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  • 1. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 2.
    Asdal, Åsmund
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Brodal, Guro
    Norwegian Insititute of Bioeconomy Research, NIBIO.
    Solberg, Svein Øivind
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Yndgaard, Flemming
    von Bothmer, Roland
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Meen, Eivind
    Kimen Seed Laboratory.
    Seed Longevity and Survival of Seed Borne Diseases after 30 Years Conservation in Permafrost: Report from the 100 Year Storage experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Gene bank established the 100 year seed storage experiment in Coal mine no. 3 outside Longyearbyen in 1986. Security duplicate samples of the Nordic seed collection had been deposited in permafrost in the coal mine since 1984. 

    The experiment was established with the aim to monitor the longevity of seeds in this Nordic back-up seed collection and to gain general knowledge about the longevity of seed stored under permafrost conditions, as well as studying the survival of seed borne plant pathogens.

    The experimental set up included in total 41 seed lots of 17 agricultural and horticultural crop species commonly grown in the Nordic countries. The seed germination experiment included two or three varieties of each crop. The experimental part dedicated to studies of pathogen survival included seeds from 11 crops naturally contaminated by pathogens.

    The test program comprises germination and pathogen survival tests every 2.5 years during the first 20 years and then every 5 years for the last 80 years. In total 25 identical sets of test seeds placed in sealed glass tubes were packed in wooden boxes, one box for each planned test year.

    The tests have been carried out according to schedule and this report sums up the results from the first 30 years of the experiment. All tests have been carried out in accordance with the same ISTA-protocols.

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  • 3.
    Asdal, Åsmund
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    von Bothmer:, Roland
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brodal, Guro
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, NIBIO.
    Carlson-Nilsson, Ulrika
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Diederichsen, Axel
    Plant Gene Resources of Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
    T.F. Endresen, Dag
    University of Oslo.
    Engels, Johannes M.M. Engels
    Bioversity International.
    Hägnefelt, Annette
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    El-Khalifeh, Mohammad
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Knüpffer, Helmut
    Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK).
    Loskutov, Igor G.
    N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR) and St. Petersburg State University.
    Lundqvist, Udda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Meen, Eivind
    Kimen Seed Laboratory.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Palmé, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Solberg, Svein Øivind
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Svensson, Jan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Tigerstedt, Peter M.A
    Helsingfors University.
    Weibull, Jens
    Jordbruksverket.
    Yndgaard, Flemming
    Former employee at the Nordic Genebank.
    Yndgaard, Flemming (Editor)
    Former employee at the Nordic Genebank.
    40 Years of Nordic Collaboration in Plant Genetic Resources2019 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The current book is a celebration of 40 years of Nordic collaboration on plant genetic resources. International perspectives are highlighted and the first chapter is written with input from Axel Diederichsen from Plant Gene Resources of Canada and Igor G. Loskutov from the N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), and the chapter traces lines back to the pioneers and with a specific focus on Vavilov and how he had influenced scientists in the Nordic countries. Roland von Bothmer and Peter Tigerstedt give an overview of the Nordic plant breeding and genetic resources. Jens Weibull discusses the role of NGB (and NordGen) in the European genebank collaboration. A special section is given to a historical recap of how NGB worked with the Gatersleben gene bank in the early 1980s, at a time when computers were large and collaboration with GDR was not straight forward for western countries, and this section is written with inputs from Jan Engels (former Bioversity International) and Helmut Knüpffer (former IPK Gatersleben). The data management systems at NGB and NordGen are discussed by inputs from Dag Endresen (former IT leader at NGB, now at University of Oslo). We also have chapters on the collaboration with VIR and the Baltic States, the 100-years experiment on seed longevity in permafrost, and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Regarding the collections, Roland von Bothmer gives the story of the international Hordeum and Triticeae project and Udda Lundqvist of the Swedish Barley Mutant Collection. The celebration book is finished by chapters on the NordGen's Plant Genetic Resource Collection of today with perspectives on conservation and use, amongst others the ongoing Public-Private Partnership project, written by the current staff at the genebank and Anders Nilsson at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp. A special thanks to Helmut Knüpffer, Kit Lundborg, Roland von Bothmer and Sara Landqvist for their comments and proof-readings of this book.

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  • 4. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

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  • 5. Bager, Simon L
    et al.
    Dinesh, Dhanush
    Olesen, Asger S
    Richards, M
    Guizani, Sara
    Andersen, S. P
    Agriculture initiatives and COP22: A step towards fighting climate change2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Against the backdrop of population increase, changing dietary patterns, increased affluence and rising demands on land for the generation of biofuels, agricultural productivity is required to increase significantly in the coming years. This increase will take place in a context of constrained resources and a changing global climate requiring increased adaptive capacity and increased resilience of agricultural systems. At the same time, agricultural activities are contributing significantly to climate change, with agricultural production and the food supply chain being responsible for up to a third of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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  • 6.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Asli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS FORMATION: The potential of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper describes the state of play of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) by examining EU and national policy contexts and by highlighting good practices of local food initiatives in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Belarus. The working paper investigates the key drivers and factors impeding the development of these initiatives. The working paper is based on desk studies, input received during meetings with stakeholders and researchers from the BSR, and interviews with good practice initiators in 2016–17. This working paper is one output of the Local food: Formation of local food markets project financed by the Swedish Institute. The overall aim of the project was to strengthen co-operation and to build knowledge of local food system formation by various actors working on rural development issues in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Another objective of the project was to investigate and share good practices in building, shaping, reproducing and promoting alternative food networks and markets over time and space in the BSR countries (Sweden, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Belarus).

