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  • 1. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea: Valuation of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of the ecosystem services and associated benefits provided by the Baltic Sea, including information on the approaches of assessing and valuing ecosystem services being applied in the Baltic Sea region. It also identifies the main challenges in ecosystem service assessments in the Baltic Sea, and outlines the way forward in applying assessment tools in regional and national policies.Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection of the Baltic Sea. The existing studies on the value of improved marine environment are useful in assessing the importance and value of some marine ecosystem services, but further work is still needed on describing ecosystem services and their interactions, and evaluating how policy changes affect these services and human well-being.

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  • 2. Angelsen, Arild
    et al.
    Gierløff, Caroline Wang
    Beltrán, Angelica Mendoza
    Elzen, Michel den
    REDD credits in a global carbon market: Options and impacts2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can REDD credits be included in a future global carbon market, and what are the impacts of inclusion? We analyze ten different scenarios through 2020, varying the global emission caps and the REDD rules. An inclusion of REDD credits without any adjustments in the global cap will lower carbon prices significantly and cause crowding out. The cap must move towards the 2 degrees climate target if REDD inclusion is to maintain high carbon prices and strong incentives for emissions reductions in other sectors. At the same time, reaching the 2 degree target without full REDD inclusion will increase global mitigation costs by more than 50%.

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  • 3. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 4. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Wik, Ola
    Engelse, Christian J.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Oberender, Anke
    Hjelmar, Ole
    Wahlström, Margareta
    ENCORT-CDW: Evaluation of the European recovery target for construction and demolition waste2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present EU target for recovery of construction and demolition waste does not promote sustainability. Interpretations of waste and recovery definitions rather than resource efficiency and safe handling affect the monitoring. The general weight-based target has to be altered to favour recycling of resource-rich materials, not only of high weight materials. High grade recycling should be distinguished and prioritized to ensure safe recovery. This requires improved knowledge on waste generation and handling as well as on emissions of dangerous substances. A common Nordic approach is advocated.

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  • 5. Asikainen, Anna
    et al.
    Stadelmann, Martin
    Mobilizing private finance for climate action in the global South: Nordic experiences and the way forward2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, the Nordic countries have increased their efforts to support developing economies in the mobilization of private finance. It is now time to take stock of the success stories. Regardless of the progress, several barriers limit the Nordic ability to scale up private climate finance even more. This brief presents ideas for addressing some of these the barriers and increasing the ambition in mobilizing private finance, including considerations on de-risking solutions and the applicability of Article 6 under the Paris Agreement. The brief was produced as part of the Nordic Public-Private Platform on Mobilization of Climate Finance Mobilization, and ahead of the global climate conference in Katowice, December 2018. It builds on previous studies funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, such as “Mobilizing climate finance flows – Nordic approaches and opportunities”.

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  • 6. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Pauw, Pieter
    Sælen, Håkon
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 7. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement: Lessons Learned and Ways Forward2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 8. Barthelmes, Alexandra
    et al.
    Couwenberg, John
    Risager, Mette
    Tegetmeyer, Cosima
    Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands and Climate in a Ramsar context: A Nordic-Baltic Perspective2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in the Nordic Baltic region and elsewhere in the world store large amounts of carbon and are at the same time important for conservation of biodiversity. Thus peatlands are space-effective carbon stocks, but when drained carbon and nitrogen are released as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and as nitrate to the surface water, while methane will be released when rewetting.

    New knowledge reveals that one of the most efficient means to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are the restoration of drained peatlands by reestablish former high water tables on organic soils.

    This project on synergies between climate change mitigation and the restoration of peatlands has been conducted under a regional Ramsar initiative covering the Nordic and Baltic countries (NorBalWet), with support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report contains chapters on peatlands and their role in climate change mitigation, individual country chapters and the role of the Ramsar Convention.

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  • 9. Barua, Sepul Kanti
    et al.
    Berg, Peer
    Bruvoll, Annegrete
    Cederberg, Christel
    Drinkwater, Kenneth F.
    Eide, Arne
    Eythorsdottir, Emma
    Guðjónsson, Sigurður
    Gudmundsson, Leo A.
    Gundersen, Per
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Jarp, Jorun
    Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger
    Kantanen, Juha
    Kettunen-Præbel, Anne
    Løvendahl, Peter
    Meuwissen, Theo
    Olesen, Jørgen E.
    Portin, Anders
    Rognli, Odd Arne
    Stiansen, Jan Erik
    Climate change and primary industries: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation in the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a profound impact on natural resources, and thus on the primary industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) in the Nordic countries. Climate change induces risks but also creates possibilities for new production systems on land and in the ocean. Climatic changes also represent great challenges for policy-making and management regimes. The current knowledge base on natural resources in the Nordic region needs to be expanded to fully address the impacts of climate change. In particular it is important to address the need for improved policies and new policy instruments. The research programme Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation in Nordic Primary Industries is a coordinated set of thematic research networks with the objective to create a Nordic knowledge base on climate change interactions with primary industries in the Nordic region.

