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  • 1. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea: Valuation of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of the ecosystem services and associated benefits provided by the Baltic Sea, including information on the approaches of assessing and valuing ecosystem services being applied in the Baltic Sea region. It also identifies the main challenges in ecosystem service assessments in the Baltic Sea, and outlines the way forward in applying assessment tools in regional and national policies.Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection of the Baltic Sea. The existing studies on the value of improved marine environment are useful in assessing the importance and value of some marine ecosystem services, but further work is still needed on describing ecosystem services and their interactions, and evaluating how policy changes affect these services and human well-being.

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  • 2. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 3. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Wik, Ola
    Engelse, Christian J.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Oberender, Anke
    Hjelmar, Ole
    Wahlström, Margareta
    ENCORT-CDW: Evaluation of the European recovery target for construction and demolition waste2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present EU target for recovery of construction and demolition waste does not promote sustainability. Interpretations of waste and recovery definitions rather than resource efficiency and safe handling affect the monitoring. The general weight-based target has to be altered to favour recycling of resource-rich materials, not only of high weight materials. High grade recycling should be distinguished and prioritized to ensure safe recovery. This requires improved knowledge on waste generation and handling as well as on emissions of dangerous substances. A common Nordic approach is advocated.

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  • 4. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement: Lessons Learned and Ways Forward2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 5. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Gislason, Stefan
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    WEEE Plastics Recycling: A guide to enhancing the recovery of plasticsfrom waste electrical and electronic equipment2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this guide is to inform and assist different stakeholders in the Nordic region to enhance the recycling of plastic materials from WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Waste. It presents recommendations to various parties: consumers, authorities and policy-makers, recyclers and waste operators, as well as electronics producers.The guide was compiled as part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more at www.norden.org/greengrowth or in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org

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  • 6. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Stare, Malin
    Løkke, Søren
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Plastic value chains: Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project identifies thousands of tonnes per annum of potential enhanced plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Plastics recycling does not always feature prominently in waste treatment. Recycling is technologically viable although the market and economic landscape is challenging. Easy export markets for waste plastic are largely closed and near-source treatment is increasingly needed. Concerns include issues of quality and worries about hazardous materials. Positively engaging electronics producers - beyond the bare punitive requirements within extended responsibility schemes – is a crucial driver for further developments.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 7. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Analysis of PFASs and TOF in products2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs) are a large group of substances used in industrial and consumer applications. There are thousands of PFASs on the global market, for many of which there is little information on their use. This study is a follow-up of a NORAP project from 2015 where different household products were analysed for PFASs. Here we further analysed these products for total organic fluorine (TOF) together with new analyses for individual PFASs and TOF in product types that are known to or suspected to contain PFASs. The analyses of new products showed that PFASs are widely used. The comparisons between analysed individual PFASs and TOF concentrations showed that for most samples the detected individual PFAS constituted only a very minor part of the TOF, illustrating large data gaps in our knowledge on which PFASs that are being used in these products.

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  • 8. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Enggaard, Mattias
    Jessen, Jes Erik
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Sköld, Christopher
    Berghäll, Elina
    Two approaches to pricing pollution2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison is the commonly used Cap and Trade method with an alternative and novel method for pricing pollution: The aim was to conduct a practical approach to clarify advantages and challenges of the respective mechanisms. Shortly, the report promotes:

    1) Levying a Fee which is sufficiently high and adjusted sufficiently often for a Fee.

    2) Letting the Futures Market and other hedging and insurance instruments indicate the price (the average abatement cost) which can be levied without harming the economy.

    3) Securing a repayment of a sufficiently large fraction of the revenue from the Fee.

    These three parts or components are all essential to the mechanism. Still, key questions remain unanswered in this report. This project was launched by the Working Group for SCP (HKP) in collaboration with the Working Group on Environment and Economy (MEG) under the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 9. Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Johansson, Mathias
    Persson, Henrik
    Andersen, Jes Sig
    Bjerrum, Max
    Andersen, Kim Sig
    Hvidberg, René Borch
    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC and other pollutants from residential wood combustion in the Nordic countries2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of emissions of EC, OC, CH4, NMVOC and PM2.5 from domestic biomass combustion in the Nordic countries have been made, covering ten central heating boilers and nine residential heaters. BC emissions expressed as Elemental Carbon (EC) varied between 0,5 and 35 mg/MJ for boilers and between 3 and 122 mg/MJ for heaters. PM2,5 emissions varied between 14 and 1975 mg/MJ for boilers and between 35 and 821 mg/MJ for heaters. This work was conducted within the Nordic Council of Minister´s project “Improved emission inventories of Short Lived Climate Pollutants, SLCP”. The work was performed by SP Technical Research Institute in cooperation with Teknologisk Institut, Denmark.The results presented here comprise the technical basis for emission factors developed and reported in TN2017:570