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  • 7. Cederberg, Dorthe Licht
    et al.
    Ekroth, Susanne
    Engman, Joakim
    Fabech, Bente
    Guðjónsdóttir, Katrín
    Håland, Julie Tesdal
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg
    Kostaomo, Pirkko
    Legind, Charlotte
    Mikkelsen, Bjørg
    Ólafsson, Grímur
    Svensson, Kettil
    Food contact materials - metals and alloys: Nordic guidance for authorities, industry and trade2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals and alloys are widely applied as food contact materials, e.g. as process equipment in the food industry and as household utensils. Therefore, they are a potential source of food contamination. Migration of substances from food contact materials to food must not occur in amounts that endanger human health. Relevant for food contact materials made from metals and alloys are the migration (release) of metals, both the main components and foreseen impurities.

    In-house control based on a declaration of compliance, DoC, and supporting documentation at the producers and importers are important prerequisites to limit this contamination and to ensure compliance with the legislation. This is considered a general part of quality assurance, even though the European legislation does not specifically require a DoC for metals and alloys used as food contact materials.

    This Nordic guideline gives a short overview of toxicology, analytical feasibility, legislation and guideline values for release of metals from food contact materials. Therefore, the guideline will be a useful tool for industry and official food inspectors.

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  • 8. Dankel, Dorothy
    et al.
    Haraldsson, Gunnar
    Heldbo, Jesper
    Hoydal, Kjartan
    Lassen, Hans
    Siegstad, Helle
    Schou, Mogens
    Sverdrup-Jensen, Sten
    Waldo, Staffan
    Ørebech, Peter
    Allocation of Fishing Rights in the NEA: Discussion paper2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper aims to initiate an informed debate in the Nordic countries and elsewhere on how to allocate the trans-boundary fish stocks in the North East Atlantic in the future and how to resolve possible allocation conflicts. The paper maps the current legal framework and international fisheries agreements in the North East Atlantic Ocean which forms the basis for allocation agreements. It considers the relevance of the biological status of the fish stocks and the economic situation of the coastal states in the area for the allocation of fishing rights and further proposes a dynamic allocation methodology and a decision making process including the handling of allocation conflicts. The paper is compiled by an inter-disciplinary Nordic group of fisheries experts.

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  • 9. Forslund, Linus Carlsson
    et al.
    Andersson, Hans Christer
    Phytoestrogens in foods on the Nordic market: A literature review on occurrence and levels2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may bind to estrogen receptors, but with less affinity than the natural ligand estradiol. They may be biologically active as such or after metabolization in our body. To investigate the occurrence and level of phytoestrogens, scientific literature was screened for data on isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans in raw and processed foods of plant origin. The review presents data based both on analytical methods hydrolysing glucosides and non-destructive methods.Many phytoestrogens are phytoalexins. Their production is induced when plants are exposed to abiotic and/or biotic stress. This could explain the rather different levels reported in plants by various investigators, and indicates that many samples are required to describe the levels generally occurring in foodstuffs. The influence of food processing was also considered.

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  • 10. Franke, Ulrika
    et al.
    Hartikainen, Hanna
    Mogensen, Lisbeth
    Svanes, Erik
    Food losses and waste in primary production: Data collection in the Nordic countries2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has resulted in a suggested definitional and methodological framework for future food waste studies in primary production. It has also resulted in a first attempt to quantify food waste in primary production in the Nordic countries. The project was focused on primary production in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. One purpose has been to test adequate methods for collecting data on food losses and waste from primary producers in the Nordic countries. Another purpose was to estimate the amount of food losses and waste in primary production in the Nordic Countries. In order to collect data and quantify food losses and waste in primary production it was necessary to work on these definitions or possibly introduce new, more useful terms. Thus this project involved defining terms, developing methodologies and quantifying data.

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  • 11.
    Friis Proschowsky, Gunnar
    et al.
    Danish Nature Agency.
    Rusanen, Mari
    Luke.
    Tollefsrud, Mari Mette
    NIBIO.
    Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn
    Icelandic Forest Service.
    Kroon, Johan
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden.
    Black-Samuelsson, Sanna
    Swedish Forest Agency.
    Fjellstad, Kjersti Bakkebø
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Solvin, Thomas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Hagalid, Birgit
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Genetic Conservation of Forest Trees in the Nordic countries2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of conservation of forest genetic resources is widely recognized and efforts are needed on national, Nordic, European and global levels. The Nordic countries cooperate on exchanging information for the conservation of forest genetic resources through NordGen Forest, under the Nordic Genetic Resource Centre.

    The forest genetic resources are valuable at many levels and are critical for long-term forest sustainability in a changing climate. Consequently, the present and future human use of the ecosystem services provided by the forests depends on the genetic resources. The key objective of genetic conservation is to maintain the adaptive diversity of forest tree populations. Genetic diversity ensures that forest tree populations, and consequently species, adapt to and evolve under changing environmental conditions. Genetic diversity also provides resilience to pests and diseases, and by this maintains forest vitality.

    The aim of this report is to highlight the status of forest gene conservation in the five Nordic countries, how the conservation of forest genetic resources is implemented, as well as strengths and challenges ahead. The report focuses mainly on in situ conservation of forest trees, based on the agreed minimum requirements within the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN). Other types of gene conservation are described in general and are addressed for some countries, but not in a systematic comparative way and the level of detail may vary among countries. The commitments to implement the FAO Global Plan of Action for Forest Genetic Resources and the Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees lie at the national level.

    Countries in the Nordic region do however support and complement each other when it comes to conserving genetic diversity. There is a need to further develop the European work at the Nordic and national level, including the development of more specific climatic zoning to assess the genetic diversity conserved. There is also a need for a systematic evaluation of how the so called Genetic conservation units (GCU) established under the European programme cover the species genetic diversity in the Nordic region. Evaluation, identification of conservation gaps, as well as characterisation of genetic variation captured by the GCU units, could be further developed in cooperation on a Nordic level.