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  • 10. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Lander Svendsen, Nina
    Borgman, Elvira
    Sepponen, Susanna
    Luoma, Päivi
    Jørgen Hansen, Ole
    Pre-study: Indicators on circular economy in the Nordic countries2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic and continuously measurement of the progress towards the circular economy can inform decision making and policies, and thus strengthen the circular transition. However, this pre-study, mapping circular economy indicators across the Nordic countries on both national and sub-national level, reveals that as of 2020, data streams and indicators are missing for the inner loops of the circular economy. A monitoring system embracing only selected aspects of the circular economy (where data is readily available) risks exaggerating the focus on these areas and downgrade the importance of other areas where data is unattainable, even though the latter may (in principle) be creating more circular value (such as prolonging products’ lifetimes). 

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  • 11. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Gislason, Stefan
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    WEEE Plastics Recycling: A guide to enhancing the recovery of plasticsfrom waste electrical and electronic equipment2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this guide is to inform and assist different stakeholders in the Nordic region to enhance the recycling of plastic materials from WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Waste. It presents recommendations to various parties: consumers, authorities and policy-makers, recyclers and waste operators, as well as electronics producers.The guide was compiled as part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more at www.norden.org/greengrowth or in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org

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  • 12. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Stare, Malin
    Løkke, Søren
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Plastic value chains: Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project identifies thousands of tonnes per annum of potential enhanced plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Plastics recycling does not always feature prominently in waste treatment. Recycling is technologically viable although the market and economic landscape is challenging. Easy export markets for waste plastic are largely closed and near-source treatment is increasingly needed. Concerns include issues of quality and worries about hazardous materials. Positively engaging electronics producers - beyond the bare punitive requirements within extended responsibility schemes – is a crucial driver for further developments.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 13.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Huerta Morales, Alberto
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioenergy Development in Finland and Sweden: The cases of North Karelia, Jämtland, and Västernorrland2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper looks into rural bioenergy development in Finland and Sweden.The first chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in North Karelia in Finland. It aims at identifying the enabling factors behind the relatively successful local bioenergy development and considers how the bioenergy development has impacted sustainable local and regional development in North Karelia. The working paper is based on desk studies and interviews conducted with stakeholders in North Karelia in 2016.The second chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Jämtland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015.The third chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Västernorrland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015–2016.This working paper is one of the outputs of the TRIBORN project: Triple Bottom Line Outcomes for Bioenergy Development and Innovation in Rural Norway. The project investigates how to increase the production of bioenergy in ways that promote sustainable rural development understood as positive economic, social and environmental outcomes. The Working Paper provided valuable input into the development of the Policy recommendations on Bioenergy and rural development in Europe (Nord­regio Policy Brief 2017:3).The TRIBORN (Securing triple bottom line outcomes from bioenergy development and innovation in rural Norway, project no 233640/E50) is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (2014-2017). Read more about the TRIBORN Project here: http://www.nibio.no/prosjekter/triborn

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  • 14. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Analysis of PFASs and TOF in products2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs) are a large group of substances used in industrial and consumer applications. There are thousands of PFASs on the global market, for many of which there is little information on their use. This study is a follow-up of a NORAP project from 2015 where different household products were analysed for PFASs. Here we further analysed these products for total organic fluorine (TOF) together with new analyses for individual PFASs and TOF in product types that are known to or suspected to contain PFASs. The analyses of new products showed that PFASs are widely used. The comparisons between analysed individual PFASs and TOF concentrations showed that for most samples the detected individual PFAS constituted only a very minor part of the TOF, illustrating large data gaps in our knowledge on which PFASs that are being used in these products.

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  • 15. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Enggaard, Mattias
    Jessen, Jes Erik
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Sköld, Christopher
    Berghäll, Elina
    Two approaches to pricing pollution2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison is the commonly used Cap and Trade method with an alternative and novel method for pricing pollution: The aim was to conduct a practical approach to clarify advantages and challenges of the respective mechanisms. Shortly, the report promotes:

    1) Levying a Fee which is sufficiently high and adjusted sufficiently often for a Fee.

    2) Letting the Futures Market and other hedging and insurance instruments indicate the price (the average abatement cost) which can be levied without harming the economy.

