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  • 1. Agung Banyu Perwita, Anak
    Indonesia and the Muslim World: Between Islam and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    opular hostility and official ambivalence in Indonesia to the United States-led ‘War on Terror’ seem easily understandable in in the world’s largest Muslim country. But this kind of analysis misses the complexity of Indonesia and the host of internal differences behind this opposition. Military and bureaucratic elites since independence have worked to create a more secular nationalist Indonesian identity out of a multi-ethnic/religious mix, often provoking religious opposition. This dynamic (found also in Turkey, for instance) has especially shaped Indonesia’s encounter with and view of the outside world – and not least its reaction to events affecting the Muslim world.

    In this study, the author explores Islam as a domestic political variable in Indonesia’s foreign policy since independence. Here, Anak Agung Banyu Perwita argues that increasingly Indonesia’s foreign policy toward the Muslim world has become based on domestic political struggles. In support of his argument, the author mainly draws on material from the period when President Soeharto’s New Order regime ruled Indonesia but brings in more recent material from the post-Soeharto era to demonstate how Indonesian foreign policy is still shaped by the same forces today.

    Containing a wealth of information on the role of Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand how the world’s largest Muslim country is reacting to the international challenges of the modern world.

  • 2. Airoldi, Adele
    The European Union and the Arctic: Developments and perspectives 2010-20142014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report analyses the policy statements on Arctic issues released from 2010 by the EU institutions and the EU’s role-building in the Arctic political framework, notably the Arctic Council. It describes how the EU’s role in the Arctic is seen in strategies and policy papers of Member States, and reports on the EU’s relations with other Arctic actors, particularly indigenous peoples. It gives an overall view of the status of the main EU policies with relevance for the Arctic and identifies the main challenges the EU has to face for progressing to an integrated and coherent Arctic policy.

  • 3. Al-Badri, Dominic
    et al.
    Berends, Gijs
    After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Political and Policy Change in Post-Fukushima Japan2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triple disaster that struck Japan in March 2011 began with the most powerful earthquake known to have hit Japan and led to tsunami up to 40 meters in height that devastated a wide area and caused thousands of deaths. The ensuing accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant was Japan’s worst and only second to Chernobyl in its severity.

     

    But has this triple disaster also changed Japan? Has it led to a transformation of the country, a shift in how Japan functions? This book, with fresh perspectives on extraordinary events written by diplomats and policy experts at European embassies to Japan, explores subsequent shifts in Japanese politics and policy-making to see if profound changes have occurred or if instead these are limited.

     

    The book addresses those policy areas most likely to be affected by the tragedy – politics, economics, energy, climate, agriculture and food safety – describes how the sector has been affected and considers what the implications are for the future.

  • 4.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TILLIT – DET NORDISKA GULDET2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om social tillit i de nordiska samhällena. Norden har högst nivåer av social tillit i världen. Detta gynnar såväl samhällsekonomin som individer och samhället i dess helhet. Rapporten diskuterar bakgrunden till att den sociala tilliten blivit så hög i Norden samt vilka utmaningar som den står inför.

  • 5.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TRUST – THE NORDIC GOLD2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns social trust in the Nordic countries. The Nordic region has the highest levels of social trust in the world. This benefits the economy, individuals and society as a whole. This report discusses the background to why social trust has reached such high levels in the Nordic region, and the present day challenges it is facing.

  • 6. Barr, Michael D.
    et al.
    Skrbiš, Zlatko
    Constructing Singapore: Elitism, Ethnicity and the Nation-Building Project2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singapore has few natural resources but, in a relatively short history, its economic and social development and transformation are nothing short of remarkable. Today Singapore is by far the most successful exemplar of material development in Southeast Asia and it often finds itself the envy of developed countries. Furthermore over the last three or four decades the ruling party has presided over the formation of a thriving community of Singaporeans who love and are proud of their country.

    Nothing about these processes has been 'natural' in any sense of the word. Much of the country's investment in nation-building has in fact gone into the selection, training and formation of a ruling and administrative elite that reflects and will perpetuate its vision of the nation. The government ownership of the nation-building project, its micromanagement of everyday life and the role played by the elite are three fundamental elements in this complex and continuing process of construction of a natrion. The intense triangulation of these elements and the pace of change they produce make Singapore one of the most intriguing specimens of nation-building in the region.

    In this critical study of the politics of ethnicity and elitism in Singapore, Barr and Skrbiš look inside the supposedly 'meritocratic' system, from nursery school to university and beyond, that produces Singapore's political and administrative elite. Focusing on two processes - elite formation and elite selection - they give primary attention to the role that etho-racial ascription plays in these processes but also consider the input of personal connections, personal power, class and gender. The result is a study revealing much about how Singapore's elite-led nation-building project has reached its current state whereby a Singaporean version of Chinese ethno-nationalism has overwhelmed the discourse on national and Singaporean identity.

  • 7.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Governing the Digital Transition in the Nordic Regions2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often positioned as digital front-runners in the European and global contexts. Digitalisation is changing the nature of business, jobs and provision of public services. Rapid digitalisation and technological change require governments and organisations to introduce proactive measures to embrace new digitalisation opportunities. How to create an enabling environment for digital transformation at the local, regional, national and Nordic levels?

