollution is losing credibility. However, initiatives to reduce air pollution around the world are under way, and more initiatives can be added. 

    To clarify needs for further initiatives, the Saltsjöbaden VII workshop held six main discussions with the overarching objective of clarifying if and how international science and policy cooperation can accelerate the transition to a world with less air pollution. Conclusions and recommendations from the discussions can be found in the report Air Pollution Management in a World under Pressure.

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  • 48. Fauser, Patrik
    et al.
    Zhu, Linyan
    Sanderson, Hans
    Jensen, Sophie
    Bogevik, André
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Chemical additives in weathered microplastic in the marine environment: occurrence and risk2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A Nordic project identified and measured residues of chemical additives in polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Measurements were done in new plastic, and in plastic weathered for four months in Samnangerfjorden near Bergen. Targeted chemical analysis with GC-Orbitrap was performed for identification and GC-MS analysis for quantification. Four plasticizers were detected in PUR and three in PVC, before and after weathering: Dibutyl adipate, N-butylbenzenesulphonamide (only in PUR), dibutyl phthalate, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Maximum concentrations were approx. 1000 ng/g plastic. Also triphenyl phosphite and octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate were identified. Risk quotients for copepods, cod and fulmar showed low risk. Additionally, non-target screening with GC-Orbitrap identified sixteen chemicals, of which two had hazard classifications.

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  • 49.
    Finnsson, Páll Tómas
    Nordregio.
    Optimising the impact of Nordic climate policies2020Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries’ climate policies are relatively ambitious in an international perspective, and the countries have progressively raised their climate targets in recent years. However, when designing national climate policies, it is important to assess not only their effects on territorial emissions but also the degree to which they will affect emissions in other countries. This policy brief provides recommendations on how the Nordic countries can optimise the overall impact of their climate policies.

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  • 50. Frederiksen, Morten
    et al.
    Pedersen, Kjeld T.
    Lehikoinen, Petteri
    Thorup, Kasper
    Madsen, Jesper J.
    Fransson, Thord
    Kaisel, Kaarel
    Mjøs, Alf T.
    Herrmann, Christof
    van der Jeugd, Henk
    Robinson, Rob A.
    Oversigt over ringmærknings- og genfundsdata for ederfugl i Østersø/Nordsøområdet2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [da]

    Ederfuglen er i alvorlig tilbagegang i Østersøen og Nordsøen, kønsbalancen er skæv med et stort overtal af hanner, og derfor er en international forvaltningsplan er under udarbejdelse i regi af Vandfugleaftalen (AEWA). Bæredygtig forvaltning kræver opdateret viden om bestandens trækforhold og dødelighed, og den bedste kilde til denne viden er ringmærkning. Denne rapport giver et overblik over det omfattende materiale om ringmærkede og genmeldte ederfugle i Østersø/Nordsøområdet, i alt næsten 18.000 genmeldinger af mere end 125.000 ringmærkede fugle siden 1970. Detaljerede statistiske analyser af dette materiale vil kunne give vigtig ny viden om hvor ynglefugle fra forskellige områder tilbringer vinteren, og om dødeligheden hos begge køn og alle aldersklasser.

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