    3) Securing a repayment of a sufficiently large fraction of the revenue from the Fee.

    These three parts or components are all essential to the mechanism. Still, key questions remain unanswered in this report. This project was launched by the Working Group for SCP (HKP) in collaboration with the Working Group on Environment and Economy (MEG) under the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 16. Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Johansson, Mathias
    Persson, Henrik
    Andersen, Jes Sig
    Bjerrum, Max
    Andersen, Kim Sig
    Hvidberg, René Borch
    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC and other pollutants from residential wood combustion in the Nordic countries2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC, CH4, NMVOC and PM2.5 from domestic biomass combustion in the Nordic countries have been made, covering ten central heating boilers and nine residential heaters. BC emissions expressed as Elemental Carbon (EC) varied between 0,5 and 35 mg/MJ for boilers and between 3 and 122 mg/MJ for heaters. PM2,5 emissions varied between 14 and 1975 mg/MJ for boilers and between 35 and 821 mg/MJ for heaters. This work was conducted within the Nordic Council of Minister´s project “Improved emission inventories of Short Lived Climate Pollutants, SLCP”. The work was performed by SP Technical Research Institute in cooperation with Teknologisk Institut, Denmark.The results presented here comprise the technical basis for emission factors developed and reported in TN2017:570

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  • 17. Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    Jepsen, Nis
    Kivi, Rigel
    Hansen, Georg H.
    Larsen, Niels
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    Air Quality in the Nordic Countries and Climate Changes in the Arctic: LINKA2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report use ozone measurement data retrieved in the Arctic with balloon borne ozone sondes for the last 20-30 years. Four stations with the best data series have been selected. Using a Monte Carlo method the yearly period is subtracted from the data and the remains, the anomalies, are correlated towards the area of the Polar Front, the temperature rise of the Nortern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and towards one another. It was found that the NAO correlates negatively with ozone anomalies for all four stations albeit the correlations are weak. Besides, the polar front area correlates weakly positive with the ozone anomalies for three out of the four stations. These results, together with the observation that the ozone-anomalies have a brief decorrelation time, indicate that most of the variability in the anomalies should be found in local conditions.

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  • 18.
    Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    DMI.
    Jepsen, Nis
    DMI.
    Kivi, Rigel
    FMI.
    Hansen, Georg H.
    NILU.
    Larsen, Niels
    DMI.
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    DMI.
    Time series analysis of Arctic tropospheric ozone as short-lived climate force2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone soundings from 9 Nordic stations with rather different data coverage have been homogenized followed by an interpolation to standard tropospheric pressure levels. A Bayesian model was applied which included a low-frequency variability, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for variability in seasonal amplitude and phasing, and noise. Regarding the low-frequency variability it was found that only Scoresbysund, Ny Aalesund and Sodankyla showed statistical significant changes with a maximum near 2007 followed by a decrease. We hypothesize that this decrease could be explained by an observed decrease in nitrogen oxide in Europe.

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  • 19. Craig, Nic
    Accelerating low-carbon construction with wood – a Nordic Policy Snapshot2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Realising the Nordic vision of a carbon-neutral and circular built environment will be all but impossible without addressing the emissions from construction materials and processes. Sustainably sourced wood, as the only major renewable building material and a resource that the Nordic region has in abundance, has the potential to make a significant contribution to reducing carbon emissions from construction, supporting the shift towards a circular and bio-based economy. 

    This publication gives an overview of the policies and initiatives helping and hindering progress in wood in construction in each Nordic country, identifying joint challenges and opportunities, and posing six questions that must be addressed going forward. 

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  • 20. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja Marie
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Policy Brief: Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations for Nordic policymakers:Resource related ecodesign obligations will be a necessary part of the future policy mix, though not all parts of the policy puzzle is yet in place. The Nordic policymakers can begin processes in order to realise strategic opportunities. Examples of such policies would be to continue the development of resource efficiency criteria in the Nordic eco-labelling and public procurement in order to pave the way for an uptake in EU eco-labelling and in the Ecodesign Directive. By continuously developing resource related criteria in voluntary policy instruments a platform for legal standard setting will be created that can be applied for ecodesign. See also the main report Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers at http://www.norden.org/sv/publikationer/publikationer/2014-511

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  • 21. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive: A review of opportunities and barriers2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes the potential to apply certain types of legal standards. There is a need for continuous development of indicators and methods in order to allow for a broader range of legal standards in the future. The study provides some short and long term recommendations on the way forward.