    This policy brief explores the local and regional dimension of digital transformation. It examines the opportunities and challenges that Nordic regions are facing related to digitalisation and highlights some lessons learned from five Nordic regions implementing digitalisation agendas. It also sets out key recommendations for creating an enabling environment for digitalisation work at different governance levels. This research is part of the work of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient Regions established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 8. Brox, Trine
    et al.
    Bellér-Hann, Ildikó
    On the Fringes of the Harmonious Society: Tibetans and Uyghurs in Socialist China2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1949, Tibetans and Uyghurs generally have been perceived as the two most problematic members of the PRC’s great family of peoples and been the targets of ‘carrot and stick’ measures designed to facilitate their integration into the PRC. In recent years, a solution to the problem of Xinjiang and the Tibet has been sought in accelerated economic development, yet this is perceived by both groups with great suspicion. Addressing this situation, the volume explores the arenas of socio-economic development and market liberalization, popular culture, urban planning and relocation, environment and ecological migration, civil society, education and language, ethno-nationalism, as well as religious policies and practices. It is especially topical at a time when fieldwork in the regions where these two minorities live remains extremely difficult and politically sensitive.

     

  • 9. Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
    et al.
    Kirkebæk, Mads
    China and Denmark: Relations since 16742000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first comprehensive study to analyse in detail the evolving political, economic and diplomatic relationship between China and Denmark since their first contact in 1674. The book is thoroughly researched and based on newly available source material in Chinese as well as in Western languages. It is an important contribution to the growing literature on China’s relations with the West since the beginning of the modern period.

  • 10. Derichs, Claudia
    et al.
    Heberer, Thomas
    The Power of Ideas: Intellectual Input and Political Change in East and Southeast Asia2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional approach to studying the politics of a region is to focus on events, personalities, issues – the mechanics of the political process. What this volume looks to do is to step back and examine ideas and visions, as well as those who articulate them and/or put them into operation. The contributors thus aim to conceptualize what discourse means for political change in East and Southeast Asia, and how ideas in discourses affect political practice. As well as theorizing on the roles of intellectuals, ideas and discourses for processes of democratization, reform and change, the chapters also offer deep insights into the national and local, into the general and the specific situation of the selected countries.

    The volume touches upon three themes. One reflects the relationship of different actor groups – such as the state, NGOs, social movements, and intellectuals. Another reveals the multi-layered structure of discourses, which emerge from different opportunity structures of public discussion and may overlap with regard to certain topics. These differences reflect, thirdly, the various directions and types of change a discourse hints at – incremental change, radical change, ‘customized’ change, patterned change etc. These issues are analyzed in the case of two authoritarian states (China, Vietnam), a multi-ethnic, formally democratic state with strong authoritarian leanings (Malaysia), and two democratic states with significant parochial structures and patterns of behaviour (South Korea, Japan).

  • 11. Eklöf, Stefan
    Indonesian Politics in Crisis: The Long Fall of Suharto, 1996-981999Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a severe economic crisis, social unrest and growing pressure for political change in Indonesia, President Suharto’s hold on power seemed secure. Recent events have proved this otherwise. By describing the unfolding events since 1996, tracing the economic and social background, analysing the government's response and evaluating the actors most likely to shape Indonesia's future, this study provides key insights for understanding current and imminent processes of political change in Indonesia.

  • 12. Eklöf, Stefan
    Power and Political Culture in Suharto's Indonesia: The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) and Decline of the New Order (1986-98)2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under Indonesia's authoritarian New Order regime, the continued existence of the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) was meant to demonstrate the ostensibly democratic character of the regime. In essence, this small nationalist-Christian coalition was meant to rfill the role of pliant state corporatist party. From the later 1980s, however, the PDI became more openly critical of government policies and came to stand out as the major proponent of reform within the formal politica system. The govenrment responded in 1996 by engineering the removal of the populat Megwati Sukarnoputri as PDI leader, a move that significantly damaged the popular legitimacy and moral standing of the regime.

    Against this background, the book assesses broader questions of political culture, political participation, regime maintenance and opposition in the late Suharto era. The political culture perspective provides a fresh understanding of politics under the New Order and its influence on the systems of power and political relations in post-Suharto Indonesia.

  • 13. Fischer, Andrew Martin
    State Growth and Social Exclusion in Tibet: Challenges of Recent Economic Growth2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most pressing economic challenges facing the Tibetan areas of western China relate to the marginalization of the majority of Tibetans from rapid state-led growth. The urban-rural divide plays an impor-tant role in this polarized dynamic but alone only partially explains differences with other Chinese regions, all of which generally exhibit strong spatial inequalities.

    This book therefore focuses on several further factors that determine the ethnically exclusionary character of current peripheral growth in the Tibetan areas. These include processes of urbanization, immigration, employment and education as key factors underlying structural economic change. The study draws generally from the analytical framework of social exclusion and is based on extensive use of official Chinese statistics, focusing on the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai but with numerous comparisons to the other provinces of western China. A variety of qualitative insights are also taken from recent fieldwork and second-ary sources. The macro focus of this investigation aims to complement the growing wealth of micro-level studies on Tibet produced from a variety of disciplines.

  • 14. Fredholm, Michael
    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Eurasian Geopolitics: New Directions, Perspectives, and Challenges2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has developed into a key regional security group in Asia, its member states representing no less than “half of humanity”.

    Alarmists believe that the SCO is making itself into a NATO of the East, thus posing a long-term threat to the West. Moreover, several members are key players in economic development and energy production, hence political developments within the SCO can no longer be ignored by the global market. Even so, the organization has long been disregarded by political leaders in the West and is seldom reported in Western media or analysed in academic works. As such, this ground-breaking volume with contributors from across the region and beyond will be a key reference for many specialists and academics working on Asian affairs.

  • 15. Gatu, Dagfinn
    Village China at War: The Impact of Resistance to Japan, 1937-19452011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This groundbreaking study on the forging of Chinese communism in the furnace of the anti-Japanese war focuses on North China, where the CCP first took root and later expanded to conquer China. Whilst the explosive growth of the Chinese Communist movement during the war years is a fact, the nature of this expansion remains disputed. Here the author examines a set of interrelated issues that have so far not received comprehensive treatment with regard to the main Communist base areas in North China – regions where the party secured most of its recruits and where its policy programmes were most severely tested by Japanese military campaigns.

