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  • 1.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Greve Harbo, Lisbeth
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perspectives on labour mobility in the Nordic-Baltic region: Mobility trends between the Baltic and Nordic states and different national policy approaches to the increased mobility in the macro-region2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is one outcome of a project on labour mobility between the Nordic-Baltic countries: “Enhanced Nordic-Baltic co-operation on challenges of labour mobility in the Nordic-Baltic region” that the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Offi ce in Lithuania led during 2014-2016 in co-operation with the the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Offi ces in Estonia and Latvia, and Nordregio in Sweden. Th e overall objective of the project was to facilitate understanding and strengthen co-operation within the Nordic-Baltic region on labour mobility and demographic development across Nordic and Baltic municipalities and regions. Th e project is a follow-up of the initiative “Challenges of Migration in the Nordic-Baltic Region: Impact on National Labour Markets, Welfare State and Demographic Situation” implemented by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Offi ces in the Baltic States in 2013. Among other activities realized within the framework of this 2014-2016 initiative are the following conferences: • Family and Migration in the Baltic-Nordic Region: Challenges and Solutions, Vilnius, 21 November 2014 • Labour Migration in the Nordic-Baltic Region: Trends of Labour Migration - Ready for Changes? Tallinn, 27 March 2015 For a full overview of the project and related publications, please see Nordregio’s website: www.nordregio.se/BLAM

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  • 2.
    Copus, Andrew
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Social innovation in local development: Lessons from the Nordic countries and Scotland2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents background research on the work carried out by Nordregio in the project “Social Innovation in Local Development in the Nordic Countries and Scotland”, which was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Working Group on Demography and Welfare. The main objectives of the project were to investigate the concept of social innovation in relation to local and rural development, study the governance context in social innovation in rural areas in the Nordics and Scotland, conduct case studies in rural areas in all the Nordic countries and Scotland, as well as study the existing support systems for social innovation in particular in rural areas. The case studies are summarised in a separate document and on the project’s website.

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  • 3.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Langlais, Richard
    Larsson, Veronique
    City-region planning for everyday life: Experiences from four Nordic city-regions2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Whether cities can provide a high quality of life for their inhabitants is an increasingly pressing question, especially in the light of rapid urbanization and climate change. However, recent research from four Nordic city-regions —which include Malmö, Stavanger, Aalborg and Tampere, and the areas around them—shows that detailed knowledge about inhabitants—permanent, temporary, new, multi-generational, or otherwise—in every part and subset of the city-region is lacking in spatial planning. If knowledge about the lives of those living in the city-regions is insufficient, then, how can specific spatial structures for a city-region be proposed as responses to different sustainability chal­lenges?

    As a response, this policy brief proposes that, city-region planners should adopt Everyday Life Theory, (1) to influence everyday life practices in support of city-region sustainability; and (2) to better connect spatial structure/ urban form with existing sustainability challenges. By adopting Everyday Life Theory, we mean that planning should be based on empirical knowledge about the needs and experiences of different groups of people in relation to four different dimensions: employment, housing provision, mobility and social reproduction.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Green growth and spatial planning in the Nordic city regions2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 5.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 3 2016: Migration and integration2016Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The old age dependency rate is a ticking time bomb that threatens to blow the Nordic welfare model into pieces. Old age dependency rates are rising across the Nordic countries as in most parts of Europe. Due to a selective outmigration of young people towards the cities, the dependency rates are particularly high in rural municipalities, where access to healthcare services is one of the major issues. This issue of Nordregio News focuses on recent migration flows and the Nordic societies’ readiness to welcome the newcomers.

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  • 6.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sanchez Gassen, Nora
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Scenarios for 2015-2080: The impact of migration on population and ageing2016Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    One possible policy option for countries concernedabout declining or aging populations is replacementmigration – allowing or even encouraginginternational migration in order to counteract declineand aging of native populations. In the pasttwo decades, net international migration into theNordic region has been a much larger contributorto population growth than natural increase. Thispolicy brief explores the likely demographic contributionof migration to population growth in theNordic countries in the future and the extent that itcould compensate for population decline or aging.