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  • 22. Eide, Arne
    et al.
    Ese, Ann-Christin
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Fisheries Management and Global Warming: Effects of climate change on fisheries in the Arctic region of the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The FIMAGLOW project is a Nordic project with the aim to study possible drivers and impacts of global warming on Arctic fisheries. Two workshops has been held, serving to identify the relevant set of institutions and people, updating the research community on on-going research projects and initiatives in this realm, and pointing to some critical issues for further research. The material presented in the workshops is collected in this report, which hopefully then may serve as a stepping stone for further explorations of this important issue. A web site for the FIMAGLOW program has been set up and is available at the URL: http://fimaglow.maremacentre.com. The website includes program information and tentative programs for the workshops. MaReMA Centre at Norwegian College of Fisheries Science is organizing the program, Alf Håkon Hoel and Arne Eide being the project managers.

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  • 23. Ekanger, Ivar
    et al.
    Brunvatne, Jon Olav
    Busk, Helena
    Alriksson, Agnetha
    Larsson, Svante
    Källsmyr, Hans
    Jónsson, Björn B.
    Gasseholm, Karsten
    Torniainen, Tatu
    Arpiainen, Leena
    Jóhannesson, Torfi
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Hansson, Per
    Tunberg, Maria
    Hansson, Philip
    Det nordiska skogsbruket: utmaningar i en framtid präglad av mer extremväder2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det brann på många håll i Norden under 2018 och flera bränder var betydligt större än normalt. Bränderna krävde akuta åtgärder och testade både den nationella beredskapen och det internationella samarbetet. För att stå bättre rustade inför kommande extremväder och omfattande skogsbränder behöver samarbetena mellan de nordiska länderna intensifieras. Nordiska ministerrådet inrättade därför under hösten 2018 en arbetsgrupp för att systematisera de nordiska ländernas erfarenheter från bränderna samt för att föreslå samarbetsområden som kan bidra till ett mer motståndskraftigt nordiskt skogsbruk. Arbetsgruppen lägger fram åtta förslag till nordiska samarbetsområden. Förslagen inkluderar insatser på kort och lång sikt och berör både skogsnäringen och räddningstjänsten.

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  • 24. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Daw, Tim
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Norström, Albert
    Persson, Åsa
    Peterson, Garry
    Rockström, Johan
    Schultz, Maria
    Török, Ellika Hermansson
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia (Contributor)
    Global Sustainability & Human Prosperity: – contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014 (ed. 2014:527)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a Post-2015 agenda and Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, provide a global window of opportunity to address both social needs and environmental challenges together. This discussion paper by the Stockholm Resilience Centre looks into the links between human wellbeing and the biosphere, and describes why and how these links should influence the formulation of the new SDGs. It explores what we can learn from the MDGs, and how existing international agreements can be reflected in the Post-2015 MDG process. The paper also seeks to contribute to the elaboration of targets, including process-oriented targets and scalable indicators suitable for a rapidly changing world.

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  • 25.
    Finnsson, Páll Tómas
    Nordregio.
    Optimising the impact of Nordic climate policies2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries’ climate policies are relatively ambitious in an international perspective, and the countries have progressively raised their climate targets in recent years. However, when designing national climate policies, it is important to assess not only their effects on territorial emissions but also the degree to which they will affect emissions in other countries. This policy brief provides recommendations on how the Nordic countries can optimise the overall impact of their climate policies.

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  • 26. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    Løkke, Søren
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin zu
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Collection & recycling of plastic waste: Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first report from the project “Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems for plastic waste from households and other municipal waste sources” is focused on describing the existing situation when it comes to collection and recycling of plastic waste in the Nordic countries. The streams covered are (all from both households and other MSW sources):

    • Plastic packaging waste.

    • Non-packaging small plastic waste.

    • Plastic bulky waste.

    Similarities and differences among the Nordic countries are presented in the report. The findings provide input into the development of suggestions for improvements. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

    The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 27. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Løkke, Søren
    Rüdenhause, Malin zu Castell
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Guidelines to increased collection of plastic packaging waste from households2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the guidelines is to inspire, inform and give recommendations on how plastic packaging waste from households can be collected, and how different aspects concerning collection of plastic packaging can be taken into account without recommending a certain collection system in front of another. The aspects considered are: collected amounts, quality of the collected amounts, economic aspects, environmental impact, service level and communication, and flexibility. The guidelines are presented in a separate document and based on Nordic experience. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 28. Gardiner, Ann
    et al.
    Bardout, Matthieu
    Grossi, Francesca
    Dixson-Declève, Sandrine
    Public-Private Partnerships for Climate Finance2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong evidence showing the urgent need for scaling-up climate finance to mitigate greenhouse gases in line with the 2°C target, and to support adaptation to safeguard the international community from the consequences of a changing climate. While public actors have a responsibility to deploy climate finance, it is clear that the contribution from the private sector needs to be significant. Consequently, a strong public commitment is needed to engage with the private sector and ensure climate finance is leveraged and deployed effectively. In this context, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are a promising avenue to contribute to climate finance delivery. PPPs provide frameworks to ensure public leadership and accountability in tackling climate change, while enabling the ownership of certain components of climate finance to be transferred to private hands.

