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  • 1. Bergman, Per
    Verifying the Efficacy of Biocidal Products and Treated Articles: - a comparative study of regulatory techniques2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One requirement in the biocides regulation (528/2012/EU) is that the efficacy of the biocidal product has to be demonstrated when applying for approval. It has to be shown that the product really has the intended effect on the harmful organism. How such a requirement will affect the marketing of articles treated with biocides is an interesting question that is discussed in the report. The study aims at giving an overview of different types of efficacy requirements in the biocidal rules but also and in other types of neighbouring regulations.

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  • 2. Bjønness, Kathrine
    et al.
    Jónsson, Kári
    Danielsson, Helena
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Sander Poulsen, Tomas
    Forsberg, Tommi
    Keller, Nicole
    Stefani, Martina
    Skyrudsmoen, Lene
    F-gas methodologies and measurements in the Nordic Countries2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This project report is a part of the NMR KOL project Nordic Policy Cluster for F-gases with the purpose of comparing the Nordic countries’ methodologies and regulations related to the use of F-gases.Fluorinated gases (F-gases, including HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) are a range of potent greenhouse gases that are used in a number of different applications and products for refrigeration, foams, aerosols, and technical installations.The report contains a survey and an overview of F-gas methodologies used for UNFCCC reporting, as well as an account of emissions and regulations in the Nordic countries.The objective with the analysis was to provide an overview of differences and similarities within the Nordic countries in relation to F-gases. The analysis shall enable harmonization of data collection, emission factors, choice of methods, and regulatory instruments.

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  • 3. Blom, Cécile
    et al.
    Hanssen, Linda
    Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated substances in articles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFAS) make up a large group of substances that have been used for decades. There has been increasing focus on this group of substances as some of them have shown to be extremely persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. There is however, a large number of these compounds in use and for many of them there is little knowledge about the health and environmental properties. This project is a follow up of a NORAP project from 2012 where the main conclusion was the limited knowledge of which perfluorinated substances are used, and in what amounts. Our aim for this study was thus to gather more information on the use and the incidence of these substances in some every-day products

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  • 4. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Andersson, Alicja
    Moore, Gregory
    Nordic Workshop on PFASs: Outcomes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The “Nordic workshop on joint strategies for per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs)” was hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency in Stockholm, Sweden on 5-6 April, 2017.The aim of the workshop was to gather scientific and regulatory experts, identify common issues related to PFASs, recommend priorities and steps/strategies forwards and facilitate continued information exchange and cooperation. Participants consisted primarily of Nordic delegates but also representatives from other regions and arenas e.g. the European Commission, the EEA, the ECHA PFAS network.Conclusions discussed at the workshop can be considered as being supported by the several Nordic agencies and non-Nordic agencies.The outcomes of the workshop are detailed in this short communication and concern both general and specific considerations

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  • 5. Boutrup, Susanne
    et al.
    Jaakko, Mannio
    Dam, Maria
    Mønster, Tina
    Joint Nordic screening of emerging pollutants: Strategy and results2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This brochure highlights the work conducted by the Joint Nordic screening group. The activities in the Joint Nordic Screening Group can be divided into three areas: 1) Joint screening studies, 2) Sharing knowledge by organizing seminars and 3) literature studies.

    The aim of the joint Nordic screening studies is to obtain a snapshot of the occurrence of emerging pollutants in the environment. A Nordic cooperation on screening studies is an advantage for increased representativity of the results since it is possible to include a larger number of samples in a larger area than normally in national studies. In addition, it is cost effective and makes it easy to compare results with neighbouring countries.

    The group has its own webpage, from where the reports can be downloaded.

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  • 6. Haukås, Hans T.
    et al.
    Pachai, Alexander Cohr
    Information sheets on natural refrigerants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This set of information sheets is an updated version of “Information sheets on natural refrigerants” published by the Nordic Chemicals Group in 2008. It consists of 31 information sheets on natural refrigerants, covering a broad field of technical information. Natural refrigerants may already replace the group of potent greenhouse gases called HFCs for a number of applications, and the technology is under continuous improvement. The use of natural refrigerants differ from using HFCs in many ways, affecting a variety of aspects related to system design and operation, safety requirements etc. The objective of these information sheets is to provide information about the possibilities and limitations related to these fluids, and to make technical knowhow and practical experience available for system designers and installers, in order to promote more use of natural refrigerants.