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  • 10. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja Marie
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Policy Brief: Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations for Nordic policymakers:Resource related ecodesign obligations will be a necessary part of the future policy mix, though not all parts of the policy puzzle is yet in place. The Nordic policymakers can begin processes in order to realise strategic opportunities. Examples of such policies would be to continue the development of resource efficiency criteria in the Nordic eco-labelling and public procurement in order to pave the way for an uptake in EU eco-labelling and in the Ecodesign Directive. By continuously developing resource related criteria in voluntary policy instruments a platform for legal standard setting will be created that can be applied for ecodesign. See also the main report Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers at http://www.norden.org/sv/publikationer/publikationer/2014-511

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  • 11. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive: A review of opportunities and barriers2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes the potential to apply certain types of legal standards. There is a need for continuous development of indicators and methods in order to allow for a broader range of legal standards in the future. The study provides some short and long term recommendations on the way forward.

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  • 12. Eide, Arne
    et al.
    Ese, Ann-Christin
    Hoel, Alf Håkon
    Fisheries Management and Global Warming: Effects of climate change on fisheries in the Arctic region of the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The FIMAGLOW project is a Nordic project with the aim to study possible drivers and impacts of global warming on Arctic fisheries. Two workshops has been held, serving to identify the relevant set of institutions and people, updating the research community on on-going research projects and initiatives in this realm, and pointing to some critical issues for further research. The material presented in the workshops is collected in this report, which hopefully then may serve as a stepping stone for further explorations of this important issue. A web site for the FIMAGLOW program has been set up and is available at the URL: http://fimaglow.maremacentre.com. The website includes program information and tentative programs for the workshops. MaReMA Centre at Norwegian College of Fisheries Science is organizing the program, Alf Håkon Hoel and Arne Eide being the project managers.

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  • 13. Ekanger, Ivar
    et al.
    Brunvatne, Jon Olav
    Busk, Helena
    Alriksson, Agnetha
    Larsson, Svante
    Källsmyr, Hans
    Jónsson, Björn B.
    Gasseholm, Karsten
    Torniainen, Tatu
    Arpiainen, Leena
    Jóhannesson, Torfi
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Hansson, Per
    Tunberg, Maria
    Hansson, Philip
    Det nordiska skogsbruket: utmaningar i en framtid präglad av mer extremväder2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det brann på många håll i Norden under 2018 och flera bränder var betydligt större än normalt. Bränderna krävde akuta åtgärder och testade både den nationella beredskapen och det internationella samarbetet. För att stå bättre rustade inför kommande extremväder och omfattande skogsbränder behöver samarbetena mellan de nordiska länderna intensifieras. Nordiska ministerrådet inrättade därför under hösten 2018 en arbetsgrupp för att systematisera de nordiska ländernas erfarenheter från bränderna samt för att föreslå samarbetsområden som kan bidra till ett mer motståndskraftigt nordiskt skogsbruk. Arbetsgruppen lägger fram åtta förslag till nordiska samarbetsområden. Förslagen inkluderar insatser på kort och lång sikt och berör både skogsnäringen och räddningstjänsten.

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  • 14. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Daw, Tim
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Norström, Albert
    Persson, Åsa
    Peterson, Garry
    Rockström, Johan
    Schultz, Maria
    Török, Ellika Hermansson
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia (Contributor)
    Global Sustainability & Human Prosperity: – contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014 (ed. 2014:527)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a Post-2015 agenda and Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, provide a global window of opportunity to address both social needs and environmental challenges together. This discussion paper by the Stockholm Resilience Centre looks into the links between human wellbeing and the biosphere, and describes why and how these links should influence the formulation of the new SDGs. It explores what we can learn from the MDGs, and how existing international agreements can be reflected in the Post-2015 MDG process. The paper also seeks to contribute to the elaboration of targets, including process-oriented targets and scalable indicators suitable for a rapidly changing world.

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  • 15. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    Løkke, Søren
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin zu
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Collection & recycling of plastic waste: Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first report from the project “Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems for plastic waste from households and other municipal waste sources” is focused on describing the existing situation when it comes to collection and recycling of plastic waste in the Nordic countries. The streams covered are (all from both households and other MSW sources):

    • Plastic packaging waste.

    • Non-packaging small plastic waste.

    • Plastic bulky waste.