    The analysis centres on how the Party strove to combine two objectives that it perceived as crucial to building up a sustained mass resistance movement to the Japanese: socio-economic and political restructuring in favour of the poor and the forging of a grassroots rural united front including all social strata. The author also stresses the host of severe constraints that the party’s policy ambitions ran up against, such as destruction by the Japanese army, the economic burden of running the resistance, peasant attitudes, and the shortage of trained cadres. Ultimately, the movement spread too rapidly and too wide for the party centre to exert more than a very weak or mediated vanguard function outside scattered enclaves. This in turn allowed localities an autonomous dynamic that often conflicted with higher party echelons. Nevertheless, the movement had a broad, if highly uneven, redistributive impact on power resources in the various fields, leading to a structural fluidity that raised the prospect of a future revolution. History accelerated.

  • 16.
    Giacometti, Alberto
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Regional Economic and Social Resilience: An Exploratory In-Depth Study in the Nordic Countries2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How capable are local and regional economies of recovering from global and local shocks and threats and ensure resilient long-term development paths?

    Answering this question was the challenge of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient regions, set by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

    Thus, from 2017 to 2018, an exploratory in-depth study was conducted on economic and social resilience in the Nordic regions.

    The empirical research included a close examination of a variety of threats as well as factors driving resilience in regions in all five Nordic Countries.

  • 17. Gravers, Mikael
    Burma/Myanmar – Where Now?2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent changes in Burma/Myanmar have been called the ‘Burmese democratic spring’. While the international media have mainly focused on the economic opportunities offered by these changes and on the doings and sayings of Aung San Suu Kyi, the reality is far more complex. The country is desperately poor, divided by ethnic and religious rivalries and continues to suffer from some of the world’s most intractable military conflicts while powerful elite factions oppose reform.

    Where, then, is the country heading? What are the key challenges it will face? Who are likely to be the key players in the unfolding events? What implications are there for international actors in arenas like policy, diplomacy, development and business? With contributions on topics like the political situation, international relations, ethnic and religious rivalries, and the economy, long-time observers of the situation offer insights and analysis that address these issues. The result is a tightly focused volume that will appeal to a broad readership interested in the current situation and its implications.

  • 18.
    Greve Harbo, Lisbeth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    A new wave of reforms sweepingover the Nordic countries? Nordregio News 3 20152015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal reforms are gaining political momentum in the Nordic countries, which all face great social changes. Some countries have already pushed their reforms through; others are still struggling with decisions on the matter. Finland has failed after several years of trying to implement a renewed reform process. Norway is in the midst of such a process, and Greenland is reconsidering the reform it undertook in 2009. In this issue of Nordregio News, we review current initiatives on municipal reforms in the Nordic countries. What exactly is happening now, and why?

  • 19. Guobin, Yang
    China’s Contested Internet2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a pre-Weibo and post-Weibo era in Chinese Internet history? Are hackerspaces in China the same as in the West? How can the censorship of an Internet novel end up “producing” it? How is Lu Xun’s passive and ignorant spectator turned into an activist on the Internet? What are the multiple ways of being political online? Such intriguing questions are the subject of this captivating new book. Its ten chapters combine first-hand research with multi-disciplinary perspectives to offer original insights on the fast-changing landscape of the Chinese Internet. Other topics studied include online political consultation, ethnic identity and racial contestation in cyberspace, and the Southern Weekly protest in 2013. In addition, the editor’s introduction highlights the importance of understanding the depth of people’s experiences and institutional practices with a historical sensibility.

  • 20.
    Helgesen, Geir
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NIAS - Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.
    Kim, Uichol
    Good Government: Nordic and East Asian Perspectives2002Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is 'good government'? Is it transparent, responsive, small and unobtrusive, or on the contrary, big and active? And is 'good government' the same everywhere, or do regional differences of opinion have to be acknowledged? This short study aims to answer some of these questions by presenting the opinions of 7,127 respondents from China, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Korea and Sweden.

    Surprising results were revealed: within the global political context, the political cultures of East Asia and the Nordic countries have common traits regarding people's expectations of their governments. Unexpectedly, popular control of government is not alien to East Asian political opinion; even more surprisingly is, however, the fact that the moral, paternalistic leadership style so widely accepted in East Asia attracts a positive response in the Nordic countries as well.

    This volume offers a first glimpse of a comprehensive comparative study conducted by the Eurasia Political Culture Research Network (EPCReN) in 1999-2000. This is a pioneer study that aims to spear-head comparative social science research springing from the growing mutual interest between Asia and Europe.

  • 21. Helgesen, Geir
    et al.
    Nielsen, Ras Tind
    Ideas, Society and Politics in Northeast Asia and Northern Europe: Worlds Apart, Learning From Each Other2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This intriguing volume explains why, after centuries of Western scholars studying Asia, Asian scholars are beginning to study Western societies in return.

    Responding to the rise of Nordic studies in China, Japan and Korea, the authors explore how economic success in East Asia is raising issues – like how to deal with an ageing population, income redistribution and provision of social security – that have long been addressed in the Nordic region. Conversely, the Nordic countries have much to learn from the dynamism and flexibility found in East Asia today. Yet, the authors also show how cultural and political differences pose challenges to mutual understanding and learning.

    The essays offer a challenging point of reference for scholars and policy-makers from both regions.