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  • 7.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sanchez Gaussen, Nora
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    The impact of migration on projected population trends in Denmark, Finland,Iceland, Norway and Sweden: 2015–20802016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible policy option for countries concerned about declining or aging populations is replacement migration – allowing or even encouraging international migration in order to counteract decline and aging of native populations. In the past two decades, net international migration into the Nordic region has been a much larger contributor to population growth than natural increase. This policy brief explores the likely demographic contribution of migration to population growth in the Nordic countries in the future and the extent that it could compensate for population decline or aging.

    The population of a country grows or declines as a result of thecombination of two trends. One is natural increase, the difference between the number of births and deaths. A number of European countries have been experiencing ‘negative naturalincrease’ (i.e. more deaths than births) because women havehad fertility rates well below two children per woman and olderage structures. In recent decades, the Nordic countries have had positive natural increase as a result of having relatively higher fertility rates of just below two children per woman and relatively younger age structures.

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  • 8.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Local development initiatives2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic trends in the Nordic countries are characterised by urbanisation, mobility and ageing population. Many municipalities and societies – especially those that are distant from large cities – are deeply affected by these changes, and they are facing serious challenges when it comes to issues such as ensuring a population of skilled people and access to both public and private services. The Nordic countries share these challenges, and therefore there is great interest in learning from one another in the Nordic region when it comes to how to meet the challenges.

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  • 9.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Schwenke Fors, Bjarge
    Scott, James
    Cross-border co-operation: - still an undeveloped potential? Nordregio News Issue 1 20152015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we focus on cross-border co-operation and its impact on regional development in Nordicand European border regions. We have studied how crossborder co-operation is structured and managed, and whether its full potential for sustainable growth has been realized. Theadded value of cross-border  co-operation can be defined and measured in various ways, including improvement of crossborder infrastructure and increasing flows of tourists.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Local and regional approaches to demographic change2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As a follow-up to the Handbook on Demographic Challenges in the Nordic countries, the Nordregio Working Paper Local and Regional Approaches to Demographic Change looks closer at examples of how to meet demographic challenges at local and regional levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Youth perspectives on their future in the Nordic Arctic2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions of how to retain and attract young populations are central issues for regional policy development in the Nordic Arctic. Nordregio and the Nordic working group on sustainable regional development in the Arctic have carried out an analysis to uncover young people's own perspectives of their future possibilities in Arctic communities. This policy brief summarises the main findings of a number of qualitative case studies about young people living in remote locations. The aim is to voice the ambitions and future expectations of the young generation.

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  • 12.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Smeds, Lise
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Greve Harbo, Lisbeth
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Future Regional Development Policy for the Nordic Arctic: Foresight Analysis 2013–20162017 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concludes a three-year foresight process on the topic of future sustainable regional development in the Nordic Arctic (2013–2016), based on the mandate given by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy to the Nordic Working Group for Sustainable Regional Development in the Arctic. The mandate has been “to provide input to the further development of the NCM Arctic Co-operation Programme by collecting, reviewing and analysing existing information, assessing different preconditions for future development in the area and developing future scenarios. This will contribute to the political debate and give a more holistic overview of the scientific knowledge in the field.” The Nordic Working Group decided to implement this task by conducting a foresight analysis. To guide the work of the three-year project, three overarching questions were defined for the foresight analysis. 1. What social and resource conditions can be expected to have a decisive influence on regional development in the Arctic over the next 10, 20 and 30 years? 2. How will the management of these conditions affect the living standards and future prospects for the regions? 3. What are the implications of the identified challenges and opportunities for future planning and regional policy? Previous foresight analyses have been carried out for the North Calotte region as part of the broader geographical area of the Northern Sparsely Populated Areas (Gløersen et al. 2009) and for the West Nordic countries (Gløersen, 2012). However, this is the first foresight analysis that covers the Nordic Arctic region as a whole. It has been essential for this study to adopt a bottom-up perspective in the process with participation from citizens of local communities across the Nordic Arctic in the initial vision phase. As part of the process, specific attention has also been paid to youth participation and local and regional business development potential. As a supple- 1. Introduction ment to the foresight analysis, Working Papers have been produced on the topics of youth perspectives on future development (Karlsdóttir and Jungsberg, 2015) and challenges and opportunities for sustainable business development (Olsen et al. 2016).

