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  • 1.
    Ala-Fossi, Marko
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Grönvall, John
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Karppinen, Kari
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nieminen, Hannu
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Chapter 4. Finland: Sustaining professional norms with fewer journalists and declining resources2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 153-196 Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Almlund, Pernille
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Art, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mølster, Ragnhild
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 6. Expressions of governance, risk, and responsibility: Public campaigns in the crisis and risk management of Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 121-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 pandemic, public campaigns were an important part of the Scandinavian health authorities’ strategies to combat the spread of the virus. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had different strategies to manage the crisis: Denmark had the most political crisis management, Sweden the most informational, and Norway was placed somewhere in between. This chapter examines how public risk and crisis communication during a pandemic was handled in these campaigns in the Scandinavian countries, how they function as a governance technology, and how this was carried out rhetorically. We show how indirect, governmental steering dominated the campaign rhetoric in Scandinavia, through a focus on the culturally decided aspects of purity and danger, and through appeal to a sense of personal responsibility and willingness to avoid taking risks among the citizenry. Furthermore, we find that the campaigns are representative for the crisis management strategy in each country.

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  • 3.
    Arnesson, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Eric
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Chapter 3. To see and be seen: Gynaeopticism and platform surveillance in influencer marketing2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 67-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focal point of this chapter is surveillance practices in relation to social media influencers and digital marketing. The aim is to examine how the idea of surveillance can be expanded to include both social and technological aspects that work at individual, peer, and top-down levels. Drawing on examples from the Swedish influencer industry, we discuss and problematise how surveillance can be understood in such a context and how different dimensions of surveillance are manifested, exploited, and contested. The chapter concludes that participatory and gendered peer- and self-surveillance are an inherent part of influencer culture, and that the commercial success of influencers depends upon these practices. Similarly, platform surveillance and data mining connected to digital advertising can be understood as part of a contemporary commercialised surveillance culture that is closely related to both digital technology and the political economy of the influencer industry.  

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  • 4.
    Backholm, Klas
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business, and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Nordberg, Camilla
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies,  Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chapter 15. Efficient authority communication in times of crisis: Examining how vulnerable language minorities experienced Covid-19 communication strategies in Finland, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 325-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates how vulnerable language minorities in Finland, Norway, and Sweden experienced communication from authorities during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Disadvantaged language minorities have been shown to have a higher risk of pandemic-related health issues, and information from authorities about the crisis is typically mainly focused on the majority of the population. This chapter builds on secondary analysis of existing research and uses the communication ecology framework to study how language minorities experienced information about the Covid-19 pandemic, and which information strategies they experienced as in need of improvement. Furthermore, expert suggestions of best practices for reaching vulnerable language minorities with communication about the pandemic are investigated. The results show that while mediated information channels are important, for vulnerable language minorities, interpersonal discussions and local, context-bound activities become central for efficient communication from authorities in times of complex societal crisis.

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  • 5.
    Baroni, Alice
    et al.
    Department of Politics, Law and International Studies, University of Padova, Italy.
    d’Haenens, Leen
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Lo, Wai Han
    Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
    Chapter 3. Protecting journalists from harassment: Comparing existing protection mechanisms and the effects on democracy2022In: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, p. 59-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a quickly increasing body of studies and reports on harassment and intimidation of journalists around the world. These series of acts have a chilling effect on media freedom and journalists’ freedom of expression. The research literature on the topic has mostly focused on intimidation and harassment of journalists – particularly sexual harassment of women journalists – or journalists’ experiences of online harassment, and the impact on press censorship. In this chapter, we contribute to the debate by exploring the nexus between the harassment of journalists and the protection mechanisms adopted by leading news media organisations, professional journalism associations and other institutions, and national governments. We then discuss the effects on democracy in the 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM). Our findings indicate how legal support and protection mechanisms might enhance journalists’ capacity to realise the news media’s democratic role in practice.

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  • 6.
    Bjerling, Johannes
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Radio och TV i allmänhetens tjänst. Givet de förpliktigande orden är det inte konstigt att public service debatteras. I grund och botten är detta bra: Public service är en institution med makt och ska därför vara föremål för diskussion och debatt. 