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  • 29. Goldstein, Berit
    et al.
    Helmersdotter Eriksson, Annelie
    Livscykelkostnader: Till vilken nytta för miljön och plånboken?2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten ger en överblick av frågeställningar kring användning av livscykelkostnader som verktyg för en hållbar utveckling. Projektet har fokuserat på att sammanställa exempel där det kan löna sig ekonomiskt att t.ex. minska energi- och resursförbrukning och visa på denna lönsamhet genom att beräkna livscykelkostnader. Av rapporten framgår också erfarenheter kring tillämpningen som möjligheter, svårigheter och framgångsfaktorer med livscykelanalyser. Utifrån detta presenteras förslag till vad som kan göras generellt för att främja användningen och mer specifikt hur Ministerrådet skulle kunna gå vidare.

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  • 30. Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    Ask, Amalie
    Collard, France
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Murphy, Fionn
    Strand, Jakob
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Bach, Lis
    Microlitter in arctic marine benthic food chains and potential effects on sediment dwelling fauna2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides both field and impact data on microlitter pollution in the arctic marine environment of Svalbard and Greenland. Microlitter concentrations and characteristics were determined in marine sediments and biota in relation to local sources. Higher concentrations and diversities were found closer to human settlements and sites where lost/dumped fishing gear accumulated. Thus, local microlitter sources were found to be present in the Arctic. The experimental studies on effects of microlitter on feeding rate, microplastic ingestion, respiration and locomotion activity in an arctic amphipod, confirmed previous studies showing effects only at very high concentrations, not yet relevant in the arctic environment. The relatively low field concentrations of microlitter found in this study should be regarded as a ‘window of opportunity’ to act to at least reduce local pollution.

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  • 31.
    Gripwall, Anna-Carin
    Avfall Sverige.
    COMMON WASTE SORTING SYMBOLS IN NORDIC COUNTRIES2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently, communication on waste sorting and treatment differed from country to country and often from municipality to municipality in the Nordic countries. In 2017, a national pictogram system was launched in Denmark and in 2020 the system was launched in Norway, Sweden and Iceland. The plan is to launch it in Finland in 2022. 

    Through the use of the same waste symbols, citizens can receive the same communication on waste sorting, making it easier for all citizens to sort their waste correctly and thereby contributing to an increase in material recycling.

    With funding from the Nordic Council of Ministers, the Nordic municipal waste organizations have worked together to implement this system in our countries.

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  • 32. Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Nilsson, Christer
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic network ERMOND, Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters, reviewed information on natural hazards and ecosystem conditions in the Nordic countries. Many natural hazards put pressure on Nordic societies, primarily floods, landslides, storms, snow avalanches and volcanic activity. Intensified land use and predicted climate change are likely to increase the impacts of natural hazards in the future. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural hazards. Our study showed, however, that degradation of natural habitats in the Nordic countries may have reduced or even seriously damaged this ability. Nordic disaster risk reduction policies and strategies should recognize this situation and place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management in the Nordic countries.

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  • 33. Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Nilsson, Christer
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters: Policy Brief2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters – ecological solutions

    Every year, natural disasters cause loss of lives and significant damage in the Nordic countries. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural disasters. However, degradation of natural habitats has in many cases seriously damaged this ability. A recently concluded Nordic project ERMOND—Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters—aimed to facilitate new thinking and new solutions in disaster risk management in the Nordic countries.The main conclusion from the ERMOND project is that Nordic disaster risk reduction strategies should place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management. This may in the long run proof to be cheaper and more sustainable than traditional engineered solutions, such as building levees for preventing floods. Restoration of degraded ecosystem will furthermore provide a wide array of other environmental, economic and social benefits. The ERMOND project was launched in 2014 as a theme project of the Nordic Council of Ministers, appointed by the Icelandic Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources. In total, fifteen institutions participated in the ERMOND project, and another four were part of a wider network receiving information on project activities. Project partners came from all the Nordic countries. The project was financed through the following funding schemes of the Nordic Council of Ministers: NordBio - The Program for the Icelandic Presidency in NCM in 2014 and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Group (TEG). The Committee of Senior Officials for the Environment funded the project NordEcRes, which was linked to the ERMOND project. The results of the ERMOND project will soon be published in a TemaNord report, an ANP Policy brief and several scientific articles.