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  • 13.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Ström Hildestrand, Åsa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Fler flyktingar fortare i arbete: Åtgärder för snabbare etablering på arbetsmarknaden2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna policy brief sammanfattar den kunskapsöversiktsom Nordregio tagit fram hösten 2017 på detta tema, för publicering i december 2017: Policies and measures to speed up labour market integration of refugees inthe Nordic region - A knowledge Overview, baserad på aktuell forskning och utvärderingar från samtliganordiska länder utom Island p.g.a. landets relativtsett begränsade flyktingmottagande. Läs mer på www.integrationnorden.org

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  • 14.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Ström Hildestrand, Åsa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Cuadrado, Alex
    Policies and measures for speeding up labour market integration of refugees in the Nordic region: A knowledge overview2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It takes on average five to ten years for a refugee to find work in the Nordic countries. As social inclusion is closely linked to successful labour market integration, and as during this period the refugee represents a cost to society, the question of how to ensure access to the labour market has been a prominent issue on the political agenda. Since the countries show both differences and similarities in their migration policies and practical solutions, the question is how we can learn from each other.

    In 2016 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a co-operation programme designed to support the national efforts on integrationof refugees and immigrants. The Nordic Welfare Centre has the overall responsibility for the main project “Nordic collaboration on integration of refugees and migrants” in close collaboration with Nordregio.

    The aim of the project is to serve as an idea bank on the integration area, to map out existing knowledge and research, and to expand our common knowledge base on integration. This report was produced by Nordregio on behalf of the Nordic Welfare Centre and is the result of a comparative study of policies and measures in place in the countries for achieving more efficient labour market integration of refugees.

    Read more at www.integrationnorden.org

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  • 15. Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Hanell, Tomas
    Godal, Odd
    Nordregio News 2 2014: Monitoring Territorial Dynamics2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we take a tour of territorial monitoring – looking at conceptual, practical and applied aspects of producing and using such knowledge.

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  • 16.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 1 2016: Industrial Symbiosis2016Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a theme issue of Nordregio News, offering you an overview of industrial symbiosis in the Nordic countries. By browsing through this issue you will get a picture of what it is, why has it become a hot topic, what motivates the industries to get involved and what interesting results we have found through our case studies.

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  • 17.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2015: Overview issue of current projects2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This is a special issue of Nordregio News, offering you an overview of current research areas and projects that we are involved in here at Nordregio. With the new layout and content structure, we wish to make the magazine more readable and easier to navigate.

    In 2015, we have put substantial resources into research commissioned and funded by the four Nordic working groups  under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy: Demography and welfare; Sustainable regional development in the Arctic; Green growth - innovation and entrepreneurship; and Sustainable urban regions. We are pleased to say that many regional case studies, Foresight analysis and policy overviews were conducted during the year, in addition to the development and launch of the interactive web-mapping tool, NordMap. The Nordic Demography Programme was finalised and three large-scale EU-funded projects started: REGINA, Baltic SCOPE and Baltic Urban Lab.  More information on some of these projects will be found in this issue.