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  • 7. Heinälä, Milla
    et al.
    Stockmann-Juvala, Helene
    CLP Regulation and nanomaterial classification – a preliminary review of GHS and possible problem identification: Nordic Stakeholder Survey on Nanomaterial Hazard Classification and Labelling.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Classification Group under the auspices of the Nordic Chemical Group/Nordic Council of Ministers has carried out a web-based survey to gain information on the view and practical experience of Nordic stakeholders on the applicability of UN GHS and the EU CLP regulation on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in relation to nanomaterials. The aim of the project was to identify potential challenges concerning classification and labeling due to the unique and complex characteristics of nanomaterials, and to provide input to the ongoing work in the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on GHS. The main outcomes of the survey are presented in the current report.

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    Annex Nordic Survey
  • 8. Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Quaternary ammonium compounds: Analyses in a Nordic cooperation on screening2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the findings of a Nordic environmental study. The quaternary ammoniums included are compounds which are used in large volumes in a variety of industrial, health sector and domestic products. The quaternary ammoniums are used to provide antistatic, antibacterial, emulating and other properties in a range of formulations like hair conditioners, cosmetics, in fabric softeners and in cleansing and disinfecting products. Some quaternary ammoniums are poorly degraded and some are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The samples analysed were taken mainly near assumed hot-spot areas as in sewage lines and in receiving waters, but also in background areas far from anthropogenic sources. Samples include water, sludge, sediment and fish.

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  • 9.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Towards a sustainable circular system of textiles in the Nordics2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are big consumers of home textiles and clothing, but the textiles do not stay here for a long time. Although some clothes and home textiles are reused among friends, family, sold on marketplaces or donated to non-profit organizations (NGO), most end up in the residual waste and are incinerated. This is leading to huge material and resource lost since over fifty percent of the textiles could have been reused or recycled. Of the textiles that are separately collected, the majority are exported abroad for sorting and reuse whereas a tiny fraction is fiber-to-fiber recycled. 

     

    Seeing that the textile industry is one of the most resource consuming industries with a high environmental impact it is important that the Nordic countries increase the collection and recycling rates and reuse more locally. It will not be possible to export EOL textiles in the same way as before. Around 40 countries have stopped importing EOL textiles and the EU is setting requirements for separate collection from 2025. This will mean that volumes of EOL textiles will increase in Europe at the same time as it will be increasingly difficult to find outlets for these volumes. As collection rates increase, so will the proportion of textiles that cannot be reused but hopefully be recycled (recyclables). There is no organized collection for recyclables, but several innovative initiatives are happening within this area, not least in the Nordic countries, where many automated sorting and recycling facilities are emerging.

     

    The SATIN project focuses on increasing circularity of EOL textile in the Nordic region and has a strong focus on supply chain management (SCM). SCM relates to balancing the supply and demand of materials to achieve efficiency in the material flow of EOL textiles and related information, and monetary flows as well as collaboration between actors in the EOL textile value chain. The purpose of the SATIN project is to develop and test solutions that can address the EOL textile collection and sorting challenges by taking a SCM perspective. 

     

    In the project we have 1) Mapped and identified challenges and opportunities in the current system by interviewing main actors in the value chain of EOL textiles in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, 2) Analyzed nine pilot studies of different collection methods. The pilots differ in terms of who organize the collection and sorting, the geographical area in which the collection service is offered, type of collection method, and if collection is carried out in one or two fractions, 3) Estimated volumes of recyclable textiles and their fiber composition and compared this supply with the current and upcoming sorting and recycling capacity (demand) in each country and in the whole Nordic area. 

     

    Our results show there are large similarities between the actors in the Nordic countries when it comes to challenges and opportunities in the value chain of EOL textiles. Main challenges can be connected to lack of scale, low profit, no demand, and lack of data whereas opportunities are seen in collaboration, centralization and understanding/finding a market for EOL textiles. Connected to collection methods it was found that it is difficult to compare different methods because there are so many factors at play. However, it became clear that regardless of the collection method, the role of the consumer is very important in scaling up collection.  Connected to recyclables our results show that the upcoming automatic sorting and recycling capacity in the Nordic region will be sufficient to deal with the total recyclable fraction, except for some of the synthetic fibers. However, there are imbalances within each country raising a need for collaboration among countries. To make local automatic sorting and recycling possible, it is important to find solutions for pre-sorting within the Nordic region. 

