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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TILLIT – DET NORDISKA GULDET2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om social tillit i de nordiska samhällena. Norden har högst nivåer av social tillit i världen. Detta gynnar såväl samhällsekonomin som individer och samhället i dess helhet. Rapporten diskuterar bakgrunden till att den sociala tilliten blivit så hög i Norden samt vilka utmaningar som den står inför.

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  • 2.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TRUST – THE NORDIC GOLD2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns social trust in the Nordic countries. The Nordic region has the highest levels of social trust in the world. This benefits the economy, individuals and society as a whole. This report discusses the background to why social trust has reached such high levels in the Nordic region, and the present day challenges it is facing.

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    Доверие – золото Северной Европы
  • 3.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Refsgaard, Karen
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randbøll Wolff, Mads
    Transition to a bioeconomy in Northwest Russia: current potential and challenges2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a bioeconomy is at the forefront of the national and regional agendas of many European countries. Yet, little is known about the status and the institutional and policy frameworks for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia. This policy brief aims at increasing the understanding of the opportunities and challenges for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia by drawing upon lessons learned from bioeconomy case studies in the Republic of Karelia, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk oblasts.

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    Nordregio PB 2019:11 bioeconomy
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  • 4.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Trubin, Alexey
    Transition to a bioeconomy in Northwest Russia: regional cases of the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a bioeconomy is at the forefront of the national and regional agendas of many European countries given not only its potential to counter climate change through replacing goods and services currently produced using fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources, but also the new economic activities in and around the rural regions it stimulates (Refsgaard et al., 2018). However, there is relatively little known about the status and institutional and policy frameworks for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia.

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of and institutional framework for a bioeconomy in the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast. The study identifies some of the main support mechanisms and incentives, as well as the potential and challenges, for bioeconomy development in these regions today and in the future. This study, which was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2018–2019, Kicking off the Bioeconomy in the North, draws upon the lessons learned from the study financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2018, ‘Forest and Waste-based Bioeconomy in the Arkhangelsk region’ (Berlina and Trubin, 2018).

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  • 5.
    Boussauw, Kobe
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Van Meeteren, Michiel
    Loughborough University.
    Sansen, Joren
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Meijers, Evert
    Delft University of Technology.
    Storme, Tom
    Ghent University.
    Louw, Erik
    Delft University of Technology.
    Derudder, Ben
    Ghent University.
    Witlox, Frank
    Ghent University.
    Planning for agglomeration economies in a polycentric region: Envisioning an efficient metropolitan core area in Flanders2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 69, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To some degree, metropolitan regions owe their existence to the ability to valorize agglomeration economies. The general perception is that agglomeration economies increase with city size, which is why economists tend to propagate urbanization, in this case in the form of metropolization. Contrarily, spatial planners traditionally emphasize the negative consequences of urban growth in terms of liveability, environmental quality, and congestion. Polycentric development models have been proposed as a specific form of metropolization that allow for both agglomeration economies and higher levels of liveability and sustainability. This paper addresses the challenge of how such polycentric development can be achieved in planning practice. We introduce ‘agglomeration potential maps’ that visualize potential locations in a polycentric metropolitan area where positive agglomeration externalities can be optimized. These maps are utilized in the process of developing a new spatial vision for Flanders’ polycentric ‘metropolitan core area’, commonly known as the Flemish Diamond. The spatial vision aspires to determine where predicted future population growth in the metropolitan core area could best be located, while both optimizing positive agglomeration externalities and maintaining its small-scale morphological character. Based on a literature review of optimum urban-size thresholds and our agglomeration potential maps, we document how such maps contributed to developing this spatial vision for the Flemish metropolitan core area.

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  • 6. Bratsberg, Bernt
    et al.
    Raaum, Oddbjørn
    Røed, Knut
    Åslund, Olof
    Forslund, Anders
    Liljeberg, Linus
    Sarvimäki, Matti
    Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Niknami, Susan
    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor
    Kaarsen, Nicolai
    Vasiljeva, Kristine
    Ruist, Joakim
    Damm, Anna Piil (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Åslund, Olof (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Nordic Economic Policy Review: Labour Market Integration in the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What can we learn from each other and others? Since the mid-eighties the Nordic countries have received a high influx of refugees relative to the population size. Currently these countries receive large numbers of refugees, notably from the Middle East. Existing studies exploiting the rich administrative registers in the Nordic countries have shown that the speed of labour market assimilation of immigrants from non-Western countries in the Nordic welfare states is slow. However, few studies distinguish between refugees and non-refugee immigrants from Non-Western countries.