  • 22. Helgesen, Geir
    et al.
    Thelle, Hatla
    Dialogue with North Korea?: Preconditions for Talking Human Rights With a Hermit Kingdom2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly another country as isolated and with such a bleak image as North Korea. It is portrayed in the Western media as a Hermit Kingdom ruled by an outdated, communist dictatorship whose clandestine nuclear programmes alarm its neighbours and which uses dreadful labour camps to control a population wracked by famine. The regime’s poor track record on human rights is stressed time and again by both Western governments and international organizations.

    Prospects look bleak for any improvement in relations let alone the start of a dialogue on human rights. Offering a rare, nuanced analysis of the North Korean situation, this short study argues that not only is a constructive and fruitful dialogue on human rights possible but also it is desirable for both parties.

  • 23. Herolf, Gunilla
    et al.
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou
    Ackrén, Maria
    Lyck, Lise
    Malloy, Tove H.
    Palmer, Richard
    Rógvi, Kári á
    Stephan, Sarah
    Suksi, Markku
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou (Editor)
    Selvstyrende områder i Norden i et fredsperspektiv: Færøerne, Grønland og Åland2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Norden har 200 års erfaring med fredelig sameksistens og konfliktløsning, som er værd at fremhæve og tage ved lære af, og netop derfor har de selvstyrende områder i Norden tiltrukket sig en hel del opmærksomhed i den seneste tid. Der er stor international interesse for disse erfaringer, herunder erfaringer med territoriel selvbestemmelse. I en verden præget af voksende uro ser man det som særligt værdifuldt at studere Færøernes, Grønlands og Ålands selvbestemmelse ud fra et konfliktløsningsmæssigt perspektiv. Den stærke udvikling, som disse selvstyrende områder har gennemgået, samtidig med at man har formået at finde fredelige løsninger på de konflikter, der er opstået, synes vigtige at studere – ikke kun i et nordisk, men også i et bredere internationalt perspektiv.

    Her præsenteres konklusionerne fra et sammenlignende studie af de selvstyrende områders retslige, økonomiske og sikkerhedspolitiske udvikling.

    Den fulde undersøgelse kan bestilles fra Ålands Fredsinstitut eller downloades elektronisk her – www.peace.ax

  • 24. Herolf, Gunilla
    et al.
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou
    Ackrén, Maria
    Lyck, Lise
    Malloy, Tove H.
    Palmer, Richard
    Rógvi, Kári á
    Stephan, Sarah
    Suksi, Markku
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou (Editor)
    Självstyrelser i Norden i ett fredsperspektiv: Färöarna, Grönland och Åland2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Norden har erfarenheter av fredlig samlevnad i 200 år som är värda att lyfta fram och dra lärdomar av. Det finns ett stort internationellt intresse för dessa erfarenheter, inklusive erfarenheter av territoriell självstyrelse. I en värld som ter sig alltmer oroande ses Färöarnas, Grönlands och Ålands självstyrelser som värdefulla att studera ur ett konfliktlösande perspektiv. Den starka utveckling som självstyrelserna har genomgått, samtidigt som man lyckats att finna fredliga lösningar på de konflikter som uppstått, syns viktiga att studera, inte bara i ett nordiskt utan också i ett vidare internationellt perspektiv.

    Här presenteras konklusionerna från en jämförande studie av de nordiska självstyrelsernas rättsliga, ekonomiska och säkerhetspolitiska utveckling.

    Den fullständiga studien kan beställas från Ålands fredsinstitut eller laddas ner elektroniskt – www.peace.ax

  • 25. Herolf, Gunilla
    et al.
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou
    Ackrén, Maria
    Lyck, Lise
    Malloy, Tove H.
    Palmer, Richard
    Rógvi, Kári á
    Stephan, Sarah
    Suksi, Markku
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou (Editor)
    The Nordic Self-Governing Areas in a Peace Perspective: The Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Åland Islands2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Region has enjoyed two centuries of peaceful co-existence that are worth highlighting and learning from. As a result, the Nordic autonomous regions have attracted considerable attention in recent years. There is significant international interest in their experiences, including their experience of territorial autonomy. In a world that appears increasingly troubling, the autonomy of the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland is worth studying from the perspective of conflict resolution. It seems important to examine the marked development that these autonomous regions have undergone and the success they have had in finding solutions to the conflicts that have arisen – not just from a Nordic perspective, but also from a wider international point of view.

    The conclusions of a comparative study of the autonomous regions’ legal, economic, and security policy developments are presented here.

    The complete study can be ordered from The Åland Islands Peace Institute at www.peace.ax

  • 26. Herolf, Gunilla
    et al.
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou
    Suksi, Markku
    Palmer, Rickard
    Stephan, Sarah
    Ackrén, Maria
    Malloy, Tove H.
    Lyck, Lise
    Rógvi, Kári á
    Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou (Editor)
    Pohjoismaiden itsehallintoalueet rauhantyön näkökulmasta: Ahvenanmaa, Färsaaret ja Grönlanti2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Pohjoismailla on kokemusta rauhanomaisesta rinnakkaiselosta 200 vuoden ajalta. Pohjoismaiden itsehallinnot ovat saaneet paljon huomiota viime aikoina, ja Pohjoismaiden rauhanomaisesta konfliktinratkaisusta voidaan ottaa oppia muuallakin. Alueellisen itsehallinnon kokemukset herättävätkin laajaa kansainvälistä kiinnostusta. Entistä levottomammassa maailmassa Ahvenanmaan, Färsaarten ja Grönlannin itsehallinnot nähdään arvokkaina esimerkkeinä konfliktinratkaisusta. Ei vain Pohjoismaissa, vaan myös laajemmin kansainvälisesti, on syytä ottaa oppia näiden itsehallintoalueiden huimasta kehityksestä sekä rauhanomaisten ratkaisujen löytymisestä konflikteihin. Tässä tiivistelmässä esitellään Pohjoismaiden itsehallintojen oikeudellisen, taloudellisen ja turvallisuuspoliittisen kehityksen vertailevan tutkimuksen johtopäätelmät. Julkaisun voi tilata kokonaisuudessaan Ahvenanmaan rauhaninstituutista

  • 27. Holmgaard Nielsen, Gert
    Walking a Tightrope: Defending Human Rights in China2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do Chinese people defend human rights in China without going to jail? How can they seek justice without the state hitting back at them? The human rights situation in China is not without its challenges but even so the last decades have seen marked improvements. Even so, much of the international attention on the issue is focused on human rights violations and the suppression of dissent; it is rare to find accounts of people inside China working on human rights who are not being harassed or put into jail.