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  • 18.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Aaltonen, Johanna
    Brahea Centre at the University of Turku.
    Rusanen, Maija
    Union of the Baltic Cities Sustainable Cities Commission.
    Making the most of brownfield sites in the Baltic Sea Region: Baltic Urban Lab has identified new ways to improve planning processes through public-private-people partnerships – the 4P approach2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Brownfield regeneration involves the redevelopment of underutilised areas of a city. This contributes to limiting urban sprawl and promotes investment to restore land that has been contaminated by industrial activity. As such, it is an important path towards more integrated, resilient and sustainable urban development. The European Environment Agency (EEA) estimates that there are three million urban brownfield sites with potential for future regeneration in Europe. In the Baltic Urban Lab project, partners around the Central Baltic Region have identified planning challenges in brownfield regeneration and developed solutions to tackle them through early and broad stakeholder involvement.

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  • 19.
    Penje, Oskar
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Stjernberg, Mats
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Total population change 2008 - 2017 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: Statistical unit 1,000x1,000 meters2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The map shows population change 2008-2017 at a statistical grid level of 1,000 x 1,000 meters. In this map, the data is localised through the grid cell midpoints to create visual homogeneity across national borders. The map is part of the report ‘Population change dynamics in Nordic municipalities - grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level’, which is the main output from the Thematic Group for Sustainable Cities and Urban Development -project ‘Small and medium-sized cities in the Nordic and Arctic regions’.

    The report seeks to form a more nuanced understanding of the population developments occurring in the Nordics that may be less apparent, or not evident at all, at more general territorial levels. The intention of the study is to shed light on the following questions: What types of population dynamics occurred in the Nordic countries at the municipal and grid levels during 2008–2017? To what degree do changes at the local level correspond to more general population development at the municipal level? What types of changes can be seen within municipalities, especially in small and medium-sized cities? Findings from the project demonstrate that population data at the grid level are well-suited for identifying demographic change processes and trends occurring within regions and municipalities.

    While this study concentrates on changes in population size over time, it is evident that gridded statistics offer further potential for uncovering trends that are concealed at more general levels of analysis. To fully realise the potential of grid level data at the Nordic level, further harmonisation of data processing and availability is required.

    The map was produced through the project Small and Medium-sized Cities in the Nordic Countries and has also been published in Nordregio Report 2019:1: Population Change Dynamics in Nordic Municipalities – Grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level which can be found here: http://doi.org/10.30689/R2019:1.1403-2503 

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  • 20. Pettersson, Katarina
    Kvinnors företagande inom lantgårdsbaserad turism - Genus i förändring på svenska landsbygder?2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Landsbygden genomgår för närvarande en omvandling från produktionslandskap till konsumtions- och upplevelselandskap. Turismnäringen är också den näring som växer mest internationellt sett. Omsättningen i turismnäringen i Sverige har ökat med över 80 procent sedan år 2000. Detta är en potential som landsbygden och dess företagare kan kapitalisera på.

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  • 21.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Sustainable Regions - Sustainable Local Communities2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of experience in dealing with ongoing changes in resource-based regions and communities in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Regions of the Nordic countries and Canada.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördis Rut
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Wøien, Mari
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Meckl, Markus
    Enhanced Labour Market Opportunities for Immigrant Women: – case studies from arctic cities2018Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is the outcome of a comparative study focusing on immigrant women’s access to the labour market in small and medium-sized cities in the Arctic region. The study is funded by the Nordic Gender Equality Fund, which supports projects aimed at knowledge sharing and problem solving with regards to gender equality across the Nordic countries. The research was carried out by the University of Akureyri, Nordregio and the University of Lapland. The project was to investigate policies and applied practices in three small and medium-sized cities in the Nordic countries: Akureyri in Iceland, Luleå in Sweden and Rovaniemi in Finland. The objective was to identify and share best practices for improving labour market integration among immigrant women. The project also sought to examine how private and public actors may improve the opportunities in the labour market for immigrant women, as well as to give these women a voice through in-depth interviews about their labour market integration experiences in the abovementioned Nordic Arctic cities. The case studies figuring in this publication are to be taken as a first explorative enquiry into the varied local circumstances regarding labour marketintegration and practices. The case studies andthe desktop research form the basis for this publication. The University of Akureyri conducted the case study in Akureyri, Nordregio in Luleå and the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi. The interviews for the case studies were carried out between September and December 2017. Subsequently, the material from each case study was analysed with desktop material, articles and documents ondifferent language and labour market measures. It is important to keep in mind that this area of research is highly dynamic, and the different initiatives in place are subject to change due to e.g.political change.