    Contents

    • Foreword by Anna Piil Damm and Olof Åslund
    1. Immigrant labor market integration across admission classes (Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum, and Knut Røed)
    2. Labour market integration of refugees in Denmark (Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen)
    3. Labor market integration of refugees in Finland (Matti Sarvimäki)
    4. Labour market entry of non-labour migrants – Swedish evidence (Olof Åslund, Anders Forslund, and Linus Liljeberg)
    5. The School Achievements of Refugee Children: Lessons from Sweden (Hans Grönqvist and Susan Niknami)
    6. Does reduced cash benefit worsen educational outcomes of refugee children? (Kristian Thor Jakobsen, Nicolai Kaarsen, and Kristine Vasiljeva)
    7. The fiscal impact of refugee immigration (Joakim Ruist)
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  • 7. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Sand, Henrik
    Adenfelt, Maria
    Engström, Daniel
    Stavlöv, Ulrika
    Berninger, Kati
    Mehammer, Bernt Sverre
    Møller, Kirsten
    Locomotive business: How can large companies be the catalyst for SMEs in exporting cleantech?2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores how public sector support promotes the locomotive model, which is understood as partnerships between locomotive companies and SMEs in order to facilitate export of cleantech and system solutions. Support structures vary a lot among the Nordic countries. A main observation is that the various programmes in all Nordic countries had little information on the impacts of the instruments. Some suggestions for policy makers in the Nordic countries are offered, now with an understanding of the interaction between large businesses and SMEs, which wish to export clean technologies. The project was carried out from May 2014 to December 2014 by a consortium led by COWI with FORES, Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum and Tyrsky Consulting as partners. The Nordic Council of Minister's Working Group on Sustainable Consumption and Production initiated and financed the project.

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  • 8. Bøegh Nielsen, Peter
    Scale-ups in the Nordics 20172019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The publication Scale-ups in the Nordics 2017 is supplementing and updating the first statistics on Nordic scale-ups, Scale-ups in the Nordics – statistical portrait 2008-2016, produced by the national statistical institutes in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and co-funded and published by Nordic Innovation May 2019. The publication introduces a new and enlarged definition of scale-ups, as enterprises showing high turnover growth are included in the definition of scale-ups supplementing the population of enterprises with high employment growth. The traditional definition focuses on employment growth only.

     

    The publication is based on harmonised national databases holding statistical information at enterprise level from statistical registers covering variables from structural business statistics, business register, international trade in goods and business demography.

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  • 9. C. Hoadley, Mason
    Southeast Asian - Centred Economies or Economics?1999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is not a definitive research statement nor yet another account of Asia's financial crisis. Rather, it offers Southeast Asian perspectives quite at variance to orthodox Western economic thinking.

    Topics range from macro perspectives of Indonesia's Economi Pancasilaand Thailand's Buddhist Economics, through Malaysia's Islamic financial institutions, to regional and international perspectives of the remaining ASEAN countries and the IMF/World Bank, all tied up by setting them within a diachronic, historical framework. In so doing, this volume looks to open up challenging and provocative fields of research essential for a real understanding of Southeast Asia and it's current economic standing.

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  • 10. Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Hassler, John
    Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Silbye, Frederik
    Sørensen, Peter Birch
    Carlén, Björn
    Kriström, Bengt
    Greaker, Mads
    Golombek, Rolf
    Hoel, Michael
    Holtsmark, Katinka
    Nordic Economic Policy Review 2019: Climate Policies in the Nordics2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The articles in the 2019 Nordic Economic Policy Review analyse how the Nordic countries best can contribute to international climate policy. The articles cover topics such as: How can the Nordics help raise the ambitions in the Paris Agreement? What is the effect of national policy on emissions regulated by the EU Emissions Trading System? Would it be cost-effective for the Nordic countries to pay for emission reductions elsewhere to a larger extent? What role should be played by subsidies to green technology? Should Norway put more emphasis on supply-side policies, that is, on limiting future extraction of oil and gas?

    The volume contains five papers with associated comments which were originally presented at a conference in Stockholm on 24 October 2018.

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  • 11. Egholt Søgaard, Jakob
    et al.
    Roine, Jesper
    Robling, P-O
    Pareliussen, Jon
    Orsetta, Causa
    Lindgren, Petter
    Langørgen, Audun
    Hermansen, Mikkel
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Calmfors, Lars
    Boschini, Anne
    André, Christophe
    Aaberge, Rolf
    Nordic Economic Policy Review 2018: Increasing Income Inequality in the Nordics2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions document how income inequality in the Nordics in various dimensions have increased over recent decades. These developments are put in an international context. Developments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are compared. Important aspects analysed in detail are overall inequality of both market and disposable incomes, the redistribution through the tax and transfer system as well as through the provision of government welfare services, the importance of demographic factors, the developments of both relative poverty and top income shares, and gender inequality.