    Similarities and differences among the Nordic countries are presented in the report. The findings provide input into the development of suggestions for improvements. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

    The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 16. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Løkke, Søren
    Rüdenhause, Malin zu Castell
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Guidelines to increased collection of plastic packaging waste from households2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the guidelines is to inspire, inform and give recommendations on how plastic packaging waste from households can be collected, and how different aspects concerning collection of plastic packaging can be taken into account without recommending a certain collection system in front of another. The aspects considered are: collected amounts, quality of the collected amounts, economic aspects, environmental impact, service level and communication, and flexibility. The guidelines are presented in a separate document and based on Nordic experience. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 17. Goldstein, Berit
    et al.
    Helmersdotter Eriksson, Annelie
    Livscykelkostnader: Till vilken nytta för miljön och plånboken?2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten ger en överblick av frågeställningar kring användning av livscykelkostnader som verktyg för en hållbar utveckling. Projektet har fokuserat på att sammanställa exempel där det kan löna sig ekonomiskt att t.ex. minska energi- och resursförbrukning och visa på denna lönsamhet genom att beräkna livscykelkostnader. Av rapporten framgår också erfarenheter kring tillämpningen som möjligheter, svårigheter och framgångsfaktorer med livscykelanalyser. Utifrån detta presenteras förslag till vad som kan göras generellt för att främja användningen och mer specifikt hur Ministerrådet skulle kunna gå vidare.

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  • 18. Hanssen, Ole Jørgen
    et al.
    Ekegren, Per
    Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin
    Korpela, Pirjo
    Langevad-Clifforth, Nanna
    Skov-Olsen, Kristin
    Silvennoinen, Kirsi
    Stare, Malin
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Svanes, Erik
    Food Redistribution in the Nordic Region: Experiences and results from a pilot study2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has a focus on waste prevention through redistribution of food to low-income people via charity organisations. Food redistribution can go via national food banks and via direct redistribution, often on a local level. Food banks in the Nordic region redistributed about 1.5 mill meals in 2013, and local charity organisations probably 2–3 times more. The regulatory framework for food redistribution is described and discussed in the report. The demand of and potential for redistribution is probably much higher than at present, and the report points out strategies and measures for how food banks can contribute to secure a further development.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way.”

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  • 19. Haukås, Hans T.
    et al.
    Pachai, Alexander Cohr
    Information sheets on natural refrigerants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This set of information sheets is an updated version of “Information sheets on natural refrigerants” published by the Nordic Chemicals Group in 2008. It consists of 31 information sheets on natural refrigerants, covering a broad field of technical information. Natural refrigerants may already replace the group of potent greenhouse gases called HFCs for a number of applications, and the technology is under continuous improvement. The use of natural refrigerants differ from using HFCs in many ways, affecting a variety of aspects related to system design and operation, safety requirements etc. The objective of these information sheets is to provide information about the possibilities and limitations related to these fluids, and to make technical knowhow and practical experience available for system designers and installers, in order to promote more use of natural refrigerants.

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  • 20. Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Höjer, Olle
    Jakovlev, Jevgeni
    Kryshen, Aleksandr
    Mikkola, Jyri
    Mikkonen, Ninni
    Paz von Friesen, Carlos
    Virkkala, Raimo
    Improving ecological connectivity in boreal forests of the Barents region: Background, issues and recommendations2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    All Nordic countries are committed to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. According to the CBD Aichi Targets, areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services should be protected through ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas as well as other effective area-based conservation measures. The ecosystems of the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and North-West Russia are very diverse and unique even globally. This region is characterized by extensive boreal forests and vast areas of tundra, intermingled by various freshwater bodies. Climate change and loss of natural habitats due to intensive land-use and unsustainable use of natural resources are the most serious threats to biodiversity in this region, also called the Barents Region.

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  • 21. Hennlock, Magnus
    et al.
    zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Kjær, Birgitte
    Milios, Leonidas
    Vea, Eldbjørg
    Watson, David
    Hanssen, Ole Jørgen
    Fråne, Anna
    Stenmarc, Åsa
    Tekie, Haben
    Economic policy instruments for plastic waste: A review with Nordic perspectives2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a high quality of waste plastic materials and recycling processes is a key challenge in closing the resource loops for plastics. This report reviews the status and trends for plastic waste flows and treatment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Furthermore, it gives an overview of existing policy instruments and the main challenges for designing policy instruments for improved recycling of plastic waste in these Nordic countries. The report identifies potential market failures associated with closing the resource loops for plastics. It reviews the economics research literature on policy instrument design for achieving optimal recycling rates and makes policy recommendations from the Nordic perspective. Finally, it presents results from a survey on market conditions to managers in the recycling and plastic manufacturing industry in Sweden.