     In what is probably the first Western book to see the Chinese human rights issue solely from a Chinese perspective, Walking a Tightrope gives voice to nine Chinese human rights defenders, describing their challenges, setbacks and progress. Although not denying the fact that human rights are often violated in China, the book points out that there are positive stories and that things are improving in certain areas. That said, many of the improvements described by the interviewees are minor (especially seen with Western eyes), and the book clearly shows that, right now, it is especially hard to promote human rights in China.

     What is essential to understand, however, is Chinese law offers extensive protection of human rights in almost every aspect of social life. What then many of the interviewees in this book are trying to do is to secure implementation of the law. This is the really hard part of their work. In this book they describe how and why hey do it – defending human rights, Chinese style.

  • 28. Ilpala, Aleksi
    Six years without constitution: The dampened expectations for Nepalese democracy2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article peers into the anxieties of the democratic process in post-conflict Nepal. Today, while the recent elections gave Nepal’s politicians a new mandate to finish the constitution-drafting process, the negotiations surrounding the troubled issue continue. Despite the established formal democratic institutions and procedures, authoritarian legacies and pre-democratic political practices, values and attitudes co-exist with the new democratic establishment with negative consequences for governmental stability. The article shows how the existing Nepalese political culture reflects a contradictory mix of deference to senior leaders, but also distrust of their authority, and a culture of confrontation rather than compromise.

  • 29.
    Ilpala, Aleksi
    University of Helsinki.
    Six years without constitution: The dampened expectations for Nepalese democracy2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 39-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article peers into the anxieties of the democratic process in post-conflict Nepal. Today, while the recent elections gave Nepal’s politicians a new mandate to finish the constitution-drafting process, the negotiations surrounding the troubled issue continue. Despite the established formal democratic institutions and procedures, authoritarian legacies and pre-democratic political practices, values and attitudes co-exist with the new democratic establishment with negative consequences for governmental stability. The article shows how the existing Nepalese political culture reflects a contradictory mix of deference to senior leaders, but also distrust of their authority, and a culture of confrontation rather than compromise.

  • 30. Ivarsson, Søren
    et al.
    Isager, Lotte
    Saying the Unsayable: Monarchy and Democracy in Thailand2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Thai monarchy today is usually presented as both guardian of tradition and the institution to bring modernity and progress to the Thai people. It is moreover seen as protector of the nation. Scrutinizing that image, this volume reviews the fascinating history of the modern monarchy. It also analyses important cultural, historical, political, religious, and legal forces shaping the popular image of the monarchy and, in particular, of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.

    In this manner, the book offers valuable insights into the relationships between monarchy, religion and democracy in Thailand – topics that, after the September 2006 coup d’état, gained renewed national and international interest. By addressing such contentious issues as Thai-style democracy, lése majesté legislation, religious symbolism and politics, monarchical traditions, and the royal sufficiency economy, this volume will be of interest to a broad spectrum of academics, journalists and other interested readers outside academia.

  • 31. Iwanaga, Kazuki
    Women and Politics in Thailand: Continuity and Change2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume, including contributions from some of the leading scholars in the field, addresses the challenges, obstacles and opportunities for increased women’s political representation in Thailand.

    Will Thai politics be different with an increase in the number of women politicians? What are the possibilities for Thai women to take proactive initiatives that aim to transform Thai politics into being more gender aware and equal? In seeking to address these and related issues, the analysis brings together a complex interplay of factors, such as traditional Thai views of gender and politics; the national and local political context of the new Thai constitution of 1997; and recent experiences of selected women politicians in the legislative and executive branches of Thai government.

  • 32. Iwanaga, Kazuki
    Women’s Political Participation and Representation in Asia: Obstacles and Challenges2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prominence has often been given to the lives and activities of such top female leaders in Asia as Indira Gandhi and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Indeed, the ability of a small elite of highly educated, upper-class Asian women to obtain the highest political positions in their country is unmatched elsewhere in the world and deserves study. But, for those interested in a more detailed understanding of how women strive and sometimes succeed as political actors in Asia, there is a marked lack of relevant research as well as of comprehensive and user-friendly texts.

    Aiming to fill the gap is this timely and important study of the various obstacles and opportunities for women’s political participation and representation in Asia. It is a singularly coherent, comprehensive and accessible volume, even though it brings together an array of prominent European and Asian academicians and researchers working in this field.

    The book covers a wide range of Asian countries, offers original data from various perspectives and engages the latest research on women in politics in Asia. It also aims to put the Asian situation in a global context by making a comparison with the situation in Europe The volume will be invaluable in women’s studies internationally and especially in Asia.

  • 33. Kampen, Thomas
    Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and the Evolution of the Chinese Communist Leadership1999Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses the power struggles within the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party between 1931, when several Party leaders left Shanghai and entered the Jiangxi Soviet, and 1945, by which time Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai had emerged as senior CCP leaders. In 1949 they established the People's Republic of China and ruled it for several decades.