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  • 12. Hojem, Petter
    Mining in the Nordic Countries: A comparative review of legislation and taxation2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few years have seen a lot of activity within the Nordic mining industry. New mines have opened, but there have also been cases of bankruptcies. Heightened activity has in turn led to discussions on the role of legislation and taxation in ensuring that mining contributes to sustainable development. At the same time, a number of voluntary sustainability initiatives have appeared.

    For historic reasons, the Nordic countries share a lot of similarities with regards to legislation. And not least with regards to environmental laws, the EU has contributed to further harmonisation, even among the non-member states Iceland and Norway. Yet important differences exist. Legal revisions are sometimes the result of much-publicised problems, so experiences in each country plays an important role.

    An overview of taxation also indicates both similarities and differences.

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  • 13. Hughes, Caroline
    et al.
    Un, Kheang
    Cambodia's Economic Transformation2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2002, Cambodia underwent a visible economic transformation driven largely by such external factors as increased Chinese demand for primary commodities and a strong international demand for Cambodian garments. Apart from dramatic rates of economic growth, the boom involved the disappearance of forests and the decline of logging, the inflow of Chinese investment and the rise of indigenous capital, and the increased significance of remittances from garment workers and labour migrants. In addition, the impact of government policies on land registration and concessions transformed relations of production and, with them, the socio-economic and political environment in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Cambodia’s Economic Transformation examines the political economy of the Cambodian boom, analysing the changing structure of the economy, the relationship between state and market, and outcomes for the poor. Not least, it focuses the role of the state in facilitating and controlling the market, and the way that this has affected the life chances of the poor. In so doing, it situates Cambodian experience within key debates in the wider political economy of Eastern Asia, scrutinizing the relationship between class formation, structures of governance and resource distribution. The analysis gives rise to a deeper understanding of the nature of the market as it has emerged in Cambodia over the past decade, and the prospects for how much the poor might be able to constrain tendencies towards a disproportionate accumulation of wealth by the Cambodian elite.

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  • 14.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kristensen, Iryna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Green transition in Nordic regions: State of play, practices and needs2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting green transition and building greener economies is currently high on the policy agenda in the Nordic countries. But how can we make it happen in practice? To answer this question, Nordregio went directly to those working with green growth at the regional level. We asked them about the main challenges that impede green growth in Nordic regions, and sought their ideas about potential ways to overcome these challenges and drive the green transition forward. These responses were then combined with the findings from a national policy review to inform a detailed analysis of the state of play, practices and needs of Nordic regions with respect to promoting green growth. This policy brief presents the findings of this analysis along with recommendations designed to support regional policy makers in their work towards a greener economy.

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  • 15. Jordal-Jørgensen, Jørgen
    et al.
    Kveiborg, Ole
    Friis-Jensen, Sandra
    CO2 emissions and economic incentives: Recent developments in CO2 emissions from passenger cars in the Nordic countries and potential economic incentives to regulate them2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CO₂ emissions from passenger cars is declining. Some changes are due to ever improved technology provided by car manufacturers and others induced by political regulation. The report investigates the recent changes in CO₂ intensity in the car fleets in the Nordic countries. The trends in the car sales are presented and the impacts on overall CO₂ intensity are outlined. All Nordic countries have in the past ten years changed the national regulation of passenger cars through different economic incentives and various schemes making low emissions vehicles more favourable. The report describes these changes and complement with an overview of international empirical findings concerning the main tax instruments (purchase-, annual-, fuel tax and road user charges). The potential impact of these taxes are reviewed and recommendations for future uses of the various instruments are provided.

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  • 16. Kirketerp, Anne
    et al.
    Bak, Margrete
    Buus, Marianne
    Entreprenørskab og foretagsomhed i de kunstneriske uddannelser i Norden2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Denne rapport, udført af Kirketerp, Buus og Bak for KreaNord i 2011, ønsker at bidrage til, at studerende på de kunstneriske uddannelser i Norden styrkes i deres forudsætninger for at kunne omsætte deres kreative og kunstneriske kompetencer til et bæredygtigt arbejdsliv. Rapporten er rettet mod besluttende myndigheder, uddannelsesansvarlige og undervisere og kan styrke både interesse og viden, samt motivere handling. Rapporten giver definitioner indenfor entreprenørskab, metoder, cases, samt en model, som beskriver handlingsmål og tilrettelæggelse i entreprenørskabsundervisning.

    Genudgivet i 2015 i forbindelse med afviklingen af KreaNord, Nordisk Ministerråds initiativ om kulturelle og kreative erhverv (2008–2015).