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  • 23. Slätmo, Elin
    et al.
    Ormstrup Vestergård, Louise
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Urban–rural flows from seasonal tourism and second homes: Planning challenges and strategies in the Nordics2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimations for the Nordic population is that half of the 27 million inhabitants have access to a holiday home, via ownership, family or friends. People use second homes during the summer or winter season and increasingly at weekends; therefore, our analyses find that a continuous counter-urbanisation process exists in the Nordic Region. We conclude that second homes and seasonal tourists are primarily considered a positive asset for job creation, planning of cultural activities and provision of services. At the same time, the central challenges are adapting the welfare system and services to these large flows of voluntary temporary inhabitants. This motivates us to recommend policymakers and decision-makers in the Nordic Region to discuss whether municipal income taxes should be shared between municipalities, based on the locations of the permanent home and the second home. The main rationale behind this recommendation is that the infrastructure and welfare system could then be better adapted to the actual number of people who spend time in each municipality and make use of the local welfare system.

    Errata to the map Second Homes in 2017 (p.13 in the report): The statement “In total, there are 67 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.” Should be “ In total, there are 65 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.”

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    Nordregio report 2019:13 urban rural flows
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  • 24.
    Slätmo, Elin
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Vestergård, Louise Ormstrup
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Compact cities trigger high use of second homes in the Nordic Region2020Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of spending time in a second home—a sommerhus, sumarhús, mökki, hytta or fritidshus—is an expression of the high quality of life in the Nordic countries. Estimations suggest that around half of the Nordic population have access to a second home via ownership, family or friends, and these ‘rural’ second homes are increasingly used all year round. The dominant understanding of the Nordic region is ongoing urbanisation, where people move from rural areas to urban centres.The analyses in this study nuance this understanding as there is also mobility from urban permanent homes to rural second homes ongoing throughout the year. This policy brief presents possibilities for how spatial planning can include second home users and seasonal tourists more directly as a factor for local development, in statistics and through proactive spatial planning.

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  • 25.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Planning Nordic City Regions: Challenges and Opportunities2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary challenges for the development of sustainable urban regions in the Nordic countries relate to how physical planning can contribute to green growth and city-regional competitiveness. More specifically, three types of challenges have been identified. The first relates to urban form and issues involving urban qualities and densification processes, accommodating rapid population growth, localisation and the mixing of urban functions. The second relates to social inclusion and segregation, the everyday life perspective and diversified lifestyles and mobility. Finally, while planning at the city-regional scale is increasingly seen as a way to meet these challenges, such a perspective also calls into question the traditional ways in which Nordic cities and regions are planned; the third type of challenge is therefore the fact that there is a recognised need for new and innovative forms of planning and governance.

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  • 26.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universitet.
    Wänström, Johan
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universite.
    Att skapa regioner och organisera för regional utveckling2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regionerna är viktiga pusselbitar i de nordiska ländernas välfärdsystem inte minst inom sjukvårdsområdet och för kollektivtrafiken. Men regionernas roll i samhällsplaneringen är mer oklar. Regioner är både aktörer och arenor för att skapa hållbar utveckling. Regionernas form och funktion är dock inte en oproblematisk fråga, som politiker, planerare och forskare försöker finna svar på. 

    Det experimenteras just nu mycket kringformell och informell regional organisering framför allt i de nordiska länderna. Syftet med denna text är att ge en kortfattad översiktöver problematiken och vad forskningen berättar omatt organisera regional utveckling och tillväxt, men också att lyfta fram några nordiska erfarenheter.