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  • 22. Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Eriksson, Ola
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Fluck, Lena
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

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  • 23. Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Jansson, Roland
    Nilsson, Christer
    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region

    Climate change may affect biodiversity to a large extent. Its effects have already caused shifts in species distributions and even species extinctions. Since especially high latitude regions are expected to be affected, this publication assesses the impact of future climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region (northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, and Northwest Russia). It reports on the impact of climate change on a large range of species, including amphibians, butterflies, birds, mammals, moths, plants, slugs, snails, and reptiles, of which a few were studied more in depth. It further identifies future hotspots of species diversity and gives recommendations on species that should be prioritized for conservation and on areas that should be included in the network of protected areas in future. Lastly, it provides guidance on which aspects require further study.

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  • 24. Johannesen, Odma
    et al.
    Lassen, Hans
    Decision-making management procedures: Cost – efficiency – democracy in selected procedures in Maritime Spatial Planning2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study report analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the procedures which are followed when designating marine Natura 2000 sites and when deciding what fisheries management measures are to be applied.The report identifies weaknesses in the current system and proposes to replace the existing procedures with a single-stringed system structuring the national and international processes in a single regional integrated environmental-fisheries process. This process should include extensive stakeholder involvement.

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  • 25. Johnsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Mattsson, Kristina
    Søyland, Viil
    Krekling, Maria F.
    Nemming, Anders
    Vainio-Mattila, Birgitta
    Reskola, Veli-Pekka
    Högman, Sölve
    Steffensen, Lise Lykke
    Jóhannesson, Torfi
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Hansson, Per
    Tunberg, Maria
    Hansson, Philip
    Det nordiska jordbruket: utmaningar i en framtid präglad av mer extremväder2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora delar av Norden upplevde extrem torka under sommaren 2018 vilket resulterade i minskad skörd jämfört med tidigare år. Vissa effekter syns även på animalieproduktionen. För att stå bättre rustade inför kommande extremväder behöver erfarenhetsutbytet och samarbetet mellan de nordiska länderna vidareutvecklas. Nordiska ministerrådet inrättade därför i september 2018 en arbetsgrupp för att systematisera de nordiska ländernas erfarenheter från torkan 2018 samt föreslå konkreta nordiska samarbetsområden som kan bidra till ett mer motståndskraftigt nordiskt jordbruk. Arbetsgruppen lägger fram fem förslag till samarbetsområden: Kunskapshöjning: klimatsmarta vatten- och odlingssystem, Växter anpassade för framtida nordiska förhållanden, Strategier för effektivare organisering i händelse av extremväder, Nordiskt kunskapsutbyte mellan rådgivare, Nordiskt nätverk för jordbruk och extremväder.

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  • 26. Jordal-Jørgensen, Jørgen
    et al.
    Kveiborg, Ole
    Friis-Jensen, Sandra
    CO2 emissions and economic incentives: Recent developments in CO2 emissions from passenger cars in the Nordic countries and potential economic incentives to regulate them2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CO₂ emissions from passenger cars is declining. Some changes are due to ever improved technology provided by car manufacturers and others induced by political regulation. The report investigates the recent changes in CO₂ intensity in the car fleets in the Nordic countries. The trends in the car sales are presented and the impacts on overall CO₂ intensity are outlined. All Nordic countries have in the past ten years changed the national regulation of passenger cars through different economic incentives and various schemes making low emissions vehicles more favourable. The report describes these changes and complement with an overview of international empirical findings concerning the main tax instruments (purchase-, annual-, fuel tax and road user charges). The potential impact of these taxes are reviewed and recommendations for future uses of the various instruments are provided.

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  • 27. Kajala, L.
    et al.
    Almik, A.
    Dahl, R-
    Dikšait?, L.
    Erkkonen, J.
    Fredman, P.
    Jensen, F.
    K. Søndergaard, Karoles
    Sievänen, T.
    Skov-Petersen, H.
    O. Vistad, I.
    Wallsten, P.
    Kävijäseuranta luontoalueilla: Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian maiden kokemuksiin perustuva opas2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Luontomatkailun ja luonnossa virkistäytymisen merkitys kasvaa Pohjoismaissa ja Baltiassa. Tiedot luontoalueiden kävijöistä ovat tärkeitä, jotta alueiden virkistyskäyttöä voidaan suunnitella ja toteuttaa siten, että kävijöille tarjotaan laadukkaita virkistyskokemuksia, kehitetään luontomatkailua, edistetään kansanterveyttä ja hyvinvointia sekä suojellaan luonto- ja kulttuuriperintöä kestävästi.Tämän oppaan tarkoituksena on antaa ideoita ja tietoa eri menetelmistä ja keinoista, joiden avulla luontoalueiden virkistyskäyttäjistä ja käyttötavoista saadaan enemmän tietoa. Oppaan pääpaino on käytännön menetelmissä: kuinka kävijälaskentoja ja -tutkimuksia tehdään, miten tulokset kannattaa raportoida ja kuinka tietoja voidaan hyödyntää. Opas sisältää ohjeita, suosituksia ja esimerkkejä Pohjoismaihin ja Baltiaan soveltuvista kävijäseurantamenetelmistä.Oppaan on laatinut luontoalueiden kävijäseurantaan perehtynyt asiantuntijatyöryhmä, ja sen tarkoituksena on edistää Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian olosuhteisiin muokattujen yhtenäisten kävijäseurantamenetelmien käyttöä. Tämä on ensimmäinen askel kohti yhtenäistä kävijäseurantatietoa, joka luo yhteisen perustan kävijätilastoille ja -tietokannoille näissä maissa.