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  • 17. Klar, Markus
    et al.
    Rumar, Karin
    Ramström, Frida
    Nordic project on enforcement of internet trade2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from enforcement on e-commerce show that products bought directly from companies outside EU had more than double the amount of non-compliances compared to products bought from companies within EU. In a joint Nordic enforcement project, 361 products from 161 companies were controlled if they fulfilled relevant chemical legislation. The Nordic inspectors checked articles (like toys), biocides, chemical products, cosmetic and hygienic products and plant protection products. The results show a higher rate of non-compliance for products bought directly from companies outside the EU (78 % compared to 32 %). These companies may not consider themselves responsible for that the products comply with chemical legislation in the EU. Almost all EU companies were responsive and communicative and removed non-compliant products or changed incorrect information on their website.

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  • 18. Kovsted, Jens
    et al.
    Rand, John
    Tarp, Finn
    From Monobank to Commercial Banking: Financial Sector Reforms in Vietnam2004Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the difficulties and problems encountered in transforming the Vietnamese financial sector from one subordinate to government objectives and goals to an autonomous sector guided by market forces and competitive pressures. Here, the history of financial sector liberalization is traced and close attention paid to the activities and autonomy of the State Bank of Vietnam, the institution responsible for the supervision and regulation of the financial sector in Vietnam.

    Overall, the authors argue that ensuring a timely, fair and transparent supervision and regulation of the financial sector is of central importance to financial sector development and stability. Liberalizing financial markets is not solely a question of limiting and/or restricting government influence but may in fact involve the opposite, the influence and power of supervisory and regulatory institutions in many cases needing to be strengthened.

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  • 19.
    Leino, Johanna
    et al.
    Development Director at the Baltic Institute of Finland.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Moodie, John
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Smart Specialisation in the Baltic Sea Region: Good practices from the Bio-, Circular- and Digital Innovation project BSR Stars S32019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief summarizes the key activities and learnings of the BSR Stars S3 - Smart Specialisation through Cross-sectoral Bio-, Circular- andDigital Ecosystems project 2016-2019. The project focused on how to engage business and research actors in the implementation of smart specialisation. This information is essential for public and private sector actors looking for new ways to improve regional innovation capacity and form inter-regional value chains within shared focus areas in the Baltic Sea Region.

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  • 20. McVey, Ruth
    Money and Power in Provincial Thailand2000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of Southeast Asian economic change have focused on growth in a few big cities with studies of the countryside tending to concern themselves with the social and environmental impact of metropolitan growth. Very few analysts have looked at the middle distance between metropolis and countryside. This is the horizon and focus of this volume, spurred by recent developments in Thailand.

    In the past decade, the rise of a frequently violent competition for business and political leadership in the Thai provinces – an arena of growing national importance – has drawn attention to how these centres are being transformed by capitalist development. Promising to be a classic in its field, this volume does much to aid our understanding of this transformation.

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  • 21.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Salenius, Viktor
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Leino, Johanna
    The Baltic Institute of Finland.
    Industrial Symbiosis in the Baltic Sea Region: Current Practices and Guidelines for New Initiatives2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) is vitally important in facilitating the move towards a circular economy by helping industries and businesses cooperate in the exchange of natural resources and production infrastructures. Strong public and private sector leadership and firm links between industry and research institutes are essential for the formulation of effective IS initiatives. 

    This policy brief examines three good practice examples of IS from the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) and outlines practical guidelines for public authorities and business development organisations on how to develop and implement IS ecosystems. This research is based on the activities and experiences of a project, BSR Stars S3, which was financed by the EU Interreg Baltic Sea Region and focused on BSR cooperation within the bio- and circular economy.

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    PB 2019:1 Industrial Symbiosis
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  • 22.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rinne, Tuulia
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Inclusive Digitalization in the Baltic Sea Region: An Instrument for Growth and Development in Declining Rural Areas?2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief examines whether inclusive digitalization is an important instrument for promoting regional growth and development in struggling rural areas in the Baltic Sea region. The brief highlights the potential benefits that digitalization can bring and the challenges faced in implementing an effective digital agenda in rural areas. The brief also provides key recommendations identifying possible initiatives and policies that may help local businesses achieve successful digital transformation. These recommendations are based on learnings and best practices from digitalization initiatives conducted in rural areas around the Baltic Sea region.