    Based on new Chinese sources, this study challenges long-established views that Mao Zedong became CCP leader during the Long March (1934-35) and that by 1935 the CCP was independent of the Comintern in Moscow. The result is a critique not only of official Chinese historiography but also of Western (especially US) scholarship that all future histories of the rise of the CCP and power struggles within the PRC will need to take into account.

  • 34. Kathirithamby-Wells, Jeyamalar
    Nature and Nation: Forests and Development in Peninsular Malaysia2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores the relations between people and forests in Peninsular Malaysia where the planet’s richest terrestrial eco-system met head-on with the fastest pace of economic transformation experienced in the tropical world. It engages the interplay of history, culture, science, economics and politics to provide a holistic interpretation of the continuing relevance of forests to state and society in the moist tropics.

    Malaysia has long been singled out for emulation by developing nations, an accolade contradicted in recent years by concerns over its capital-, rather than poverty-driven forest depletion. The Malaysian case supports the call for re-appraisal of entrenched prescriptions for development that go beyond material needs.

  • 35. Kivimaki, Timo
    War or Peace in the South China Sea?2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only is the South China Sea of strategic importance; it is also rich in oil and other natural resources. As such, it is the subject of overlapping territorial disputes between several East and Southeast Asian countries as well as the scene of military tensions and potentially dangerous conflicts. Recent proof of this was the crisis in Sino-American relations in April 2001 following the mid-air collision between a US surveillance plane and a Chinese fighter over waters claimed to be Chinese by the PRC but asserted to be international by the USA. Nor has this been the only recent incident.But disputes over the South China Sea are much more complex matters than simply issues of military security. Environmental values, economic security and political developments are also involved. Spanning the full complexity of the situation, this volume:* covers its historical and legal background* analyses its environmental, economic, military and political dimensions, and* assesses the potential for containing and resolving disputes as well as transforming the structures of conflict in the region.The book features contributions from leading scholars in South China Sea and conflict studies but is tightly edited into a coherent volume. Its comprehensive but coherent nature also makes it ideal for use as a textbook or information resource. A key work for researchers in the field, this study will also appeal to a more general readership. Not least this is a book for those interested if the prospects for peace in the region can be realized rather than the region becoming the theatre of the next global conflict.

  • 36. Lilja, Mona
    Power, Resistance and Women Politicians in Cambodia: Discourses of Emancipation2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where there are few women politicians, Cambodia is still noticeable as a country where strong cultural and societal forces act to subjugate women and limit their political opportunities. However, in their everyday life, Cambodian women do try to improve their situ-ation and increase their political power, not least via manifold strategies of resistance.

    This book focuses on Cambodian female politicians and the strategies they deploy in their attempts to destabilize the cultural boundaries and hierarchies that restrain them. In particular, the book focuses on how women use discourses and identities as means of resistance, a concept only recently of wide interest among scholars studying power. The value of this book is thus twofold: not only does it give a unique insight into the political struggles of Cambodian women but also offers new insights to studies of power.

  • 37. Loh Kok Wah, Francis
    et al.
    Öjendal, Joakim
    Southeast Asian Responses to Globalization: Restructuring Governance and Deepening Democracy2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume looks to go beyond the often one-dimensional debate on democratization in Asia. With an historical perspective, and looking to view change from within, ten case studies from Southeast Asia are presented that illuminate how processes of governance are being altered under the pressure of accelerating globalization. An analytical conclusion assesses the findings of case studies in relation to recent writings on societal change in the region.

  • 38.
    Lundqvist, Martin
    Lund University.
    Everyday conceptualizations of sustainable peace in Nepal: post-liberal peace and beyond?2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By employing semi-structured interviews this article investigates the peacebuilding environment in Kathmandu, Nepal, with an eye in particular to capture everyday conceptualizations of sustainable peace, and to investigate whether these might contribute to more holistic peacebuilding approaches in the country. The article draws initial inspiration from the post-liberal peace framework put forth by Oliver Richmond, which problematizes the liberal peace model by highlighting its tendency to neglect the local context and needs, as well as its frequent reliance on top-down and technocratic measures. Instead, Richmond calls for peacebuilding approaches which are more holistic and sensitive to the everyday needs of inhabitants of post-conflict societies. It is found that the post-liberal peace approach largely corresponds to the manner in which the interlocutors of this article conceptualize sustainable peace, i.e. by highlighting everyday issues such as material improvements, social justice, and national political stability. However, the article concludes by arguing that there are also issues of practical concern with both the post-liberal peace framework and the manner in which sustainable peace is conceptualized by interlocutors in Kathmandu.

  • 39. Mattlin, Mikael
    Politicized Society: The Long Shadow of Taiwan's One-Party Legacy2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores a relatively uncharted area of democratic transitions: the empirical study of intensely politicized transitional societies. In particular, it addresses the problems of protracted democratic transitions that occur when a one-party state has been incompletely dismantled.

    Due to an initially smooth political transition from one-party authoritarianism to multi-party politics, Taiwan’s gradual process of democratization has been celebrated as one of the most successful cases of political transformation. However, this political transition was not completed and, especially since 2000 when the first non-Kuomintang president was elected, Taiwan has been marked by protracted political struggles together with an intense politicization of  society that persists to this day.

    In Taiwan, rather than supporting democracy, many of the political practices associated with representative democracy, such as election campaigning, political demonstrations, vote mobilization and political debate in the media, can appear to undermine the future sustainability of democratic politics through the ways in which they are pursued.

    However, the book maintains that institutional flaws are not enough to explain the shortcomings of Taiwan’s democratic politics or those in other transitional democracies. The practices established before the political transition continue to affect politics after the transition. Thus, when an old dominant party like the Kuomintang continues to thrive even after the end of one-party rule, the process of political liberalization and transition contains within itself the seeds of structural politicization.