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  • 28. Lange, Peter
    et al.
    Kjeldsen, Ulrik Boe
    Tofteng, Maja
    Krag, Anja
    Lindgaard, Kasper
    The coexistence of two Ecolabels: – The Nordic Ecolabel and the EU Ecolabel in the Nordic Countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis looks closer at the synergies and positioning between the fee structures and criteria of the two ecolabels, the dissemination and success of the two labels within different product groups and the experience with co-existence between the EU Ecolabel and other national and regional ecolabels. The analysis does this by performing interviews with representatives from the five Nordic ecolabelling secretariats, interviews with representatives from ecolabelling secretariats from France, Germany, the Netherlands and Austria as well as through a desk research of available material. The analysis is conducted by DAMVAD with expert assistance from Åke Thidell, Lund University. The project is commissioned by the Swan group under the Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production (HKP-gruppen) of the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 29. Magnussen, Kristin
    et al.
    Hasler, Berit
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Ecosystem Services: In Nordic Freshwater Management2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed.

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  • 30. Moilanen, Atte
    et al.
    Kotiaho, Janne S.
    Planning biodiversity offsets: Twelve operationally important decisions2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological damage caused by infrastructure projects or other development activity may, in some cases, be compensated by restoring or protecting habitats elsewhere. This process, which resembles the "polluter pays" principle, is often called biodiversity offsetting or ecological compensation. The frequently-cited goal of offsetting is ecological no-net-loss, which means that all ecological losses must be fully balanced by corresponding ecological gains produced by offsetting actions.

    This publication reviews the principles of offsetting and summarizes a dozen decisions that effectively determine the credibility, feasibility and costs of offsets. These decisions cover the three major axes of ecology, biodiversity, space and time as well as additional considerations inherent to implementation of offsets via habitat restoration and protection measures. Compensation will necessarily take place some distance away from the damage, it will come with uncertainties and a time delay, and lost biodiversity will never be replaced by exactly the same thing, which means that up-front treatment of the degree of flexibility allowed should be fundamental to any offsetting project.

    As ecosystems are different, the twelve design questions described here should be systematically addressed when offsets are suggested for a new type of environment. Doing so will facilitate well-informed and transparent design and evaluation of biodiversity offsets.

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  • 31. Myking, Tor
    et al.
    Walløe Tvedt, Morten
    Meland Edvardsen, Øyvind
    Hallingbäck, Henrik
    Christina Olrik, Ditte
    Friis Proschowsky, Gunnar
    Rusanen, Mari
    Black-Samuelsson, Sanna
    Skrøppa, Tore
    Access and rights to forest genetic resources in the Nordic region: Current situation and future perspectives2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continued flexible exchange of forest genetic resources (FGR) in the Nordic region is important for sustainable forest management and for climate change adaptation and mitigation. For this reason, a high level political initiative identified a need to clarify the legal status of FGR in the Nordic region. In this report we summarise the results of a Nordic project intended to approach this issue, on the background that plant genetic resources is being increasingly subjected to private property rights. The aim of this work is to give recommendations for politicians and decision makers.

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  • 32. Møller, Hanne
    et al.
    Lødrup, Nina
    Madsen, Pernille Lundquist
    Rosengren, Åsa
    Nurttila, Annika
    Date labelling in the Nordic countries: Practice of legislation2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report addresses how date labels are determined and applied with focus on reducing food waste in the Nordic countries. This was assessed through a survey and selected interviews with Nordic food manufacturers about their considerations when deciding the date label. Another objective has been to distinguish if there are differences in the way food safety authorities interpret legislation. The results from the study indicate that there are differences between the countries in terms of both the practice of guidelines and the shelf life of food.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 33. Neergaard, Ida Marie
    et al.
    Ravnbøl, Kristoffer
    Nordic Youth As Sustainable Changemakers: In the transition to sustainable consumption and production2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world young people are protesting for action on climatechange and sustainable consumption. In the Nordic countries, the youth are leading the way as sustainable changemakers with ambitious, radical,and urgent demands to politicians and decision-makers to take action now.This analysis looks at youth in the Nordic countries, aged 13-30, and their concerns,  motivation, inspiration, actions, approaches, recommendations, and demands in relation to SDG12 on Sustainable Consumption and Production.