    This policy brief is a part of BSR Stars S3 (Smart specialization in bio-, circular and digital economy in the Baltic Sea Region) project which seeks to enhance growth opportunities in the Baltic Sea Region, focusing on the bio-/circular and digital economy fields. Read more: www.bsr-stars.eu/bsr-stars-s3

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  • 23.
    Mäenpää, Antti
    et al.
    University of Vaasa.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    In Search of Domains in Smart Specialisation: Case Study of Three Nordic Regions2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 68, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has promoted regional smart specialisation strategies for some years, and several studies on this topic have focused on key concepts such as the entrepreneurial discovery process and good implementation practices. However, the definition and the role of the domain in regional smart specialisation settings is largely missing, despite it being an important outcome of a successful entrepreneurial discovery process. This article aims to fill this research gap by establishing what a domain entails as a theoretical concept, its role in the entrepreneurial discovery process and how it has featured in regional smart specialisation strategies. Our study analyses and compares three smart specialisation strategies in the Nordic regions of Lapland (Finland), Värmland (Sweden) and Nordland (Norway), focusing on the understanding and adaptation of the domain concept. The results indicate that the regions have managed to establish domains, even though the concept itself has not been adopted in the regions because of insufficient clarification of the term.

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  • 24. Nielsen, Max
    et al.
    Nielsen, Ayoe Hoff Rasmus
    Waldo, Staffan
    Blomquist, Johan
    Asche, Frank
    Bergesen, Ole
    Viðarsson, Jónas R.
    Sigurðardóttir, Sigridur
    Sveinþórsdóttir, Ragnheiður
    Employment and salary of Nordic coastal fishermen2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishers are often perceived to be poor, and low income levels are used to justify subsidies and other types of direct and indirect income support to maintain coastal communities. In this study we investigate fishers’ income levels in four Nordic countries; Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for different types of fishers and vessels and in comparison to alternative occupations. The most important result is that fishers in these countries are doing relatively well, and only in Sweden is the fishers’ average income level below the average national income. Within the fleets, there are substantial differences. Owners of coastal vessels tend to have the lowest income, and also lower than crews. Owners as well as crews on larger vessels tend to do much better and in the largest fishing nations, Iceland and Norway, very well.

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  • 25.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 1 2017: Innovation and governance2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News focuses on innovation and governance. What are the key issues in innovation policies and how should they be considered in governance? We view this from different perspectives, with a common focus on the interests of people, their institutions and the knowledge they bring to the table.

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  • 26. Rebien, Claus C.
    Effekten af nordiske projekter: En udredning af udvalgte projekters gennemførsel og effekt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Projektaktiviteterne under Nordisk Ministerråd er omfattende, og projekt- og programlignende aktiviteter udgør over halvdelen af budgettet. Nordisk Råds Kontrolkomite har på den baggrund igangsat en udredning af udvalgte projekters gennemførelse og effekt. Udredningen omfatter projekter inden for miljø- samt social- og sundhedsområdet (afsluttet i perioden 2011-2013). Udredningen har særlig fokus på a) projekternes nordiske nytteeffekt, b) eventuel politisk opfølgning og c) hvordan resultaterne og de positive effekter er gjort synlige og tilgængelige for offentligheden.

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  • 27. Rebien, Claus C.
    Pohjoismaisten hankkeiden vaikutus: Selvitys hankkeiden toteutuksesta ja vaikutuksesta2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston projektitoiminta on mittavaa, ja projekti- ja ohjelmatoiminnan osuus budjetista on yli puolet. Pohjoismaiden neuvoston tarkastuskomitea on käynnistänyt tämän nojalla selvityksen tarkastelun kohteeksi valittujen hankkeiden toteutuksesta ja vaikutuksesta. Selvityksen kohteeksi on valittu ympäristöalan sekä sosiaali- ja terveysalan hankkeita (jotka ovat päättyneet kaudella 2011–2013).

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  • 28. Ronnås, Per
    et al.
    Ramamurthy, Bhargavi
    Entrepreneurship in Vietnam: Transformation and Dynamics2000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The private small-scale manufacturing sector has emerged as a key actor in the development of the Vietnamese economy since the launching of market-oriented reforms (doi moi) in the late 1980s. Yet little has been known about the nature and dynamics of this sector during this crucial period.

    The lack of hard data on these developments is addressed in the present study, which draws on a comprehensive survey in 1991 of some 1,000 non-state manufacturing enterprises, a repeat survey in 1997 of some 400 of the same enterprises and a parallel survey in the same year of a further 500 enterprises not previously surveyed. The result is an in-depth analysis of the development and transformation of the private manufacturing sector in Vietnam during the first decade of doi moi.

    The study describes the considerable consolidation seen in this sector in the past decade in terms of size, capital intensity and labor productivity, and in this regard it notes that this process has been accompanied by a sharp reduction in regional differences. This transformation has taken place through two parallel processes: first, through the appearance of new enterprises that are fundamentally different from previously established enterprises and, second, through growth and transformation of the existing enterprises. Following a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the enterprises in 1997, these two processes are analyzed in detail, while the last part of the book is devoted to separate analysis of the ‘losers’ and the ‘winners’.