    As such, not only does this study have empirical value – warning that extreme politicization is the main internal threat to the sustainability of Taiwan’s democratic politics – but also its analysis is pertinent to the situations of many other transitional democracies around the world. It will be of interest to scholars and students of Taiwanese, Mainland Chinese and East Asian politics, as well as to those concerned with political developments in other transitional societies.

  • 40. McCargo, Duncan
    Reforming Thai Politics2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1932, Thai politics has undergone numerous political ‘reforms’, often accompanied by constitutional revisions and shifts in the location of power. Following the events of May 1992, there were strong pressures from certain groups in Thai society for a fundamental overhaul of the political order, culminating in the drafting and promulgation of a new constitution in 1997.

    However, constitutional reform is only one small part of a wide range of possible reforms, including that of the electoral system, education, the bureaucracy, health and welfare, the media – and even the military. Indeed, the economic crisis which engulfed Thailand in 1997 led to a widespread questioning of the country’s social and political structures. With the sudden end of rapid economic growth, the urgency of reform and adaptation to Thailand’s changing circumstances became vastly more acute. It was against this background that the Thai parliament passed major changes to the electoral system in late 2000, just weeks before the January 2001 election.

    Reflecting on the twists and turns of reform in Thailand over the years and with the first in-depth scholarly analysis of how successful were the recent electoral reforms, this volume is a ‘must have’ for everyone interested in Thai politics and its impact on the wider Asian political scene.

  • 41. McCargo, Duncan
    et al.
    Pathmanand, Ukrist
    The Thaksinization of Thailand2001Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1997 economic crisis ended two decades of pluralism in Thai politics and helped create the conditions for the landslide election victory in January 2001 of Thaksin Shinawatra, a fabulously wealthy telecommunications magnate often compared with Italian premier Silvio Berlusconi.

    Prime minister Thaksin has since exercised an extra-ordinary degree of personal dominance over the Thai political scene. The emergence of Thaksin and his Thai Rak Thai (Thais love Thai) Party has transformed Thailand’s electoral landscape, rendering previous analyses of Thai politics substantially outdated. This book will examine Thaksin’s background, his business activities, the emergence of Thai Rak Thai, his relationship with the military, Thaksin’s use of rhetoric through media such as radio, his wider political economy networks, and the future direction of Thai politics. This detailed but gripping study draws on extensive research by two leading specialists in the field.

  • 42.
    Ringholm, Toril
    et al.
    Norway Inland University of Applied Sciences.
    Nyseth, Torill
    University of Tromsø.
    Gro, Sandkjær Hanssen
    NIBRHiOA.
    Participation according to the law?: The research-based knowledge on citizen participation in Norwegian municipal planning2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 67, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Rottem Krangnes, Lars
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Fra like rettigheter til like muligheter: Rapport fra Det andre nordiske ekspertseminaret om arbeidsliv og funksjonshinder (Oslo, 19. april 2017)2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av Nordens velferdssenter (NVC) på grunnlag av Det andre nordiske ekspertseminaret om arbeidsliv og funksjonshinder (Oslo 19. april 2017). Ekspertseminaret var finansiert av Nordisk ministerråds embetsmannskomite for arbeidsliv (EK-A), og ble arrangert av NVC i samarbeid med Kompetansesenter for arbeidsinkludering på Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus.

    Hovedmålet med seminaret var bidra med et faglig fundert funksjonshinderperspektiv til arbeidet med Nordisk ministerråds samarbeidsprogram for arbeidslivssektoren 2018-2021. Samarbeidsprogrammet skal beskrive de nordiske landenes hovedutfordringer på arbeidslivsfeltet, og stille opp målsetninger innenfor delområdene arbeidsmarked, arbeidsmiljø og arbeidsrett. Programmet er planlagt vedtatt høsten 2017.

    Denne rapporten presenterer anbefalinger om prioriteringer i programmet, og anbefalinger om konkrete tiltak innenfor rammen av programmet. Tiltakene vil også kunne inngå i en eventuell ny handlingsplan for nordisk samarbeid om funksjonshinder.

  • 44. Sasamoto-Collins, Hiromi
    Power and Dissent in Imperial Japan: Three Forms of Political Engagement2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume examines the careers and intellectual positions of three prominent Japanese “dissidents” in the later Imperial period – Minobe Tatsukichi, Sakai Toshihiko and Saitō Takao – as individual responses to the new forms of authority that appeared after the Meiji Restoration of 1868.

    The principles to which each adhered – the rule of law, socialist egalitarianism, and representative government – contributed to the new ideas about authority and the individual in post-Restoration Japan. They also remain fundamental (at least in theory) in today’s Japanese polity and society. The study reaffirms the serious limitations of the pre-war Japanese political system, its structural and institutional problems, and deep-rooted ambivalence about democratic change. But it also confirms the birth of an alternative tradition in which individuals began to define and sponsor the processes of national self-regulation. This book traces the perspectives of three such individuals who chose to contest the new power arrangements through their writings and political activities.

  • 45.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Urban Contractual Policies in Northern Europe2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper is based on two separately commissioned projects that Nordregio carried out during 2015–2016. The first project was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions set up under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy (EK-R). This project relates to Chapters 2 to 5 of the present working paper, which describe the policy details and inner workings of urban contractualism in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The second project was commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation. The objective was to review the experiences in France and England with different forms of contractualism. This relates to Chapters 6 to 8, which incorporate additional comparisons and critique of urban policies in France and, especially, the UK. The projects were a collaborative undertaking, with a number of national experts at Nordregio involved. Lukas Smas was the overall co-ordinator and editor. Liisa Perjo was responsible for Finland, Christian Fredricsson contributed the Norwegian part and Christian Dymén (now at Trivector) was responsible for Sweden. Julien Grunfelder was responsible for France while Timothy Andersson (currently a PhD Student at Tallinn University) wrote the UK section alongside contributions to the introduction and conclusion.