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  • 34. Nielsen, Rasmus
    et al.
    Schmidt, Anders
    Changing consumer behaviour towards increased prevention of textile waste: Background report2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This background report is part of the initiative “Changing consumer behaviour towards increased prevention of textile waste”. The aim of the initiative  is to communicate to consumers how to prevent textile waste.

    In this project, textiles cover both clothes/apparel and household textiles like curtains, bedding and towels. Shoes, fur, leatherware and carpets are not included.

    Waste is defined as all items which people do not  need any longer and which they either intend to get rid of or have already discarded.

    According to the EU Waste Directive, “prevention” means measures taken before a substance, material or product has become waste. Waste prevention is the highest priority in the waste hierarchy according to the directive. Waste prevention is defined as initiatives that reduce: (a) the quantity of waste, including through re-use of products or the extension of the life span of products; (b) the adverse impacts of the generated waste on the environment and human health; or (c) the content of harmful substances in materials and products.

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  • 35. Olsen, Marianne
    et al.
    Petersen, Karina
    Lehoux, Alizee P.
    Leppänen, Matti
    Schaanning, Morten
    Snowball, Ian
    Øxnevad, Sigurd
    Lund, Espen
    Contaminated Sediments: Review of solutions for protecting aquatic environments2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Council of Ministers have recognized the need to compile the knowledge of sediment remediation strategies and to evaluate different remediation approaches. The objective of this report is to give a status of regulatory framework and sediment management within selected Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark). In addition, the report gives a short overview of international knowledge on remediation approaches, techniques, and materials. Governance and regulatory instruments in dealing with contaminated sediments vary between countries. Of the countries presented, only Norwegian environmental authorities have implemented a national strategy for remediation of marine contaminated sediments. A Nordic database of clean-up projects and long-term monitoring would improve the exchange of knowledge between the Nordic countries.

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  • 36. P. Lindberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Tana, Jukka
    Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report.

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  • 37. Palm, David
    et al.
    Elander, Maria
    Watson, David
    Kiørboe, Nikola
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Towards a new Nordic textile commitment: Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project “Towards a new Nordic textile commitment - Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling” initiated by the Nordic Waste Group (NAG). The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.This report summarizes the work carried out in 2013. The four subreports will be the basis for the work to be performed in 2014 with the aim of creating a Voluntary Commitment and a Code of Conduct. The reports for 2013 are:

    • Mapping of current actors in the collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of used textiles and the management of textile wastes

    • Literature review of the traceability of global textile flows.

    • Definition and documentation of operational and best practice standards in the collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of used textiles and management of textile wastes.

    • Comparison with waste management of other waste streams.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 38. Palm, David
    et al.
    Elander, Maria
    Watson, David
    Kiørboe, Nikola
    Salmenperä, Hanna
    Dahlbo, Helena
    Moliis, Katja
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    Valente, Clara
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Tekie, Haben
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Towards a Nordic textile strategy: Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project “Towards a Nordic textile strategy - Collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles” initiated by the Nordic Waste Group (NAG). The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.This report summarizes the work carried out in 2013. The three subreports will be the basis for the work to be performed in 2014. The reports for 2013 are:

    • International market survey of textile flows in the Nordic region and the market for collection, sorting, preparing for reuse, reselling and waste management of textiles.

    • Collection and sorting systems. A total of 19 collection systems are compared for collection flows, contamination levels, cost, suitability of collected textile and availability for the consumer. Four sorting systems are described.

    • Technology review of sorting and recycling of textiles that describes available and future technology.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.norden.org/greengrowth.

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  • 39. Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Fitzgerald, Heli
    Weibull, Jens
    Bjureke, Kristina
    Eisto, Kaija
    Endresen, Dag
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Hyvärinen, Marko
    Kiviharju, Elina
    Lund, Birgitte
    Rasmussen, Morten
    Þorbjörnsson, Hjörtur
    Nordic Crop Wild Relative conservation: A report from two collaborative projects 2015–20192019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarizes results from a cooperation among all the Nordic countries during the period 2015 – 2019 (two projects). The work has focused on the conservation of Crop Wild Relatives (CWR), i.e. wild plant species closely related to crops. They are of special importance to humanity since traits of potential value for food security and climate change adaptation can be transferred from CWR into crops. The projects represent the first joint action on the Nordic level regarding in situ conservation of CWR. Substantial progress has been made regarding CWR conservation planning, including development of a Nordic CWR checklist and identification of suitable sites for CWR conservation. A set of recommended future actions was developed, with the most important one being initiation of active in situ conservation of CWR in all Nordic countries.