    Men samtidigt som det är positivt att public service debatteras är det olyckligt om diskussionen fastnar i ”tyckande”. När det gäller public service finns det ju hyllmeter av akademisk forskning! Att tycka är inte fel – men att argumentera utifrån fakta väger onekligen tyngre. 

    Syftet med Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt är att på ett lättillgängligt sätt presentera vad empirisk forskning har kommit fram till i centrala frågor gällande public service. Kapitelförfattarna är verksamma vid svenska universitet och högskolor, och merparten av de resultat och slutsatser som presenteras bygger på genomgångar av tidigare publicerad forskning. I samtliga kapitel är det public services nyhetsjournalistik som fokuseras. 

    Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt vänder sig till alla med ett intresse för public service – inte minst politiker, journalister och samhällsdebattörer. 

    Boken har redigerats av Johannes Bjerling, vetenskaplig redaktör vid Nordicom. 

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  • 7.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Burkal, Rasmus
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Mayerhöffer, Eva
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Willig, Ida
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 4. Denmark: High media independence and informal democratic traditions in the newsroom2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 147-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Department of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Guðmundsson, Birgir
    School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Chapter 12. The role of journalism in a time of national crisis: Examining criticism and consensus in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden during the Covid-19 pandemic2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 261-282Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to examine the conditions for the practice of critical journalism in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, during the Covid-19 pandemic. We focus on two aspects, one practical and one discursive. First, we focus on journalists’ access to relevant information about the pandemic, as access plays a key role in the practice of critical reporting. Second, we focus on metajournalistic discourse, understood as how public debate about ­journalism shapes the practice of journalism. We found that information access was challenged in all three countries, but in different ways. We also found elements of a metajournalistic discourse. In Denmark, this discourse expressed concern about journalism being too critical, while in Sweden and Iceland, the concern was more a lack of critical reporting. We argue that the differences found can best be explained by the different Covid-19 communication strategies in the three countries.

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  • 9.
    Bonenfant, Maude
    et al.
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Dumont, Alexandra
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Lafrance St-Martin, Laura I.
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Chapter 1. Being played in everyday life: Massive data collection on mobile games as part of ludocapitalist surveillance dispositif2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance in videogames is a well-known phenomenon. Designated as the fastest-growing sector of the videogame industry, mobile games – particularly free-to-play games – capitalise substantially on the collection of user data. Based on the promise of offering personalised gaming and advertising experiences, a vast quantity of data, including personal identifier and geolocation data, is acquired through players’ mobile devices. While the information obtained may appear fragmented or invisible to players, they are consolidated in the hands of data brokers, resulting in a very lucrative economic sector. From this perspective, the practice of the mobile game, although innocuous at first consideration, raises essential ethical questions regarding the ludocapitalist surveillance dispositif established by this industry. In this chapter, we seek to problematise everyday surveillance in mobile gaming, explain how the videogame and marketing industries operate it, and examine gamers’ (“ordinary” citizens) involvement in the banalisation of this massive data gathering. 

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  • 10.
    Bonfadelli, Heinz
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    A. Meier, Werner
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schanne, Michael
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich.
    Chapter 9. Switzerland: Highly concentrated leading news media in austerity and downsizing mode2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 381-454 Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Bonfadelli, Heinz
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Nord, Lars
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vandenberghe, Hanne
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Chapter 6. Comparing news media reach: Exploring effects of asymmetric news media consumption2022In: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the topic of whether news media in different countries are still able to reach the general public and generate a shared public sphere as a prerequisite of democratic countries. The empirical part of the chapter focuses on the extent to which the different segments of the society use news media like newspapers, radio, television, and social media, comparing the results from 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) research project. We conclude that most people in most countries still use the news media regularly, although country-specific gaps exist related to sociodemographic factors like age, gender, and especially education and income. Most conspicuous is an intergenerational gap insofar 

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  • 12.
    Bucht, Catharina
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mediebarometern 2019: Tema generationer2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mediebarometern är en årlig undersökning av den svenska befolkningens tillgång till, och användning av, olika typer av medier. Resultaten i 2019 års undersökning bygger på svar från omkring 6 000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer i åldern 9 till 79 år. I Mediebarometern 2019: Tema generationer analyseras medieanvändningen i olika åldersgrupper. Rapporten har skrivits av Catharina Bucht vid Nordicom. 