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  • 27.
    Stjernberg, Mats
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Penje, Oskar
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Population Change Dynamics in Nordic Municipalities: – Grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level2019Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, grid-based statistics from different Nordic countries are used in an integrated way to study demographic changes at local level within regions, municipalities and cities; especially cities or towns that could be considered small and medium-sized. One of the main methodological questions guiding the study is how fine-grained grid-level statistics can be used as a compliment to more general statistics bound to administrative areas such as municipalities and regions. This report seeks to form a more nuanced understanding of the population developments occurring in the Nordics that may be less apparent, or not evident at all, at more general territorial levels. The intention of the study is to shed light on the following questions: What types of population dynamics occurred in the Nordic countries at the municipal and grid levels during 2008–2017? To what degree do changes at the local level correspond to more general population development at the municipal level? What types of changes can be seen within municipalities, especially in small and medium-sized cities?

    The findings show that, the Nordic Region is undergoing highly unbalanced population develop­ment, and there are notable differences in demo­graphic trends both between and within countries.

    Also, the findings demonstrate that population data at the grid level are well-suited for identifying demographic change processes and trends occurring within regions and municipalities. While this study concentrates on changes in population size over time, it is evident that gridded statistics offer further potential for uncovering trends that are concealed at more general levels of analysis. To fully realise the potential of grid level data at the Nordic level, further harmonisation of data processing and availability is required.

    The population change map on page 19 can be found seperately through this link: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1280442&dswid=8902 

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  • 28.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bioeconomy - the growth engine for Nordic regions?2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Why this buzz about bioeconomy, you might wonder? Perhaps because it can be seen as a “silver bullet”, able to avert several staggering threats to our societies: economic and demographic decline in rural areas; joblessness and the climate crises. Clearly, there are several good reasons for the Nordic countries to dig deeper into their bountiful biological assets. First, it is about replacing fossil fuels with biofuels and replacing non-degradable products with bio-degradable ones. Second, the bioeconomy could boost the productivity and product development within agriculture, fisheries, forestry and the chemical industry. Finally, the bioeconomy creates new jobs in sparsely populated areas, by utilizing existing natural resources in new ways.

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  • 29.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Giacometti, Alberto
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bioeconomy in the Nordic region: Regional case studies2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Working Paper by Nordregio presents the results of five case studies on bioeconomy in Nordic regions. It contributes to the discussion on bioeconomy in the Nordic countries by focusing on its implications for regional development and policy.

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  • 30.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bringing attention back to the city centre: - six Nordic examples2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Many small and medium-sized Nordic cities are dealing with challenges related to the role and development of their city centres. They use strategies related to urban planning, governance and business development, to aim for greater compactness, attractiveness, economic development and sustainability. What can we learn from the Nordic countries’ different approaches to city-centre development? This policy brief summarises investigations in six small and medium-sized Nordic cities.

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  • 31.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bogason, Ágúst
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    The Compact City of the North: – functions, challenges and planning strategies2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the characteristics and consequences of the compact city ideal in Nordic cities, and more specifically in their city centres, are investigated. The research was done in the form of a series of small case studies of city centre development, and they are presented thematically. They focus on public spaces and the threat from external shopping, densification as a planning strategy, new housing as a planning tool, and finally governance and actor collaboration. The Nordic region is dominated by small and medium sized cities, and we chose the following cities for our investigation of city centre challenges and planning strategies: Bodø (Norway), Kokkola (Finland), Mariehamn (Åland), Mosfellsbær (Iceland), Sorø (Denmark) and Västervik (Sweden).

    The cities were investigated through planning and policy documents, interviews and observations, and the work was guided by the following questions: What does “the compact city” mean in the investigated cities – and how is it operationalized? What are the main planning problems related to city centres, and what are the visions for the future in relation to these? What can we learn from different ways of approaching city centre development across the different Nordic countries? Two strong themes related to development in city centres, and to the commonly held view that the city core needs to be strengthened, regenerated or recreated, are competition from external shopping centres, and urban sprawl.