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  • 29. Rosholm, Michael
    et al.
    Svarer, Michael
    Nordic Economic Policy Review: Consequences of youth unemploymentand effectiveness of policy interventions2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Economic Policy Review – NEPR – is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers and addresses policy issues in a way that is useful for informed non-specialists as well as for professional economists. All articles are commissioned from leading professional economists and are subject to peer review prior to publication. The review appears twice a year. 

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  • 30. Rönnlund, Ida
    et al.
    Pursula, Tiina
    Bröckl, Marika
    Hakala, Laura
    Luoma, Päivi
    Aho, Maija
    Pathan, Alina
    Pallesen, Bodil E.
    Creating value from bioresources: Innovation in Nordic Bioeconomy2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to identify the innovation-oriented challenges as well as areas with high growth potential within the Nordic bioeconomy. The study produced background data concerning the volume and constituents of bioeconomy in the Nordic countries using NACE codes. According to the estimate, the total turnover of the key bioeconomy sectors in Nordic countries is roughly 184 000 M€, this is 10% of the total economy. Key findings from the business ecosystem analysis show that market access is the key step to successful bioeconomy innovation, along with end user involvement and utilization of existing infrastructure. Areas within bio-based chemicals, biomaterials, biofules and bioenergy, biorefineries, resource-efficiency and industrial symbiosis and services based on ecosystem services havehigh innovation and growth potential of bioeconomy.

    The obstacles of innovation in Nordic bioeconomy are lack of capital and funding, unstable operating environment due to changing regulation, market access and lack of number of actors involved in the ecosystems. Areas for further development to better tackle the identified obstacles include networking and developing a common understanding of the roles of different stakeholders, making processes for seeking support and financing easier for SMEs and promoting cross-sector transfer of existing or new applications for existing processes. Venture capitalists should be included in the networks to ensure they are better able to recognize the potential of commercial viable bioeconomy concepts. More focus may also be needed to link the support to finding commercially viable applications with the markets and customers.

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    Creating value from bioresources - Innovation in Nordic Bioeconomy
  • 31. Salminen, Vesa
    et al.
    Halme, Kimmo
    Härmälä, Valtteri
    Mini-evaluation of the Nordic Scalers Programme: Final Report2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 32.
    Stopniece, Santa
    University of Jyväskylä.
    “Opportunities, but Nothing Very Concrete”: The Challenge Finns Face with Chinese Delegations’ General Level of Interest in Finland2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the challenge of finding common ground between the Finns and the Chinese in the context of co-operation, trade and inward investment facilitation related to general lack of specific interest displayed by the Chinese. The article is ethnographic in nature and is mainly based on data obtained from interviewing individuals working for local governments in Finland and one of the state agencies responsible for attracting foreign investment. The study uses Speech Codes Theory (Philipsen, 1997) when analyzing the cultural aspects of expectations regarding communication between Chinese and Finns. According to interviewees, lack of serious interest, vague government guidelines, the longer time needed to build relationship, and involvement of intermediaries all contribute to the difficulty to move the discussions to a more specific level of focus. Finnish expectations regarding this type of communication are that it should be direct and task-oriented, because they feel pressure to yield real results quickly and efficiently. Suggested strategies to make the co-operation talks more specific are presenting the expertise areas of Finland, clarification regarding too general terms used by the Chinese, and investing into building personal relationships with them.

  • 33.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2014: Bioeconomy and Regional Economic Development2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the Icelandic Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers has put bioeconomy at the top of the Nordic political agenda, stating that the Nordic countries have excellent potential for creating a sustainable bioeconomy, with positive effects on regional development. There are three arguments behind this statement. First, the Nordic countries are rich in biotic natural resources. Second, they have well-functioning institutions and well-developed cross-border co-operation. Finally, they have the requisite competence and research capacity. In this issue of Nordregio News, we look at the current situation regarding the bioeconomy in the Nordic countries.

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    Nordregio News 2014 4
  • 34.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lundgren, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Salenius, Viktor
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ålands strukturfonds-program 2014–2020: Utvärderarnas andra delrapport per 31.12.20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten innehåller andra delrapport per 31.12.2018 av utvärderingen av de europeiska regional- och socialfondernas gemensamma operativa program på Åland för perioden 2014–2020. Bakom programmet står två olika EU-fonder med delvis olika krav på de av programmet (med-) finansierade verksamheterna. De förenas dock i ambitionen att i enlighet med Unionens övergripande mål om smart och hållbar tillväxt för alla utveckla och stärka företagande, innovationskapacitet, social integration, arbetsmarknad och miljö på Åland.

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  • 35. Turnell, Sean
    Fiery Dragons: Banks, Moneylenders and Microfinance in Burma2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book tells the story of Burma’s financial system – of its banks, moneylenders and ‘microfinanciers’ – from colonial times to the present day. It argues that Burma’s financial system matters, and that the careful study of this system can tell us something about Burma – not least about how the richest country in Southeast Asia at the dawn of the twentieth century, became the poorest at the dawn of the twenty-first.