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  • 34. Halonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Illman, Julia
    Klimscheffskij, Markus
    Gaia Consulting Ltd.
    Sjöblom, Henrik
    Rinne, Pasi
    Röser, Frauke
    Kurdziel, Marie-Jeanne
    Höhne, Niklas
    Atteridge, Aaron
    Canales, Nella
    Mobilizing climate finance flows: Nordic approaches and opportunities2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If the Agreement’s goal - limit the global temperature increase below 2°C - is to be met, all financial flows need to shift dramatically and rapidly from current investment patterns to 2°C compatible pathways. This study analyses the roles Nordic actors might play in mobilizing finance flows internationally and outlines a roadmap that can guide joint Nordic action during the next five to ten years. While the roadmap covers components of “climate related ODA” and climate compatible contributions from the private sector, the focus of the roadmap lies on the crucial bridging and dialogue that is required between key actors. Building on identified Nordic strengths and areas needing accelerated international support, the report concludes with a set of immediate next steps to operationalize the roadmap in 2017-2018.

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  • 35. Halonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Sjöblom, Henrik
    Greening the financial system: Nordic experiences and the way forward2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Nordic actors have illustrate leadership in mobilizing private finance for climate compatible investments with, for example, Nordic joint finance institutions and development finance institutions (DFIs) as key contributors.  Greening the financial system - Nordic experiences and ways forward highlights some lessons learned by the Nordics. It also reviews Nordic experiences in light of the recent global agreements and commitments, with a particular view on how the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and the on-going EU work on sustainable finance can help accelerate action. The brief was produced as part of the Nordic Public-Private Platform on Mobilization of Climate Finance that brought together leading Nordic actors through four thematic issues groups.

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  • 36. Hamro-Drotz, Dennis
    et al.
    Brüning, Kristian
    Nordic Climate Finance Opportunities: The NCF Case Study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of reaching an ambitious globally binding climate agreement by 2015 is one of the key challenges that the international community needs to address. Issues on how private finance can be linked to public funding structures to ensure sufficient funding for mitigation and adaptation activities, and how technology transfer could work as part of climate finance continue to be key topics in the upcoming climate negotiations.This report focuses on the current Nordic climate finance landscape, and uses the Nordic Climate Facility (NCF) as a case study, to offer examples of and lessons learned from practical Nordic climate actions that can be used in on-going and future climate negotiations. The report concludes with eight targeted recommendations that highlight key points and lessons learned that can be used for replication and scaling up of future climate actions.

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  • 37. Hanssen, Ole Jørgen
    et al.
    Ekegren, Per
    Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin
    Korpela, Pirjo
    Langevad-Clifforth, Nanna
    Skov-Olsen, Kristin
    Silvennoinen, Kirsi
    Stare, Malin
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Svanes, Erik
    Food Redistribution in the Nordic Region: Experiences and results from a pilot study2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has a focus on waste prevention through redistribution of food to low-income people via charity organisations. Food redistribution can go via national food banks and via direct redistribution, often on a local level. Food banks in the Nordic region redistributed about 1.5 mill meals in 2013, and local charity organisations probably 2–3 times more. The regulatory framework for food redistribution is described and discussed in the report. The demand of and potential for redistribution is probably much higher than at present, and the report points out strategies and measures for how food banks can contribute to secure a further development.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way.”

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  • 38.
    Harrison, Nicholas
    et al.
    Ecofys.
    Bartlett, Nicolette
    CISL.
    Block, Kornelis
    Ecofys.
    Gardiner, Ann
    Ecofys.
    Levin, Kelly
    WRI.
    Elliott, Cynthia
    WRI.
    Tracking International Cooperative Initiatives2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the greenhouse gas emissions reduction pledges made by national governments are insufficient to achieve what is required by science to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. In parallel to the formal climate negotiations, a multitude of international cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are now engaging in efforts to address the growing emissions gap.

    A database and web platform have been developed that presents the most current and comprehensive publically available collection of information on ICIs in operation. The web platform includes details of more than 180 mitigation-focused initiatives that have the potential for impact at the global scale. The project also makes recommendations for continuing support for the database and additional activities to support an increasing use of the database to inform negotiators and other stakeholders.