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  • 40. Pedersen, Per Henrik
    HCFC phase out in the Nordic countries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AS of January 2015, it is no longer allowed to refill HCFC refrigeration systems in the Nordic countries. This might cause problems for some owners and users of HCFC refrigeration systems if they have not yet planned to install alternative refrigeration systems.This report has been prepared by the Danish Technological Institute in cooperation with Hans Haukås, Norway, for the Nordic Ozone Group under the Nordic Council of Ministers in an effort to ease the final transformation from the use of HCFC to alternative refrigerants and to encourage the use of alternatives that do not harm the environment. The aim of this report is to provide information which can be used to guide the refrigeration industry and the owners and users of HCFC-refrigeration systems. The report also provides examples of how to change to more environmental friendly refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants

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  • 41. Petersen, Karina
    et al.
    Lindeman, Birgitte
    Road to regulation of endocrine disruptors and combination effects2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions regarding regulation of endocrine disruptors (EDs) and combination effects are ongoing in Europe. Among the central topics of discussion are establishment of criteria for identification of EDs, whether there is a threshold for endocrine disrupting effects and how EDs should be handled within relevant EU regulations. In addition, a roadmap for further EU work regarding combination effects has been presented, but more detailed discussions are needed regarding scientific issues and regulatory intervention. Possible Member State initiatives to provide input to these EU processes were discussed in a Nordic workshop held in Oslo in November 2013. This report describes the workshop presentations, initiatives and thoughts from each of the Nordic countries, the plenary discussions, and the main workshop outcomes.

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  • 42. Raudaskoski, Anne
    et al.
    Lenau, Torben
    Jokinen, Tapani
    Gisslén, Anna Velander
    Metze, Anna-Luise
    Designing plastics circulation: electrical and electronic products2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently most electrical/electronic equipment (EEE) is not designed for recycling, let alone for circulation. Plastics in these products account for 20% of material use, and through better design, significant environmental and financial savings could be gained. Technological solutions and circular design opportunities already exist, but they haven’t been implemented yet. Some challenges, such as ease of disassembly, could be resolved through better communication and by sharing learnings across the value chain.Instead of WEEE, we should focus on developing CEEE: Circular Electrical and Electronic Equipment.The case examples of this report show how different stages of the lifecycle can be designed so that plastics circulation becomes possible and makes business sense. It is time to take a leap in material flow management and scale up these circular solutions across the industry.

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  • 43. Straub, Andrea
    Institutions, Livelihoods and the Environment: Change and Response in Mainland Southeast Asia2001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the recent economic crisis, Mainland Southeast Asia continues to experience increasing economic integration of previously isolated rural hinterlands, especially in the upland areas of LAO PDR, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Yunnan in China, where demographic pressure together with the development of infrastructure and increased market-orientation of production combine to bring about significant economic and social change in rural areas. These changes have also led to significant environmental degradation such as deforestation, disturbance of water-flows and depletion of biodiversity resources. These issues and other related ones are addressed in this volume.

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  • 44. Strøm Prestvik, Anne
    et al.
    Kvakkestad, Valborg
    Skutevik, Øystein
    Agriculture and the environment in the Nordic countries: Policies for sustainability and green growth2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future, demand for agricultural products will increase. The agricultural sector must meet the increase in demand without compromising the natural resources of which it depends on and damage fragile ecosystems. Sustainable agricultural practices and green growth is necessary for this to happen and agricultural policy must facilitate such development. How agriculture contributes to water pollution has been in focus in the Nordic countries for many years. In many places, nutrient emissions have been successfully reduces, but targets are still not met. The implementation of the Water Framework Directive makes policies that facilitate reduction of nutrient runoff even more relevant than before. This report looks at experiences from the Nordic countries and makes suggestions for future policies for sustainable agriculture and green growth.The report has been commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The study was carried out by the Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF).