    There is a question whether traditional in situ conservation efforts are enough to secure the genetic resources against future challenges, including climate change and pests and diseases. Cryo preservation and assisted migration have been mentioned as additional measures for some genetic resources at stake. The question on how to proceed and make the work as resilient as possible for the future, needs to be discussed at a Nordic and European scale.

    This document has been developed by the NordGen Forest Working Group on Genetic Resources, together with the secretariat of NordGen Forest .

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  • 12. Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Nilsson, Christer
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic network ERMOND, Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters, reviewed information on natural hazards and ecosystem conditions in the Nordic countries. Many natural hazards put pressure on Nordic societies, primarily floods, landslides, storms, snow avalanches and volcanic activity. Intensified land use and predicted climate change are likely to increase the impacts of natural hazards in the future. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural hazards. Our study showed, however, that degradation of natural habitats in the Nordic countries may have reduced or even seriously damaged this ability. Nordic disaster risk reduction policies and strategies should recognize this situation and place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management in the Nordic countries.

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  • 13. Halloran, Afton (Editora jefa)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editore)
    Persson, Marie (Editore)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editore)
    Menú de Soluciones: Una guía nórdica para políticas alimentarias sostenibles2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Por primera vez se reúnen en un mismo documento las soluciones de política alimentaria más innovadoras de la región nórdica. Este Menú de Soluciones abarca nutrición, cultura e identidad alimentarias, comida y alimentación públicas, desperdicio de alimentos y dietas sostenibles. Incluye 24 ejemplos de políticas locales, nacionales y regionales diseñadas para suscitar nuevas conversaciones e inspirar nuevas políticas en otras partes del mundo. Cada una de las soluciones supone un paso tangible para abordar un problema específico; en su conjunto, representan un enfoque nuevo e integral a la política alimentaria. También dan testimonio de cómo las políticas blandas pueden traducirse en soluciones y desempeñar un importante papel en la consecución de objetivos ambiciosos a nivel nacional e internacional.

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  • 14. Halloran, Afton (Lead Editor)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Dreamer's Guide: An abridged version of the Solutions Menu: A Nordic guide to sustainable food policy2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    What is the best way to make sure that all children have equal access to nutritional food? What are the best ways to instil a greater sense of food culture and identity and what societal benefits can it bring? What is the best way to transition to diets that are better for us and for the health of the planet? One approach is through food policy.

    Read on, find inspiration and get in touch to share your ideas and your own policy solutions!

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  • 15. Halloran, Afton (Lead Editor)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Solutions Menu - A Nordic guide to sustainable food policy2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, the most innovative food policy solutions in the Nordic Region have been brought together in a single document. The Solutions Menu includes 24 policies that aim to change food consumption and intends to inspire new and robust policy responses to the societal and environmental challenges caused by our current food systems.

    The Solutions Menu is produced by the Nordic Food Policy Lab, one of six flagship projects under the Nordic prime ministers’ Nordic Solutions to Global Challenges initiative.

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  • 16. Halloran, Afton
    et al.
    Persson, Marie
    Joining Forces: Takeaways from the Designing Your Menu of Food Policy Solutions2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This brief is a detailed account of some of the discussions that took place during the ‘Designing your menu of food policy solutions for sustainable diets policy lab’ at the EAT Stockholm Food Forum in 2018. Continue reading to understand how ‘stubborn optimists’ are creating tangible solutions to complex global challenges.

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  • 17. Halloran, Afton
    et al.
    Persson, Marie
    Wickramasinghe, Kremlin
    Iley, Roberta
    Kale, Maija
    Penney, Tarra
    In the spirit of collaboration: Transforming Baltic diets2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory multi-stakeholder processes are an indispensable part of food system transformation. However, bringing diverse groups of people together is no easy task. During the “Towards healthy and sustainable food systems in the Baltic region” workshop held in Riga from 27 February to 1 March 2019, a group of determined and energetic stakeholders took stock of various perspectives and initiatives using a systems approach.

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  • 18. Hellsten, Sofie
    et al.
    Dalgaard, Tommy
    Rankinen, Katri
    Tørseth, Kjetil
    Kulmala, Airi
    Turtola, Eila
    Moldan, Filip
    Pira, Kajsa
    Piil, Kristoffer
    Bakken, Lars
    Bechmann, Marianne
    Olofsson, Stina
    Nordic nitrogen and agriculture: Policy, measures and recommendations to reduce environmental impact2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have, during the last 20 years, introduced efficient measures to reduce nitrogen losses to the environment. Still, nitrogen losses from the agricultural sector are high. In this report we provide recommendations on strategies and policy instruments to achieve cost effective abatement of reactive nitrogen from agriculture in the Nordic countries.This report is based on a literature review. Additional input was also obtained from discussions at a workshop held in Gothenburg in January 2017. The workshop made it possible for experts from the four Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to come together and discuss and compare policies and mitigation measures regarding nitrogen and agriculture. During the workshop we identified a number of policy challenges, policy actions and also knowledge gaps where further research is needed.

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  • 19. Hermansen, John E.
    et al.
    Kristensen, Troels
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Woodhouse, Anna
    Pulkkinen, Hannele
    Møller, Hanne
    Life cycle inventory data from farms: Need for secondary and life cycle inventory data for use in Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) of livestock products in The Nordic Countries2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Sustainable Production and Consumption strategy, The European Commission is establishing the framework for a harmonised assessment of the environmental impact of products (PEF) based on a life cycle approach. This also includes methodologies for foods, including livestock products. The farming stage is by far the largest contributor to the environmental profile of such foods, so it is important to have sound data representing this stage. This report identifies in a Nordic context what primary farm activity data that is perceived relatively easy to collect and what supplementary data and life cycle inventory analysis data (LCI) that are needed. It is concluded that there is in particular a need for LCI’s for feeds produced in the Nordic countries and for recruitment animals in different livestock systems, and a relevant granularity for such datasets are proposed.