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  • 39. Harrison, Nicholas
    et al.
    Höhne, Niklas
    Braun, Nadine
    Deng, Yvonne
    Day, Thomas
    Bartlett, Nicolette
    Dixson-Declève, Sandrine
    Enhancing Ambition through International Cooperative Initiatives2014 (ed. 2014:518)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International Cooperative Initiatives (ICIs) could hold significant promise for closing the global emissions gap between a pathway to a 2°C warming limit and current national emission reduction pledges. This report examines a selection of these ICIs to explore their potential for delivering additional greenhouse gas mitigation and for raising ambition at national and international levels. It concludes that there are a range of ICIs already making an important contribution. Many have potential to scale-up their activities and could offer promising new channels for public climate finance.

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  • 40. Haukås, Hans T.
    et al.
    Pachai, Alexander Cohr
    Information sheets on natural refrigerants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This set of information sheets is an updated version of “Information sheets on natural refrigerants” published by the Nordic Chemicals Group in 2008. It consists of 31 information sheets on natural refrigerants, covering a broad field of technical information. Natural refrigerants may already replace the group of potent greenhouse gases called HFCs for a number of applications, and the technology is under continuous improvement. The use of natural refrigerants differ from using HFCs in many ways, affecting a variety of aspects related to system design and operation, safety requirements etc. The objective of these information sheets is to provide information about the possibilities and limitations related to these fluids, and to make technical knowhow and practical experience available for system designers and installers, in order to promote more use of natural refrigerants.

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  • 41. Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Höjer, Olle
    Jakovlev, Jevgeni
    Kryshen, Aleksandr
    Mikkola, Jyri
    Mikkonen, Ninni
    Paz von Friesen, Carlos
    Virkkala, Raimo
    Improving ecological connectivity in boreal forests of the Barents region: Background, issues and recommendations2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    All Nordic countries are committed to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. According to the CBD Aichi Targets, areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services should be protected through ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas as well as other effective area-based conservation measures. The ecosystems of the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and North-West Russia are very diverse and unique even globally. This region is characterized by extensive boreal forests and vast areas of tundra, intermingled by various freshwater bodies. Climate change and loss of natural habitats due to intensive land-use and unsustainable use of natural resources are the most serious threats to biodiversity in this region, also called the Barents Region.

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  • 42. Hennlock, Magnus
    et al.
    zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Kjær, Birgitte
    Milios, Leonidas
    Vea, Eldbjørg
    Watson, David
    Hanssen, Ole Jørgen
    Fråne, Anna
    Stenmarc, Åsa
    Tekie, Haben
    Economic policy instruments for plastic waste: A review with Nordic perspectives2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a high quality of waste plastic materials and recycling processes is a key challenge in closing the resource loops for plastics. This report reviews the status and trends for plastic waste flows and treatment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Furthermore, it gives an overview of existing policy instruments and the main challenges for designing policy instruments for improved recycling of plastic waste in these Nordic countries. The report identifies potential market failures associated with closing the resource loops for plastics. It reviews the economics research literature on policy instrument design for achieving optimal recycling rates and makes policy recommendations from the Nordic perspective. Finally, it presents results from a survey on market conditions to managers in the recycling and plastic manufacturing industry in Sweden.

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  • 43. Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Eriksson, Ola
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Fluck, Lena
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

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  • 44. Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Jansson, Roland
    Nilsson, Christer
    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region

    Climate change may affect biodiversity to a large extent. Its effects have already caused shifts in species distributions and even species extinctions. Since especially high latitude regions are expected to be affected, this publication assesses the impact of future climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region (northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, and Northwest Russia). It reports on the impact of climate change on a large range of species, including amphibians, butterflies, birds, mammals, moths, plants, slugs, snails, and reptiles, of which a few were studied more in depth. It further identifies future hotspots of species diversity and gives recommendations on species that should be prioritized for conservation and on areas that should be included in the network of protected areas in future. Lastly, it provides guidance on which aspects require further study.

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  • 45. Johannesen, Odma
    et al.
    Lassen, Hans
    Decision-making management procedures: Cost – efficiency – democracy in selected procedures in Maritime Spatial Planning2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study report analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the procedures which are followed when designating marine Natura 2000 sites and when deciding what fisheries management measures are to be applied.The report identifies weaknesses in the current system and proposes to replace the existing procedures with a single-stringed system structuring the national and international processes in a single regional integrated environmental-fisheries process. This process should include extensive stakeholder involvement.