    While financial systems and institutions matter in all countries, the book argues that they especially count in Burma. Events in the financial and monetary sphere have been unusually, spectacularly, prominent in Burma’s turbulent modern history. From the Chettiars and the alienation of the land, to the backlash against the foreign moneylender. From the great state banks of the democracy years, to the Orwellian ‘people’s banks’ of the Burma way to socialism. From Burma’s bizarre demonetization experiences, to the rise and crash of the entrepreneurial bankers. And from the money launderers to the practitioners of microfinance. The story of Burma’s financial system and its players is one that has shaped the country. It is a dramatic story, and it is an important story.

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  • 36. Åstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Hallin, Göran
    Strömblad, Johan
    Utvärdering av KreaNord: Nordiska ministerrådets initiativ för kulturella och kreativa näringar 2008–20152015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    KreaNord kom till år 2008 som en del av Nordiska ministerrådets globaliseringsarbete, med syftet att utveckla och profilera Norden som en arena för kreativa näringar. KreaNord har sedan dess etablerat ett tvärsektoriellt policysamarbete mellan kultur- och näringsdepartement och myndigheter, tagit fram kunskapsunderlag, samt drivit flera projekt kring bland annat entreprenörskap i konstnärliga utbildningar och finansieringsfrågor. Programmet avslutades under 2015.

    Analys- och strategiföretaget Kontigo AB har under våren 2015 utvärderat KreaNord. Utvärderingen fokuserar på resultat och måluppfyllelse, men även aspekter såsom organisation, varumärke och lärdomar för framtiden. Utvärderingen visar bland annat att KreaNord har skapat ett tvärsektoriellt samarbete på policynivå, samt har bidragit till utvecklingen av strategier för stöd till kreativa näringar i flera av de nordiska länderna

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  • 37.
    Activities of the Nordic Council of Ministers: Annual Report 20162017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to an active process of renewal within the Nordic Council of Ministers, in recent years co-operation has become more flexible and dynamic. The purpose of this annual report is to highlight some examples of the results of this process, categorised into the four main areas of the vision: freedom of movement, innovation, visibility, and international engagement

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  • 38.
    Activities of the Nordic Council of Ministers: Annual Report 20172018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Council of Ministers can look back with satisfaction on 2017, which has been a positive year for Nordic co-operation. There are now visible results from the reforms of several key policy areas after several years of modernisation efforts, and we have raised our profile both within the Nordic Region and internationally.

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  • 39.
    “Clamping down on tax havens” A Nordic success story: A Nordic co-operation on tax information exchange agreements with offshore financial centres2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A Nordic co-operation on tax information exchange agreements with offshore financial centres.

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  • 40.
    Does the Nordic Model need to change?: Overview of the research report, "The Nordic model – challenged but capable of reform"2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Model is a well-established concept in the world. It explains, for example, the successes of the Nordic countries in recent times, not least in various economic terms. But how does the model work in these times of globalisation, and does it have a future? Here, the consequences of digitalisation, globalisation and the ageing population are described, and proposals presented for what needs to be reformed in the Nordic countries to ensure that the model has a future.

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  • 41.
    Heildarstarfsemi Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar: Ársskýrsla 20142015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Saman erum við öflugri er yfirskrift framtíðarsýnar fyrir norrænt samstarf sem samstarfsráðherrarnir komust að samkomulagi um í febrúar 2014. Um sumarið var framtíðarsýnin gerð áþreifanlegri með ákvörðuninni um að nútímavæða starfsemi Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar.  Meginmarkmið nútímavæðingarinnar er að styrkja enn frekar það öfluga og gagnlega samstarf sem er milli aðildarlandanna þannig að árangurinn af því að vinna saman verði raunverulega meiri en það sem löndin geta áorkað hvert um sig.  Tilgangur ársskýrslunnar er meðal annars að benda á nokkur dæmi um árangur af þessu tagi sem safnað hefur verið saman undir fjórum meginþemum framtíðarsýnarinnar; Norðurlönd án stjórnsýsluhindrana, nýskapandi Norðurlönd, sýnileg Norðurlönd og opin Norðurlönd.