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  • 20. Hivos and the Nordic Food Policy Lab of the Nordic Council of Ministers,
    Democratising good food: Mapping Sustainable, Inclusive and Healthy Gastronomy Initiatives2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Who are the people behind sustainable, inclusive and healthy gastronomy initiatives around the world? How do these frontrunners operate? What results are they achieving? What can we learn from these initiatives?In this brief, we will answer these questions and present a preliminary global mapping of sustainable gastronomy initiatives.

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  • 21. Huda, Anna
    et al.
    Landeg, Fred
    Westergaard, Jørgen M.
    Exercise Pegasus 2017: Report on an African horse sickness simulation exercise conducted in 2017 and involving Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an acute insect-borne viral disease of horses and other equines causing depression, respiratory and circulatory impairment. The mortality rate may approach 100%. The disease is transmitted by midges. In 2007–2009 midges caused the spread of bluetongue in cattle and sheep in Northern Europe. The midges are also the main vector and transmitter of AHS and the disease may occur in horses in the Nordic Baltic region during summer or early autumn. Contingency plans covering AHS have been adopted by the Nordic Baltic countries. This report provides information on the preparatory work and the conduct of a simulation exercise. The aim of the exercise included testing of National AHS contingency plans and of the communication systems established between veterinary authorities in the Nordic and Baltic countries for animal disease emergencies.

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  • 22. Huda, Anna
    et al.
    Westergaard, Jørgen
    Animal Health Contingency Planning: The proceedings of a Seminar on Animal Health Contingency Planning in the Nordic – Baltic Countries, 12 – 13 October 2016, Vilnius, Lithuania2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contingency planning in the area of animal health is all about preparing for threats and outbreaks of exotic disease, i.e. a disease not present in the country. The objective of contingency planning is to encourage livestock keepers, producers and manufacturers of food and feed, veterinarians in the private and public sector and relevant governmental institutions to think about major contingencies and possible response. The planning involves the development of contingency plans based on the four pillars: prevention, preparation, response and recovery and the conduct of simulation exercises.This report presents an overview of contingency planning related to animal diseases, preparedness for natural disasters, experiences gained from outbreaks of African swine fever in Baltic and Eastern European countries and contains the Memorandum of Understanding on a Nordic-Baltic Animal Health Emergency Reserve and on Nordic- Baltic Veterinary Contingency Planning Studies.

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  • 23. Høst, Jeppe
    et al.
    Christiansen, Jens
    Nordic fisheries in transition: – future challenges to management and recruitment2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades Nordic countries have been implementing quota markets and similar instruments to manage mainly the economic performance of their fisheries. Coming from a historical situation dominated by owner-operated fishing units closely connected to their supporting communities, market-based fisheries manage-ment plays a role in promoting company-organised fishing units, non-fisher owner-ship and new social relations. Introducing market-mechanisms to distribute the lim-ited marine resources is therefore not just a change in the technical regulation. It is an active engagement in social change. The publication reviews the Nordic experiences with market-based fisheries management and discusses the implications for managers and future recruitment.

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  • 24. Høst, Jeppe
    et al.
    Hultman, Johan
    Säwe, Filippa
    Salmi, Pekka
    Manniche, Jesper
    Holland, Emil Bæk
    Nordic fisheries at a crossroad2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic fisheries at a crossroad explores how Nordic small-scale fisheries can develop to promote high value creation and product specialization. By looking at recent developments among small-scale but land-based food producers we suggest specialization and dedication as the main development strategies. The central notion is to break away from the price-competitive globalised fish markets and develop new products or distribution models. To succeed in this, there is a need for substantive and coordinated efforts to bridge the gap between conventional logics and the new development logics, between supply and demand. The vision should be to develop viable and composite markets for high quality and specialty fish products through dedication and specialization. Markets that go beyond the local and reach supermarkets and consumers on a national and international scale.

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  • 25. Jensen, Anders Vestergaard
    et al.
    Craig, Nic
    Wood in Construction - 25 cases of Nordic Good Practice2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Building with wood has an untapped potential to transform the construction industry and create the next generation of low-carbon and healthy buildings. The Nordics, with an abundance of sustainably managed forest resources and a long history of building in wood, are well placed to lead in this construction revolution. Across the wood in construction value chain, from forestry and processing, through production and design, to construction and decommission, the Nordic region is innovating to build bigger and more sustainably with wood than ever before.

    This publication features 25 Nordic cases from across the value chain working with wood in exciting and innovative ways. These projects demonstrate the benefits and drivers for building with wood, and provide inspiration for architects, land managers, city planners, designers, suppliers and many more. The 25 cases point to five trends within Nordic wood in construction that paint a picture of where the industry is headed: 1) multifunctionality; 2) saving time and costs; 3) investing in scalability; 4) pushing the boundaries; and 5) circular design.

    The team behind this report – the Nordic Wood in Construction Secretariat – is an initiative commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Swedish Government, and hosted by EIT Climate-KIC. The secretariat’s aim is to support and accelerate the use of wood in Nordic construction through a portfolio of projects, fostering greater dialogue, knowledge-sharing and collaboration between stakeholders from the private sector, public sector, and academia.

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  • 26. Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    Röös, Elin
    Sjunnestrand, Tove
    Pira, Kajsa
    Larsson, Malin
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Veistola, Tapani
    Rantakokko, Jaana
    Manninen, Sirkku
    Brubæk, Stein
    Future Nordic Diets: Exploring ways for sustainably feeding the Nordics2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Farming is the foundation of our food system. While the prerequisite for farming is a clean environment and a diverse nature, agriculture is currently the cause of major environmental problems, including greenhouse gas and nitrogen emissions. The challenge to protect our environment and feed the world sometimes seem insurmountable, but solutions might be just around the corner. This report describes two food system scenarios for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, where the majority of food is produced within the region using organic farming practices and where livestock is mainly fed on grass and by-products not suitable for human consumption. The results show that we could feed the projected Nordic population in 2030 on organic food, mostly grown within the region, while reducing the climate and nitrogen footprints of our food system.