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  • 46. Johnsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Mattsson, Kristina
    Søyland, Viil
    Krekling, Maria F.
    Nemming, Anders
    Vainio-Mattila, Birgitta
    Reskola, Veli-Pekka
    Högman, Sölve
    Steffensen, Lise Lykke
    Jóhannesson, Torfi
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Hansson, Per
    Tunberg, Maria
    Hansson, Philip
    Det nordiska jordbruket: utmaningar i en framtid präglad av mer extremväder2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora delar av Norden upplevde extrem torka under sommaren 2018 vilket resulterade i minskad skörd jämfört med tidigare år. Vissa effekter syns även på animalieproduktionen. För att stå bättre rustade inför kommande extremväder behöver erfarenhetsutbytet och samarbetet mellan de nordiska länderna vidareutvecklas. Nordiska ministerrådet inrättade därför i september 2018 en arbetsgrupp för att systematisera de nordiska ländernas erfarenheter från torkan 2018 samt föreslå konkreta nordiska samarbetsområden som kan bidra till ett mer motståndskraftigt nordiskt jordbruk. Arbetsgruppen lägger fram fem förslag till samarbetsområden: Kunskapshöjning: klimatsmarta vatten- och odlingssystem, Växter anpassade för framtida nordiska förhållanden, Strategier för effektivare organisering i händelse av extremväder, Nordiskt kunskapsutbyte mellan rådgivare, Nordiskt nätverk för jordbruk och extremväder.

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  • 47.
    Jokinen, Jari
    et al.
    Netum Oy.
    Koskinen, Anna-Liisa
    AFRY Finland Oy.
    Kämäräinen, Kaisa
    AFRY Finland Oy.
    Green-listed waste (GLW) exports from the Nordic countries2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipments of green-listed waste (GLW) for recovery do not require a notification or an authority consent within EU and OECD. The aim of the Nordic Working Group for Circular Economy (NCE) study was to gather information about how GLW exports are reported in the participating Nordic countries and in the selected reference countries and to suggest improvements for data collection systems. The study is based on interviews and screening of publicly available information on the procedures and information on GLW shipments in Denmark, Finland, Åland, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and selected reference countries: Ireland, Northern Ireland and Slovenia. 

    Three alternative on-line reporting systems for the Nordic countries have been identified.

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  • 48. Jordal-Jørgensen, Jørgen
    et al.
    Kveiborg, Ole
    Friis-Jensen, Sandra
    CO2 emissions and economic incentives: Recent developments in CO2 emissions from passenger cars in the Nordic countries and potential economic incentives to regulate them2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CO₂ emissions from passenger cars is declining. Some changes are due to ever improved technology provided by car manufacturers and others induced by political regulation. The report investigates the recent changes in CO₂ intensity in the car fleets in the Nordic countries. The trends in the car sales are presented and the impacts on overall CO₂ intensity are outlined. All Nordic countries have in the past ten years changed the national regulation of passenger cars through different economic incentives and various schemes making low emissions vehicles more favourable. The report describes these changes and complement with an overview of international empirical findings concerning the main tax instruments (purchase-, annual-, fuel tax and road user charges). The potential impact of these taxes are reviewed and recommendations for future uses of the various instruments are provided.

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  • 49.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    N. Huynh, Diana
    Young Voices from the Arctic: Insights on Climate Change and Permafrost Degradation2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic region is warming almost four times as fast as the global average. Snow and ice are thawing at an increasing rate, and the rapid environmental shifts have a disproportionate effect on communities across the Northern Hemisphere. This leads to significant permafrost degradation, which disrupts community infrastructure, cultural heritage, landscapes, and impacts animal migration and subsistence activities. This change has severe consequences for the youth in the region, affecting their present lives and future outlooks. 

    This working paper emphasizes the importance of addressing these issues and enhancing the voices of Arctic youth, who advocate for climate change adaptation and mitigation, as they will be central in shaping society in the face of these environmental shifts. The paper highlights Arctic youths' perspectives on climate change and permafrost degradation, covering individuals from the legal age to early-career experts up to 35. Further, the paper states a need for more research and exploration of youth engagement methodologies in the Arctic to address the impacts of climate change and permafrost degradation.

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  • 50. Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Quaternary ammonium compounds: Analyses in a Nordic cooperation on screening2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the findings of a Nordic environmental study. The quaternary ammoniums included are compounds which are used in large volumes in a variety of industrial, health sector and domestic products. The quaternary ammoniums are used to provide antistatic, antibacterial, emulating and other properties in a range of formulations like hair conditioners, cosmetics, in fabric softeners and in cleansing and disinfecting products. Some quaternary ammoniums are poorly degraded and some are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The samples analysed were taken mainly near assumed hot-spot areas as in sewage lines and in receiving waters, but also in background areas far from anthropogenic sources. Samples include water, sludge, sediment and fish.

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