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  • 10. Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
    et al.
    Hansen, Pernille Winton
    Workshop Report HBM4EU: Nordic workshop for scientists and regulatory agencies discussing HBM4EU - the European human biomonitoring initiative2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists and regulatory specialist from the Nordic countries to discuss priority setting of which substances to include in the biomonitoring programs and promote the communication between scientists and authorities regarding use of HBM data in a regulatory context (e.g. REACH). Discussions during the workshop will provide the basis for moving forward in future Nordic collaboration and contribution to HBM4EU. The prioritization of substances should be made with the concern of toxicity, exposure and persistency in mind. The substances or groups of substances that the participants find to be most important in the HBM4EU is additional metals, triclosan, nanomaterials, microplastics, poly- and perfluorinated substances, chemical UV-filters, pesticides, phosphorous containing flame retardants, organophosphates, preservatives and particles.

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  • 11. Olsson, Ing-Marie
    The Cost of Inaction: A Socioeconomic analysis of costs linked to effects of endocrine disrupting substances on male reproductive health2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors(EDs) is suspected to lead to a number of negative effects on human health and for wildlife. In this report the costs for effects on male reproductive health (testicular cancer, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and infertility) are estimated. The model used is built on incidence of disease in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) and cost per case based on cost per patient data from Sweden. Extrapolation to EU28 is made based on population size. Assuming that EDs constitute 2, 20 or 40% the total costs for the selected health effects are 3.6, 36.1 or 72.3 million Euros/year of exposure in the Nordic countries, this corresponds to 59, 592 and 1,184 million Euros/year at EU-level. As these costs only represent a fraction of the endocrine related diseases there are good reasons to continue the work to minimize exposure to EDs.

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  • 12. Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    Jönsson, Christina
    Posner, Stefan
    Labelling of chemicals in textiles: Nordic Textile Initiative2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an analysis of the needs and barriers for a legal requirement on declaration and/or labelling of chemicals in textiles. The project is a part of the Nordic action plan for textiles ”Well dressed in a clean environment. Nordic action plan for sustainable fashion and textiles”. Based on the findings from the analysis in this report, a way forward towards a legal requirement on a declaration and/or labelling of chemicals in textiles is proposed via two main options. One option is to work for an extension of the REACH legislation: to make it applicable for labelling and declaration. This option is supported by the industry. Another option is to create a new legislation framework; a product safety regulation for textiles. This option may have a more holistic approach and can include CE-marking.

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  • 13. Taxell, Piia
    et al.
    Talasniemi, Petteri
    Räisänen, Jouni
    Santonen, Tiina
    Combining exposure scenario information for mixtures with combination effects2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aims of the present study were 1) to examine how the existing methods for combining component-based exposure scenario information for mixtures cover combination effects of the components, 2) to evaluate whether there is a need to develop further guidance to formulators for taking into consideration combination effects when combining exposure scenario information, and 3) to evaluate the usability of the Mixie software on combination effects in the REACH context. The report presents the outcomes of the study.

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  • 14. Tenie, Giorgiana Adina
    et al.
    Holmer, Marie Louise
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    Chemical induced effects on the developing nervous and immune systems: Protection against the harmful effects of chemicals on the development of the nervous and immune system, through better use of already planned animal studies2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of chemicals on the developing brain and immune system are of high concern in the Nordic countries and EU. Since 2015, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study can be required under the REACH regulation, and if existing data shows specific concerns, tests for developmental neurotoxicity DNT and immunotoxicity DIT can be included. We considered that open literature may provide evidence to trigger DNT or DIT investigations. Search for information was performed for > 120 substances. Potentially relevant data was found for 40% of substances. Analysis of relatively few substances (19) for which the regulatory decision process has been finalized indicate limited impact of the data identified on triggering of DNT/DIT. Scientific and regulatory questions identified during this work are brought for the attention of the scientific communities and regulatory authorities.