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    Errata
  • 27.
    Kettunen, Anne
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Berg, Peer
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NordGen.
    Faroese Horse: Population status & conservation possibilities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Faroese horse (Føroysk Ross) is an integral part of agricultural history on the Faroe Islands. There is no unambiguous evidence of the origins of the Faroese Horse. It is believed, though, that the Faroese horse was brought to the islands by Celtic or/and Scandinavian settlers approximately 500-800 AD.

    Molecular genetic studies have indicated the closest genetic relationship with the Icelandic horse. Influences from Dartmoor and Exmoor ponies are also likely. Traditionally Faroese horses were kept free ranging in the mountains, and only gathered and brought to the villages when there was a need for transporting heavy goods. After finishing their duties, the horses were again turned out without supplemental feeding. This semi-domestic management contributed to the Faroese horse developing into a small, strong and feed efficient horse with a compact body and strong legs and hoofs, well adapted to the climate, terrain and vegetation. The population size of the Faroese horse was likely 600 to 800 individuals at its highest.

    Mechanisation of agriculture and heavy exportation of Faroese Horses to the British Isles as mining ponies resulted in a drastic decrease in population size. Currently a small population of Faroese horse exists on the Faroese Islands, which stems from a few horses born between the 1940s and 1960s. Today, the Faroese horse is used for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to conduct a pedigree analysis of the current population of the Faroese horse, as well as to describe the possibilities for a sustainable management of the breed by using optimal contribution selection (OCS).

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  • 28. Kortesoja, Anna
    et al.
    Bröckl, Marika
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Kontiokari, Venla
    Halonen, Mikko
    Nordic Best Practices: Relevant for UNEP 10YFP on Sustainable Buildings and Construction and Sustainable Food Systems2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The working group on Sustainable Consumption and Production, under the Nordic Council of Ministers requested consultants from Gaia to identify and write out best Nordic practice cases of sustainable consumption and production to be shared internationally within the UNEP SCP Clearinghouse. This report is the third part of three reports and covers 15 examples of two particular themes on:

    1) Sustainable Buildings and Constructions

    2) Sustainable Food Systems

    The cases have also been added into the UNEP’s 10 Year Frame-work Program (10YFP) information platform, the SCP Clearinghouse. The objective is to enhance international cooperation in order to accelerate a shift towards sustainable consumption and production in developed and developing countries. The SCP Clearinghouse is a web-based information sharing tool, which can be used as an inspiration for advancing SCP worldwide.

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    Accelerated action for sustainable consumption and production – Nordics share over 50 best practices
  • 29. Krul, Kees
    Preserving Bang Krachao’s Green Space through Agriculture2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 2, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl brings about considerable changes in the peripheral areas of the city. Rich in many vegetation types, mangrove forests, and agricultural plots, Bang Krachao is one of the largest remaining green areas in the proximity of Bangkok. This area is currently under threat as Bangkok’s urban sprawl has not gone without effect in Bang Krachao: green areas are diminishing due to an increased developmental interest in the area together with a growing number of residents. This essay examines the role of the agricultural sector in persevering the remaining green spaces by employing a SWOT-analysis. Findings show that despite a number of weaknesses and threats, there are several important opportunities the sector can capitalize on. Corresponding initiatives are suggested that help to preserve the remaining green spaces and at the same time enhance Bang Krachao’s agriculture sector. Without new initiatives to reverse urban sprawl, it is likely that the ‘green lung of Bangkok’ will be filled with more concrete and asphalt.

  • 30. Lindahl, Elisabet
    et al.
    Westergaard, Jørgen M.
    Biosecurity and livestock production: The proceedings of a Nordic-Baltic seminar on biosecurity highlighting experiences gained in livestock production, and future challenges with special reference to motivation, training and economic aspects, 6–8 May 2014, Rimbo, Sweden2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosecurity is important for a healthy livestock production; it may be defined as the prevention of disease causing agents entering or leaving any place where livestock including poultry are present. A number of biosecurity measures are available to minimize the risk of introducing and of spreading diseases of which some are zoonotic; i.e. diseases transmissible between animals and humans.

    This report provides information on biosecurity measures safeguarding animal health and animal welfare and it highlights topics such as barriers and motivation to  biosecurity, training and education, value of partnership and economy.

    Broadly speaking biosecurity describes the process and objective of managing biological risks associated with food and feed production in agriculture and fisheries.

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  • 31. Løtvedt, Siri M.
    et al.
    Lounela, Hanna
    Kristian, Maarja
    Westergaard, Jørgen M.
    Animal by-products in contingency planning: The proceedings of a Nordic-Baltic Mini-seminar on handling of animal by-products and other products in relation to outbreaks of serious transmissible diseases 8 – 9 May 2019, Tallinn, Estonia2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Veterinary contingency planning in the Nordic-Baltic countries aims to prepare national veterinary administrations and stakeholders to respond speedily and effectively to emergency situations caused by contagious animal diseases. Such diseases may have a disastrous impact on the livelihood of people working in the livestock sector and related industries. The Nordic and Baltic countries have by large adopted very similar guidelines for the development of animal health contingency plans; guidelines based on the four pillars: disease prevention, preparatory arrangements, response and recovery. This report contains information on the conduct of a Nordic-Baltic mini-seminar on the handling of animal by-products and other products in relation to outbreaks of serious transmissible diseases.