  • 46. Steinberg, David I.
    et al.
    Fan, Hongwei
    Modern China-Myanmar Relations: Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume examines the changing relations between China and Burma/Myanmar since Burmese independence in 1948 and the formation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Using Chinese sources, it documents the negotiations and settlement of outstanding issues such as the border demarcation, the Chinese Nationalist forces in Burma, the status of the overseas Chinese residents, and the Burma Communist Party.

    The study documents the Sino-Burmese riots of 1967, the improvement of relations, culminating in the close bilateral association since 1988–89. It analyses in detail Myanmar’s changing role in Chinese strategy, concentrating on trade and investment relations, oil, gas, hydroelectric power, natural resources and improved transportation. It outlines military cooperation, narcotics control, and migration while emphasizing Indian and ASEAN concerns and responses.

    The volume outlines a set of policy dilemmas facing the central and provincial Chinese authorities, the Myanmar government and Burmese ethnic minorities, while analysing dilemmas for the United States, India, ASEAN and Japan in responding to the changed interdependent Sino-Burmese relationship.

  • 47. Telle, Stefan
    An Institutionalist View on Experimentalist Governance: Local-level obstacles to policy-learning in European Union Cohesion Policy2017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 66, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper has the dual objective of contributing to theory development as well as to the debate about the added value of EU Cohesion Policy. Experimentalist governance theory suggests that a virtuous feedback loop between policy design and implementation can the input- and output-legitimacy of policy making. EU Cohesion Policy formally resembles this experimentalist setting, but persistent debates about its added value suggest that the virtuous loop is blocked. The paper uses new institutionalism theory to systematically identify theoretical explanations for this blockage. It argues that the experimentalist link between organizational structure, pooling of experiences, greater participation, and policy learning is highly precarious. First, the rational-choice perspective suggests that the link rests on the optimistic assumption of a common utility function among the participating actors. Moreover, the structural funds provide strong incentives for grant-seeking. Second, the discursive perspective shows that the identification of shared interests depends on highly demanding speech conditions. Third, the sociological perspective highlights that the evaluation of information is socially conditioned. Therefore, learning may be based on fallacious assumptions and lead to undesired results. The paper substantiates these insights with empirical evidence from one case of institutionalized cross-border cooperation in East Central Europe.

  • 48. Törnquist, Olle
    et al.
    Harriss, John
    Engelstad, Fredrik
    Reinventing Social Democratic Development: Insights from Indian and Scandinavian Comparisons2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uneven economic growth in the Global South, with mounting inequalities and the crisis of democratization, has generated new quests for social democracy – but are such efforts, these days, at all feasible? The point of departure in this book is that there are no easy solutions such as generalizing the Latin American Pink Tide or exporting the Nordic model.    There are many unresolved problems with participatory approaches; and the current conditions in the Global South differ substantially from those that enabled social and political forces to fight for the combination of equity and growth during late industrialization in the North. Can social democratic development be reinvented? This is what we discuss in this book.         There are numerous protests against the existing order and there are attempts at change. But history will not be repeated, and the effort must be made to move on by analyzing whether and how the troublesome new circumstances may not only block some of the old policies, but also pave the way for alternative dynamics that can foster a viable and democratic counter movement.          A group of prominent and committed scholars on social democracy in the South, most of them from Scandinavia and from India, decided four years ago to discuss these issues in several joint workshops. In this book, the outcome of their deliberations, they focus on the core dimensions of social democratic development and then read the two most critical cases in the South and North against each other in historical perspective, those of India and Scandinavia.     In order not to take ready-made Scandinavian solutions as points of departure, they start off from the challenges in India, only thereafter looking for useful Scandinavian and other experiences. They also consider whether and how Scandinavia is affected by uneven development in countries like India, thus casting fresh light on the current problems of social democracy in the North too.

  • 49. van den Top, Gerhard
    The Social Dynamics of Deforestation in the Philippines: Actions, Options and Motivations2003Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book offers a detailed case study into the dynamics of forest use, degradation and loss in North-east Luzon, Philippines. Following an interdisciplinary approach, the degradation and loss of forest cover in this area between 1950 and 1990 is related to the social and political context of logging, forest migration and changes in upland agriculture. The work makes a major contribution to knowledge both in the field of Philippine studies and in relation to deforestation, environmental change, political ecology and development.

    Based on 10 years of research, five of which in the Sierra Madre region, the author introduces us to the actions, livelihood options and motives of all the principal groups of actors. Using a stimulating and fascinating balance between systematic survey data and the qualitative, almost anecdotal, reporting of conversations with these key actors, this book offers a compelling insight into the long history of national, regional and local outsiders gaining access to the natural resources and lands of this last large forest frontier in the Philippines.

  • 50. Waldemarsson, Christoffer
    Don't worry, be happy: En lägesrapport för de nordiska demokratierna2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nordiska ministerrådet ha analyserat data från intervjuer med invånare i Norden för att undersöka hur synen på demokratin och det demokratiska deltagandet förändrats sedan början på 2000-talet.

    Undersökningen visar att intresset för politik har ökat i Norden sedan 2002, samtidigt som det inte går att se någon entydig trend vad gäller förtroendet förde nationella parlamenten och tilliten till politiker. Jämfört med övriga Europa har nordborna ett högt förtroende för EU-parlamentet. Intresset för politik är också större i Norden än i övriga Europa.

    Denna rapport är författad av Nordiska ministerrådets analys- och statistikenhet. Enhetens rapportserie ska belysa aktuella ämnen som är centrala utifrån ett nordiskt perspektiv.

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