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  • 45. Sundberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Smårs, Sven
    Ruokajätteen kompostoinnin hajuhaittojen minimointi prosessioptimoinnilla: Pohjoismainen yhteistyöprojekti2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Ruokajätteen kompostointi aiheuttaa usein ongelmallisia hajupäästöjä.  Tässä projektissa kehitettiin suositukset hajuhaittojen riskin minimoimiseksi ja tehokkaan prosessin sekä korkean ja tasaisen tuotteen laadun saavuttamiseksi. Kolmea täyden mittakaavan laitosta ja yhtä koereaktoria tutkittiin.  Tulokset osoittavat voimakkaan korrelaation pH:n ja hajuemissioiden välillä, lämpötila ja hajoamisnopeus ovat myös tärkeitä tekijöitä.  Pääsuositus hajuhaittojen vähentämiseksi on prosessin hallinta siten, että pH nousee nopeasti ilman, että lämpötila nousee, joko ilmastuksen avulla taikka lisäämällä kompostia tai korkean pH:n omaavaa puutuhkaa. Vettä voidaan käyttää lämpötilan säätämiseen.  Ruokajätteessä on paljon energiaa ja suuri osa energiasta vapautuu kompostoinnissa.  Jos energiaa käytetään veden haihduttamiseen, komposti pysyy viileänä.  Ruokajätteen sisältämä vesi ei yleensä riitä saamaan aikaan riittävää haihtumista ja viilentämistä.  Sen vuoksi olisi voitava lisätä vettä prosessiin lämpötilan ja pH:n säätämiseksi.

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  • 46. Sørensen, Lise Lotte
    et al.
    Sejr, Mikael K.
    Mørk, Eva Thorborg
    Sievers, Jakob
    Rysgaard, Søren
    Coastal marine uptake of CO2 around Greenland2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas, and particularly the shelf waters around Greenland, are among the highest in the world’s oceans. The driving factors behind the air-sea exchange of CO2 in open waters are the difference between the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the atmosphere and the surface waters, leading to an uptake in areas where the pCO2 of surface waters is lower. Because the coastal area of Greenland is very sensitive to climate change, and because it takes up more CO2 relative to other marine areas, a realistic estimate of the exchange rates is crucial in order to obtain reliable assessments of the CO2 uptake by the Greenlandic coastal area. The results from present study reveal the importance of a diminishing sea ice cover; and it is clear that the wind climate is essential to the surface uptake of CO2.

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  • 47. Urho, Niko
    Possibilities of enhancing co-operation and co-ordination among MEAs in the biodiversity cluster: Environment/Biodiversity2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1970s, a variety of multilateral environmental agreements have been created to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. However, these institutions have not been created systematically, but rather on an ad hoc basis as different aspects of biodiversity loss have come to the centre of international concern. Consequently, this has led to the inability of the current institutions to address biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in a coherent and effective manner. In this report an initial biodiversity cluster is outlined and 12 recommendations are provided for enhancing synergies between the MEAs in the cluster. Most importantly, the report shows that the contracting parties of the MEAs in the biodiversity cluster need to work more closely together to indentify synergistic solutions that meet national needs. The report also highlights that it is not sufficient alone to make existing institutions work more closely together, but points out a missing institutional structure that needs to be addressed. An independent science policy platform is required to provide the MEAs in the biodiversity cluster with timely and scientifically credible advice for achieving more coherent and effective decision-making.

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  • 48. Watson, David
    et al.
    Kiørboe, Nikola
    Palm, David
    Tekie, Haben
    Harris, Steve
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Lindhqvist, Thomas
    Lyng, Kari-Ann
    EPR systems and new business models: Reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the primary outcome from Part I of the project “An extended producer responsibility (EPR) system and new business models to increase reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region” initiated by the Nordic Waste Group (NAG). The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014. This report summarizes the work carried out in 2013 and is presented in three sub-reports:

    • Survey of existing EPR-systems and business models – Relevant types of EPR models and business models with potential for increasing recycling and reuse of textiles are identified and briefly described.

    • Evaluation of eight EPR-systems and business models – Eight of the models identified in Report 1 are described in more detail, including a first qualitative evaluation.

    • Costs and benefits of EPR-systems and two business models – Four of the eight models described and qualitatively evaluated in Report 2 are selected for a more quantitative evaluation of costs and benefits.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.norden.org/ greengrowth

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  • 49. Weaver, Fran
    Nordic action on climate support2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This fact sheet illustrates the extensive climate support provided by the Nordic Countries for developing countries, which includes various kinds of grants, loans and guarantees, as well as vital technical assistance.

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  • 50. Zepernick, David
    et al.
    Schouenborg, Katrina Feilberg
    Lindegaard, Sarah
    Jensen, Mathias Wulff
    Communication handbook: Changing consumer behaviour towards increased prevention of textile waste2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Communication handbook - low or no budget ideas on how to communicate key messages regarding the prevention of textile waste

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