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  • 15. Trier, Xenia
    et al.
    Taxvig, Camilla
    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine
    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing
    PFAS in paper and board for food contact: Options for risk management of poly- and perfluorinated substances2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are used in paper and board food contact materials (FCMs) and they have been found to be highly persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The purpose of the Nordic workshop and of this report is to:* create an overview of the use of PFAS in FCMs of paper and board and of the toxicity and migration into food of the various substances* provide an overview of whether appropriate risk assessments for fluorinated substances exist as a basis for specific regulations or recommendations* provide an overview of whether analytical methods suitable for analysing and regulating the substances are available* discuss the possibility and structure of national regulations or Nordic recommendations for PFAS in FCMs of paper and board. Risk management to reduce the total content of organically bound fluorine in paper and board FCMs is supported.

    The given report is published in continuation of a Nordic workshop on January  28th -29th 2015 on poly- and perfluorinated substances (PFAS) in food contact materials. Representatives from EU MS countries, US FDA, Canada and China, as well as manufacturers, retailers, compliance testing laboratories and academia were present in the workshop and contributed to the report.

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  • 16. Tägt, Jonas
    et al.
    Ali, Imran
    Workshop on alternative in vitro methods to vertebrate studies under CLP2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the knowledge and understanding of the development of new in vitro test methods, validation is crucial for the evaluation of chemical substances and mixtures such as PPPs as it can facilitate the acceptance of further in vitro toxicity data in the NZ and in the EU. The use of new in vitro test methods, for assessing the risks related to chemical mixtures such as PPPs, will minimize the human health risks due to chemical exposure since in vitro test methods can provide better understanding of the mechanisms for a chemical substance and thus help categorize its effect in the evaluation of mixtures. However, due to the limited applicability domain of available in vitro methods, evaluation of the data should be carefully made by using a WoE approach. Further development and validation of suitable in vitro methods is needed for it to be used in regulatory risk assessment of PPPs.

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  • 17.
    Exposure Evaluation Guidance for REACH2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document is intended to be used as guidance in the REACH exposure evaluation (MSauthorities and ECHA) such as completeness and consistency checks in the substance evaluationand dossier evaluation processes. The checklist is not necessarily complete; there may also beother relevant issues to be taken into account during substance evaluation and dossier compliancechecks. This checklist will be updated when necessary, based on the experience gained. Thedocument is focusing mainly on human health issues (workers and consumers), but it may also beutilized, for general issues, in the environmental exposure checks.

    The exposure scenario is a new concept in the REACH regulation and is one of the key elements in REACH for ensuring a high level of protection of human health and environment. REACH defines exposure scenarios as a set of conditions that describe how the substance is manufactured or used during its life-cycle and how the manufacturer or importer controls, or recommends others to control exposures of humans and the environment. Exposure scenario has to be established forsubstances which are manufactured or imported in quantities over 10 tons per year and which are classified as dangerous or as PBT/vPvB. In addition, exposure scenario is needed also in caseswhere exposure information is used as a basis for waiving certain animal tests specified in REACH.

    The first REACH exposure scenarios were developed by registrants during the 1st registration phase in 2010. So far, some experience of exposure scenarios has been gained from dossier compliance checks (ES in CSR), substance evaluations (ES in CSR) as well as from the downstream user sites, when they receive extended safety data sheets (eSDS). The experience gained indicates clearly that there is room for improvement both in the exposure scenarios in the chemical safetyreports and in the annexes of the SDSs.

    Guidance documents, various IT tools and ES formats have been developed by ECHA and industrialassociations such as CEFIC. However, these may be considered rather complicated, and thus notalways helpful enough.

    The specific aims of this project were:

    • To learn more about the format and content of ESs, including the use descriptor system.
    • To check to what extent ECHA’s guidance has been exploited in the building of ESs.
    • To obtain experience of the quality /challenges in ESs.
    • To identify strengths and weaknesses in building of ESs (e.g. the usability and effectiveness ofrisk management measures).
    • To develop instructions or recommendations for authorities to be used eg. in the substanceevaluation process.
    • To make the check list available to ECHA and authorities and other relevant stakeholders.
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