     These themes point to the challenges to the central city as the one and only centre. The examples from the Nordic region show that the competition from external shopping is very real, and that planning regulations do not always have the desired effect on the competition. This has led to a variety of responses – new central housing, new attractive spaces, new types of plans and new governance collaborations. In addition to their different approaches to competition from external shopping, cities employ diverse strategies to increase the critical mass of people who populate the city and its venues.

    This study was interested in what the city centre is, or should be, when it no longer has an obvious role. The investigations have led us to conclude that there is no essence to be found and it is instead important to understand the city centre as dynamic and constantly changing. In line with this, the importance of actor collaboration and flexible urban spaces are among the lessons learned from the study.

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    Errata
  • 32.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Liliegreen, Curt
    The Knowledge Centre for Housing Economics.
    Kurvinen, Antti
    Tampere University.
    Sveinsson, Jón Rúnar
    The Reykjavík Academy.
    Nordahl, Berit Irene
    Urban and regional research institute OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University.
    Granath Hansson, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Building affordable homes: Challenges and solutions in the Nordic Region2020Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this publication is primarily on newbuilding for low-income and vulnerable groups, often referred to in English as ‘affordable housing’, that is, housing for groups on the market’s periphery who suffer from high barriers. The financial aspects of housing are central, especially as regards new-building costs, subsidies, social housing models, and affordability. Nordic cities are segregated, and new housing development, application of diverse forms of tenure, and housing subsidies are examples of tools that can either worsen or reduce segregation, depending on how they are used. The market seems unable, on its own, to supply enough suitable housing for students, young people, low-income groups, and newly arrived immigrants, among others. This is of political interest since it challenges the whole idea of the Nordic welfare model, and social cohesion and equality as characteristics of the Nordic region.

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  • 33.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Forskning och praktik i samverkan om medborgardeltagande i stadsplanering2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprojektet som startade 2016 genomför bland annat en kartläggning av dialogaktiviteter i planeringsprocesser i tolv svenska kommuner mellan år 2000-2015. Kartläggningen är betydelsefull eftersom det inte sedan tidigare finns någon sammanställning av planprocesser som (utöver det obligatoriska samrådet) har innehållit dialogaktiviteter. Den är dessutom en utmaning, eftersom det inte finns någon exakt definition av vad en planeringsdialog är, eller några enhetliga former för hur dialogaktiviteter ska dokumenteras. Av bland annat dessa orsaker är det återkommande samtalet mellan forskarna och referensgruppen med kommunala tjänstepersoner av stor vikt. I denna policy brief berättas om hur projektet präglas av det kontinuerliga samtalet mellan forskning och praktik, och det görs även ett nedslag i ett fördjupat samtal om praktikers lärdomar kring medborgardeltagande.

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  • 34.
    Wang, Shinan
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Roto, Johanna
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Arledal Thunell, Pontus
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Demografisk sårbarhet: En gemensam utmaning örkommunerna längs riksgränsenmellan Norge och Sverige2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to emphasize the diversity and variety of Nordic regions and municipalities, Nordregio has been utilising the concept of “demographic vulnerabilities”, which is based on demographic data. This approach has been used since 2011 to analyse Nordic and Baltic municipalities and regions. In this project, it will be brought up to date, relying on statistical data from 2018, with a focus on the Swedish – Norwegian border.

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  • 35.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Green growth and spatial planning in the Nordic city regions2014Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief aims to provide planners with a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges presented by the use of sustainability indicators to support urban planning and policy-making.

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  • 36.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Integrated Models: Planning Urban Sustainability2014Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief offers local and regional planners an introduction to the world of integrated urban modelling. It provides information on their potential benefits, implementation process and current use in the Nordic city-regions.

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  • 37.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    The Use of Integrated Urban Models in the Nordic Countries2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents the results of a survey on the use of Integrated Urban Models in the Nordic countries carried out by Nordregio's researchers (with preparatory support from WSP Analysis and Strategy). It reveals that the use of models is limited in the Nordic countries and provides an account of the underlying reasons why, despite the potential benefits they offer, models aren't more widely used.

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