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  • 32. Løtvedt, Siri M.
    et al.
    Oļševskis, Edvīns
    Westergaard, Jørgen M.
    Veterinary Contingency Planning: The Proceedings of a Nordic-Baltic Seminar on contingency planning with focus on vaccination, animal welfare, wildlife and costs,  3-4 October 2018, Riga, Latvia2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Veterinary contingency planning in the Nordic-Baltic countries aims to prepare national veterinary administrations and stakeholders to respond speedily and effectively to an emergency situation caused by highly contagious trans-boundary viral diseases such as avian influenza, foot and mouth disease, and African swine fever. Diseases having a disastrous impact on the livelihood of people working in the livestock sector and related industries.The Nordic and Baltic countries have by and large adopted very similar guidelines for the development of animal health contingency plans; guidelines based on the four pillars: disease prevention, preparatory arrangements, response and recovery.This report contains information on the conduct of a Nordic-Baltic seminar and the recommendations adopted by the seminar participants; the seminar had focus on vaccination, animal welfare, wildlife and costs.

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  • 33. Løtvedt, Siri
    et al.
    Westergaard, Jørgen M.
    TROUT 2013 - simulating VHS outbreaks: Report on Exercise TROUT 2013 - Implementation of and activities related to a Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) simulation exercise for the Nordic and Baltic Countries conducted 4th - 5th December 2013, Bergen, Norway2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish diseases are a major concern for aquaculture where fish are commercially reared. In the Nordic-Baltic countries aquaculture is currently taking place in freshwater fish farms and in marine fish farms. A range of viral diseases can cause devastating losses to fish rearing and wild fish stocks. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) – also known as “Egtved disease” - is a viral fish disease which affects a large number of freshwater and marine fish. The rainbow trout is very susceptible to the disease.

    This report provides information on the preparatory work and the conduct a simulation exercise code-named “TROUT 2013”. The aim of the exercise was to test National VHS Contingency Plans.

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    Attachment: Viral Haemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS): clinic, virus and distribution
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    Attachment: Regulations
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    Annex 5
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  • 34. M. Martin, Susan
    The UP Saga2003Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Histories of the plantations sector in Malaysia have largely focused on the rubber industry and on the rise and fall of big British-owned colonial enterprises. But since independence, the sector has entered a new phase of spectacular growth founded on the oil palm. This volume offers a radically different history of a firm which spans both eras. The fascinating story of United Plantations Berhad (UP) highlights a Scandinavian-founded firm that evolved along quite different lines from the normal models of British imperial business. Tracing the company’s origins before the First World War, it describes the crisis years of economic depression and Japanese occupation then on to the years of spectacular growth which has lasted since the time of the Emergency and Merdeka right up to the present day. The success of this firm - based not just on an extraordinary combination of agricultural, engineering and marketing innovation but also on the company’s engagement and commitment to its local environment - provides a glowing example of a partnership between Europeans and Asians which has benefited both sides.

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  • 35. M. Westergaard, Jørgen
    Contingency Planning for Animal Diseases: Baltic Seminar on "Contingency Planning for the next Decade" held 19 - 20 September 2012 Helsinki, Finland2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outbreaks of infectious animal diseases within the last 10-15 years in areas with intensive livestock production have shown how vulnerable the production systems can be when confronted with an outbreak of a highly infectious disease such as avian influenza, foot and mouth disease or classical swine fever. The veterinary administrations of the Nordic and Baltic countries have established contingency plans; the objectives of the plans include:

    - to protect animal and human health

    - to minimize economic loss for the livestock sector and the society as a whole

    - to minimize damage to the environment.

    This publication provides information on measures to be considered in contingency planning; the measures take into account:

    - the pre-epidemic period; disease prevention

    - the epidemic period; disease eradication

    - the post-epidemic period; regaining of animal health status.

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  • 36. M. Westergaard, Jørgen
    Wildlife and Infectious Animal Diseases: The Proceedings of a Nordic –Baltic seminar on the role of the wildlife as reservoir and /or spread of infectious animal diseases in the coastal areas of countries bordering the Baltic Sea 2 – 3 October 2013, Gdansk, Poland2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many infectious diseases of domestic animals and humans have reservoirs in wild animals. One of these diseases is rabies which worldwide causes more than 55,000 deaths pr. year. Climatic changes, human population growth, certain livestock production systems and continued globalization enhance the interface between wildlife, domestic animals and man. The wildlife component of this triad has received inadequate attention in the past to effectively protect man, livestock, poultry and pet animals. The seminar held in Gdansk, Poland 2–3 October 2013 highlighted how the wildlife has high economic, ecological, social and cultural value for the coastal areas bordering the Baltic Sea and how it contributes to recreation. Nevertheless, the wildlife plays also an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and thereby the need for focus on disease surveillance and control measures.

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  • 37. Magnussen, Kristin
    et al.
    Hasler, Berit
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Ecosystem Services: In Nordic Freshwater Management2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed.

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  • 38. Matthiessen, J
    et al.
    LF, Andersen
    HE, Barbieri
    K, Borodulin
    VK, Knudsen
    Kørup, K
    Thorgeirsdottir, H
    E, Trolle
    Fagt, S
    The Nordic Monitoring System 2011–2014: Status and development of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and overweight2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results of the first and second collection of data in the joint Nordic Monitoring System of diet, physical activity and overweight. It is well recognized that health in the European Region needs to be improved and Nordic public health researchers have since 2008 developed and validated a Nordic method to assess diet and physical activity among adults and children. Data has collected on health behaviour and overweight in 2011 and 2014 among 18,000 adults and 5,000 children. During the three year survey period, significant changes have occurred in the Nordic countries, especially among adults. The Nordic Monitoring System shows that lifestyle and weight status differ between the Nordic countries despite highly comparable societal structures. Favorable and unfavorable health behaviour is present in all countries and there are areas to be improved in all countries.