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  • 42.
    Heildarstarfsemi Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar: Ársskýrsla 20162017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Sú endurnýjun sem orðið hefur hjá Norrænu ráðherranefndinni hefur gert samstarfið sveigjanlegra og þróttmeira. Ársskýrslunni er ætlað að benda á nokkur dæmi um árangur sem náðst hefur undir hinum fjóru meginþemum framtíðarsýnar ráðherranefndarinnar. Þau eru Norðurlönd án landamæra, nýskapandi Norðurlönd, sýnileg Norðurlönd og opin Norðurlönd

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  • 43.
    Heildarstarfsemi Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar: Ársskýrsla 20172018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Árið 2017 reyndist gott ár í norrænu samstarfi og við hjá Norrænu ráðherranefndinni erum harla ánægð með árangurinn. Eftir margra ára starf að nútímavæðingu samstarfsins er árangur umbótanna orðinn greinilegur á mikilvægum samstarfssviðum auk þess sem við látum meira að okkur kveða innan Norðurlanda og alþjóðlega.

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  • 44.
    Innovaatio- ja elinkeinopolitiikan pohjoismainen yhteistyöohjelma 2014–20172014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Pohjoismailla on pitkä yhteistyöperinne. Sen pohjana ovat yhteiset arvot ja tahto saavuttaa tuloksia, jotka edistävät alueen dynaamista kehitystä. Päämääränä on muun muassa tehdä asumisesta, työnteosta ja yritystoiminnan harjoittamisesta Pohjoismaissahoukuttavaa ja vahvistaa Pohjoismaiden kansainvälistä kilpailukykyä.Innovaatio- ja elinkeinopolitiikan pohjoismaisen yhteistyöohjelman lähtökohtana on vastata tiettyihin haasteisiin, joita Pohjoismailla on edessään.

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  • 45.
    ”Jakten på Skatteparadisen” En nordisk framgångssaga: Ett nordiskt samarbete om ingående av informationsutbytesavtal på skatteområdet med finansiella offshorecentra2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett nordiskt samarbete om ingående av informationsutbytesavtal på skatteområdet med finansiella offshorecentra

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  • 46. Danmarks Statistik, Statistics Denmark (Contributor)
    Kreative erhverv i Norden2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Kreative erhverv har de seneste år udgjort en stadig større andel af Nordens økonomi. Formålet med rapporten er at kortlægge de kreative erhvervs betydning for økonomierne i Danmark, Finland, Norge og Sverige, og derigennem skabe et opdateret videngrundlag for en øget udnyttelse af erhvervsmæssigt potentiale i Nordens kreative erhverv. Analysen, udført af Danmarks Statistik for KreaNord i 2012, belyser landenes kreative erhverv og baserer sig på erhvervsstatistiske oplysninger fra eksisterende statistikregistre i Danmark, Finland, Norge og Sverige.

    Genudgivet i 2015 i forbindelse med afviklingen af KreaNord, Nordisk Ministerråds initiativ om kulturelle og kreative erhverv (2008–2015).

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  • 47.
    Nordic businesses on climate  transition,  competitiveness and growth: – An interview study among leading businesses in the Nordics2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate how climate efforts and competitiveness are connected in the Nordic region, CEO's and top management of some of the leading companies in the five countries have been interviewed. According to the interviews, the Nordic region can contribute to reaching the Paris Agreement. Climate change is top of mind of CEOs, chairs and top-level management in Nordic companies, and contributing to reaching global climate goals is not only altruistic. Almost all companies say that climate efforts can boost competitiveness. There is strong support for the Nordic region to be front runners in global climate efforts and acting together to push the EU to adapt more ambitious climate policies. The interviewed companies have approximately 540 000 employees. The aggregated revenue of the companies is around 200 billion EUR, corresponding to 17 percent of the GDP of the Nordic region.

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  • 48.
    Nordic Co-operation Programme for Innovation and Business Policy 2014-20172014Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have a long history of cooperation, based on common values and a desire to attain results that promote a dynamic development of the region. Objectives include making it attractive to live, work and run businesses in the Nordic region, and strengthening the international competitiveness of the Nordic countries.The Nordic Co-operation Programme for Innovation and Business Policy is based on meeting some of the challenges that the Nordic region will face in the future.

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  • 49.
    Nordic Economic Outlook 20172017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordiska konjunkturgruppen has operated under the Nordic Council of Ministers since 2004 and consists of experts from the Nordic Finance Ministries. The group exchanges information on macroeconomic and structural developments on a continuous basis. The group also prepares the annual Nordic Economic Outlook.

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  • 50.
    Nordic Economic Outlook 2018: Annual report on the economic development in the Nordic countries in terms of growth, business cycles and public finance2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Economic Outlook is an annual report on the economic development in the Nordic countries in terms of growth, business cycles and public finance The report is produced by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the content is prepared jointly by the Nordic Group of Macro Analysts (Nordiska konjunkturgruppen) with participants by experts from the Finance Ministries in the five Nordic countries. The group has operated under the Nordic Council of Ministers since 2004 and exchanges information on macroeconomic and structural developments on a continuous basis.

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