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  • 39. Mortensen, Stein
    et al.
    Dolmer, Per
    Naustvoll, Lars-J.
    Laugen, Ane Timenes
    Policy Brief: Stillehavsøsters – en ny nordisk fødevareressource og et grundlag for turisme2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Siden 2007 har stillehavsøsters etableret stabile bestande i skandinaviske farvande. Arten anses som fremmed og invasiv, og er således uønsket. Kompakte bestande kan forårsage ændringer i bundforholdene. Den er dog også en af verdenens vigtigste akvakultur-arter, og der er en voksende interesse i, at bruge de skandinaviske bestande som en ny marin ressource. Der er behov for en bedre forståelse af, hvordan østersen påvirker økosystemet, samt bestands- og spredningsmodeller. Stillehavsøsters i Skandinavien åbner muligheder for nye, kommercielle aktiviteter, inklusiv turisme. For at frigøre det kommercielle potentiale er der behov for en afklaring af flere juridiske forhold såvel som etablering af en forvaltningspraksis for sikker høst og markedsføring af stillehavsøsters. Fødevarekontrol bør også være på plads, for at garantere at kun sikre og sunde østers kommer på markedet.

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  • 40. Mortensen, Stein
    et al.
    Dolmer, Per
    Strand, Åsa
    Naustvoll, Lars-J.
    Laugen, Ane Timenes
    Policy Brief: Stillahavsostron – en ny nordisk livsmedelsresurs och underlag för turism2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stillahavsostronet har sedan 2007 etablerat sig i de nordiska kustvattnen. Arten anses som främmande, invasiv och därmed oönskad. Täta bestånd kan leda till ändringar i bottenhabitat. Samtidigt är detta en av världens största odlingsarter, och det blir gradvis större fokus på att den också är en resurs. Bättre kunskap behövs om ostronets effekter på ekosystemen samt utveckling av bestånds- och spridningsmodeller. Inom utvecklingen av företagsverksamhet med fokus på ostron ser vi framför oss ett samspel mellan olika sektorer som turism, gastronomi, hotellverksamhet etc. För att kunna realisera den kommersiella potentialen är det viktigt att utreda egendomsrätten till resursen och etablera en förvaltning som möjliggör skörd och omsättning av ostron. Mattrygghet är ett prioriterat område som är viktigt för konsumenternas tillit till ostron och för att säkra trygg och hälsosam sjömat.

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  • 41. Mortensen, Stein
    et al.
    Dolmer, Per
    Strand, Åsa
    Naustvoll, Lars-J.
    Laugen, Ane Timenes
    Policy Brief: Stillehavsøsters - en ny nordisk matressurs og grunnlag for turisme2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Stillehavsøstersen har siden 2007 etablert seg i våre kystfarvann. Arten er regnet som fremmed, invasiv og således uønsket. I områder hvor det etablerer seg tette bestander kan disse føre til endringer i bunnhabitatet. Samtidig er stillehavsøstersen en av verdens største oppdrettsarter, og det blir gradvis større fokus på at de nordiske bestandene også er en ressurs. For å kunne utløse det kommersielle potensialet er det behov for bedre forståelse av østersens effekt på økosystemet, samt avklaring av en rekke juridiske forhold, og etablering av en forvaltningspraksis som gjør det mulig å høste og omsette nordiske stillehavsøsters. Produksjonsmetoder og kontrollfunksjoner som garanterer mattryggheten må også på plass, slik at stillehavsøstersen som sendes ut på markedet aldri inneholder toksiner eller sykdomsfremkallende virus og bakterier over faregrensene.

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  • 42. Mortensen, Stein
    et al.
    Dolmer, Per
    Strand, Åsa
    Naustvoll, Lars-J.
    Laugen, Ane Timenes
    Policy Brief: The Pacific oyster – a new Nordic food resource and a basis for tourism2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Pacific oyster has established populations in Scandinavian coastal waters. The species is considered alien and invasive and dense populations may cause changes in benthic habitats. It is, however, one of the world’s most important aquaculture species, and there is a growing interest in using the Scandinavian populations as a new marine resource.

    To release the commercial potential, there is urgent need for a better understanding of the oyster’s effect on the ecosystem and a clarification of legal matters, as well as establishment of management practices for harvesting and marketing these oysters.

    This Policy brief gives a summary of the status for the Pacific oyster in Scandinavia and presents recommendations for the future work and management of Pacific oysters in the Nordic countries.

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  • 43. Mortensen, Stein
    et al.
    Strand, Åsa
    Dolmer, Per
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Naustvoll, Lars J.
    Høsting av stillehavsøsters2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten utreder sentrale spørsmål og fagområder knyttet til høsting av stillehavsøsters, som fremmed art og ny ressurs. Arten har etablert seg i nordiske kystfarvann. Den er regnet som invasiv og tette bestander kan føre til endringer i økosystemet. Arten kan ikke utryddes, og ryddekampanjer har kun lokal og tidsbegrenset effekt. Fjernede østers bør brukes, som mat, fôr eller industriprodukt, slik at vi sikrer en god ressursutnyttelse. Vi trenger kunnskap om stillehavsøstersens effekt på økosystemet, utbredelse og effektene av høsting og rydding. Som grunnlag for høsting og bruk er det behov for avklaring av juridiske forhold og etablering av en hensiktsmessig forvaltningspraksis. Kontroll av mattryggheten må også på plass. I næringsutviklingen ser vi for oss et samspill mellom ulike sektorer, som salg av lokale østers og østersprodukter, turisme, restaurantnæring og overnatting.

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  • 44.
    Nielsen, Max
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Hoff, Ayoe
    University of Copenhagen.
    Nielsen, Rasmus
    University of Copenhagen.
    Andersen, Peder
    University of Copenhagen.
    Waldo, Staffan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Lund University.
    Hammarlund, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Lund University.
    Kristófersson, Daði Már
    University of Iceland.
    Sævaldsson, Hordur
    University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Virtanen, Jarno
    Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Setälä, Jari
    Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Roll, Kristin
    University of South-Eastern Norway.
    Asche, Frank
    University of Florida, USA.
    Rógvi, Heri á
    Ministry of Fisheries Faroe Islands.
    Ellefsen, Hans
    Ministry of Fisheries Faroe Islands.
    Structural Adjustment and Regulation of Nordic Fisheries until 20252018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishery policies are broadly debated in the Nordic countries, focusing on balancing biological concern of fish stocks, economic return to society and coastal communities’ interests. Market Based Fisheries Management is used in several Nordic countries today and is the core of these debates. While it by many is considered a powerful tool that works towards ensuring improved economy of fisheries, it is also considered a controversial tool. This report “Structural Adjustment and Regulation of Nordic Fisheries until 2025” document the effects of Marked Based Management of selected Nordic fisheries, forecast the structural development of these until 2025 under the current alternative fishery management. Nordic lessons on Market Based Fisheries Management are also provided as a basis for the political debate on the future of Nordic Fisheries.

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  • 45. Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Bothmer, Roland von
    Johanesson, Torfi
    Nybom, Hilde
    Bendevis, Mira Arpe
    Bengtsson, Therese
    Rognli, Odd Arne
    Promoting Nordic Plant Breeding: PPP Public Private Partnership for Pre-breeding2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of PPP for Pre-breeding, development, present status and the way forward are described in this booklet. The success of the PPP is based on:

    • Pooled public funding

    • Participation from plant breeding companies

    • Engagement from research environments

    • 50/50-funding between public sources and industry

    The history of PPP for Pre-breeding has been a success and this booklet reveals some cases from the fruitful collaborations. The Nordic Council of Ministers is proud to have initiated the PPP for Pre-breeding and we are grateful to the partners, who have contributed to the process: plant breeding companies, universities, NordGen and governments of the Nordic countries, which have decided to continue funding the project. It is vitally important to continue this work because plant breeding is a long term process. There is no finishing line – only the way forward.

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  • 46. Nilsson, Kristian
    Alkaline fens: Valuable wetlands but difficult to manage2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkaline fens are species rich wetlands that today are threatened. Nature conservation officers and experts of alkaline fens from Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden visited alkaline fens in Sweden and Finland to discuss the current situation. Restoration and management can be expensive and there is a need to find more appropriate ways to manage and restore alkaline fens.

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  • 47. Oddsdottir, Edda Sigurdis
    Selfoss Declaration Achievements Report2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report reflects on the achievements of the Selfoss Declaration on sustainable forestry in the Nordic region, made in 2008 by the Ministers of Forestry in the Nordic countries and the following reccommendations on how to implement the intention of the declaration. The question is, did the forestry sector focus on the resolution acknowledged by the forestry ministers in the Declaration, and furthermore, how did it affect the forestry sector in the Nordic countries. The Selfoss Declaration initiated a lot of activities, financed with funds from the Nordic Council of Ministers and incisive actions in organizing the forest research cooperation across national boundaries within the Nordic neighbouring countries. Based on this experience, it seems important that the forestry ministers continue to take an active part in visualizing where Nordic cooperation should head in the future.

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  • 48. Ogeya, Mbeo
    et al.
    Nyambane, Anne
    Wanjiru, Hannah
    Technical report: Nordic Green to Scale for countries: Unlocking the potential of climate solutions in Kenya and Ethiopia2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Green to Scale for countries zooms in on two regions: Kenya and Ethiopia in East Africa and the Baltic States, Poland and Ukraine in Europe. This report presents the emission reduction potential of 10 selected solutions for the African target countries. The study highlights the costs, savings and co-benefits of implementing the solutions as well as makes policy recommendations for capturing the potential. The technical analysis was conducted by Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre in close collaboration with African organisations and networks on key environmental and development issues. The project was carried out by the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, together with partners CICERO, CONCITO and Institute of Sustainability Studies at the University of Iceland. The project is part of the Nordic Council of Ministers' Prime Ministers’ Initiative Nordic Solutions.

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    Errata
  • 49. Ogmundsson, Hilmar
    Workshop om fiskeriafgifter i Vestnorden: 18-19. oktober 2016, Reykjavik, Island2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    De vestnordiske fiskeriforvaltninger står overfor og gennemgår aktuelt store og gennemgribende revisioner af landenes fiskerilove og -forvaltning. Spørgsmålene, som revisionerne omfatter, er økonomisk tung og politisk sensitive, hvilket gør, at forvaltningerne står over for krav om at levere de forvaltningsmæssigt rigtige løsninger. Formålet med at opkræve afgifter fra fiskeriet er at sikre en optimal udnyttelse af fiskeressourcerne. Denne rapport er fra en Vestnordisk workshop II, gennemført med midler fra Nordisk Ministerråds fiskerisamarbejde. Rapporten beskriver workshoppens debat om, hvorledes renten i fiskeriet skal beregnes; Hvor stor ressourcerenteafgift opkræves i de forskellige lande?; Hvad har ændret sig i landenes måde at beregne og opkræve fiskeriafgifter på?; Hvordan skal ressourcerenten fastsættes i praksis og hvordan kan man beregne et maksimalt afgiftstryk fra fiskeriet.

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  • 50. Papineschi, Joe
    et al.
    Hogg, Dominic
    Chowdhury, Tanzir
    Durrant, Camilla
    Thomson, Alice
    Analysis of Nordic regulatory framework and its effect on waste prevention and recycling in the region2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At an important time in Nordic Waste Policy, as the 2018 Circular Economy Package makes significant updates to key European Union directives, this work looks back at the Nordic regulatory framework for waste from the 1970s and its effect upon waste prevention and recycling.At an important time in Nordic Waste Policy, as the 2018 Circular Economy Package makes significant updates to key European Union directives, this work looks back at the Nordic regulatory framework for waste from the 1970s and its effect upon waste prevention and recycling.

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