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  • 13.
    Byerly, Carolyn M.
    et al.
    Department of Communication, Culture & Media Studies at Howard University, USA.
    McGraw, Katherine A.
    Chapter 5. Axes of power: Examining women’s access to leadership positions in the news media2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, Maria (Eds.), Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 191-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 5, "Axes of power: Examining women's access to leadership positions in the news media", by Carolyn M. Byerly and Katherine A. McGraw examines how and to what extent women have made their way into the reporting and management levels within the profession of journalism, and whether their presence in the higher ranks of the newsroom hierarchy is associated with a larger amount of women-oriented news content. Although women have made significant strides as reporters and news presenters, the advancement to management and governance roles – the positions of power – has been significantly slower. Looking cross-nationally, the authors test the critical mass theory while also considering the extent to which national development, indicators of women’s status, and the numbers of women practicing journalism might affect women journalists’ place in newsroom hierarchies of the 59 nations they examine. The research is based on the largest global-level study to date on women’s occupational standing within the news industry, the Global Report on the Status of Women in News Media, led by Byerly (2011) for the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF).

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  • 14.
    d’Haenens, Leen
    et al.
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Lo, Wai Han
    Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
    Moore, Martin
    Department of Political Economy, King’s College London, Great Britain.
    Chapter 16. Innovation in journalism: How technology affects the news media, publication formats, and the journalist profession2022In: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, p. 337-345Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes as its starting point an indicator for the diversity of news formats from the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) project as an important feature for plurality of information. A wide range of news formats through different types of newspapers, television, radio, and online media is seen as a positive characteristic of media systems, especially since ownership diversity does not automatically translate into news format diversity. We make a connection between diversity of news formats and innovation in journalism: As news media seek to develop new news formats and solutions, broadcasters and news editors are setting up “news labs” to meet the expectations of their audiences. New storytelling methods and algorithms are being experimented with. This chapter collects examples of good practices of innovation in journalism in the countries participating in the 2021 MDM, but it also offers the opportunity to look elsewhere. It becomes clear that output is changing and diversifying thanks to innovation, and that innovation shapes newsroom culture as well as the journalist profession. 

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  • 15.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 4. Explaining gender equality in news content: Modernisation and a gendered media field2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 147-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the chapter "Explaining gender equality in news content: Modernisation and a gendered media field" by Monika Djerf-Pierre, the author examines the possible explanations to the variations in gender equality in news media content across the globe, by drawing from two different approaches: the modernisation approach and the gendered media fields approach. The modernisation approach links the level of gender equality in the media to broader processes of socio-economic development and to the standing of women in society at large. The gendered field approach instead puts focus on how conditions in the media field influence the status of women in the news media in different societies. The results show that the media-world of news is considerably less “gender equal” than the “real-world”, but also that both approaches are important to consider; the extent to which gender inequalities in the news have been alleviated depends on a combination of societal and media field factors. Countries where women have a higher standing in society, more women in the journalism field, and more autonomy for journalists, also have more gender equality in the news.

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  • 16.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 1: Introduction. Comparing gender and media equalityacross the globe: Understanding the qualities, causes, and consequences2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 11-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter by Monika Djerf-Pierre and Maria Edström provides the rationale behind the project Comparing gender and media equality across the globe and clarifies the normative theories supporting the strive for gender equality in and through the news media. The project examines equality in news media content as well as in news media organisations and conducts empirical analyses of both the causes and consequences of media and gender equality in countries across the globe. Furthermore, a unique dataset is developed within the project; The GEM dataset pools together existing comparative data on gender equality in the media, making them available for use by the global research community.  The chapter also highlights previous research, discusses the key methodological considerations, explains the value of the various datasets used in the project, and provides an overview on the global commitments to improve gender equality in the media, as a context for this study. Finally, we give an overview of the whole book and a summary of the main insights from the project:

    • Gender equality in the news media is lacking in most countries in the world. 
    • Gender equality in the news media reflects that journalism is a semi-autonomous field. 
    • The news media misrepresents reality when it comes the actual progress of gender equality in the world.  
    • The news media logic operates as a global homogeniser. 
    • Progress is both fast and slow. 
    • The gender gap in the news content is most likely greater than the gender gap in news media access and use.
    • Monitoring instruments and reliable data are needed to know if progress occurs.
    • Gender data on the media are still lacking.
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  • 17.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 2: The GEM-Index: Constructing a unitary measure of gender equality in the news2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 59-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In chapter 2, "The GEM Index: Constructing a unitary measure of gender equality in the news" by Monika Djerf-Pierre and Maria Edström, the authors develop a unitary measure of gender equality in news media content. Although gender and journalism has been a prolific area of research since the 1970s, we still lack a robust and easy-to-use measure to quantify, assess, and track the magnitude and persistence of gender inequalities in the news. By drawing from data collected by the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP), the authors devise the Gender Equality in the news Media Index (GEM-I) – a composite index that estimate the gender gap between women and men regarding their status in the news. The GEM-I confirms a male bias in the news. Most countries in the world display news cultures that to various degrees marginalises women. Women get a regular but unequal presence in the news and more seldom appear in roles and topics that are gender-typed as masculine, such as politics and economy.

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  • 18.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, MariaDepartment of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of women’s voices, status, and recognition in the news media is a challenge to both human rights and a sustainable future. Comparing Gender and Media Equality across the Globe addresses longstanding questions in the study of gender equality in media content and media organisations across countries and over time. Drawing on data from the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP), European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE), and the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF), this book offers new insights into the qualities, causes, and consequences of gender equality in and through the news media. The book contributes to the critical discussion on gender and journalism, showing that the news media do not reflect reality when it comes to the actual progress of gender equality in societies across the globe. The study aims to inspire future research by making existing data on gender and news media equality available to the global research community. The book presents the GEM-dataset, comprising hundreds of indicators on media and gender equality, and the GEM-Index, an easy to use measure to keep track of key aspects of gender equality in television, radio, newspapers, and online.

    “A trailblazing collection of high-quality studies from leading researchers all around the world. This splendidly edited book meets the great need for a comparative analysis of gender equality in and through news media in different regions. It is unique, full of useful empirical evidence, new insights, and reflections. This should without a doubt be required reading for anyone dealing with this issue – not least from the perspective of Agenda 2030”.

    – Professor Ulla Carlsson, UNESCO Chair on Freedom of Expression, Media Development and Global Policy at the University of Gothenburg

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  • 19.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Foreword2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequencesof Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 7-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Dwyer, Tim
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communications, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Wilding, Derek
    Centre for Media Transition, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Koskie, Tim
    Centre for Media Transition, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Chapter 2. Australia: Media concentration and deteriorating conditions for investigative journalism2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 59-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 5. Crafting a crisis: How the genre of the justifying press conference constituted the Covid-19 pandemic as an emergency and legitimised the power of authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 97-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why did citizens adhere to the strict measures imposed by national authorities during the early phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in March 2020? One part of the answer is the way the first press conferences constituted the situation as an urgent crisis and the authorities as legitimate leaders in charge. This chapter examines the rhetoric of government press conferences in Scandinavia during the initial outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. I discuss the press conference as a rhetorical genre and establish the studied press conferences as instances of a subgenre of the political press conference: the justifying press conference. Phases, procedures, and aims of this subgenre are defined, and the arrival phase is particularly examined. This chapter demonstrates how the multimodal aspects of the press conferences contributed to constituting the pandemic as an emergency and establishing the ethos of the authorities as active and responsible. This constitution functioned as a multimodal justification of the measures and actions taken and the legitimising of the power of the authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

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  • 22.
    Facht, Ulrika
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    MedieSverige 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska medielandskapet utvecklas i ett nära samspel med det omgivande samhället. De sociala, ekonomiska, politiska och teknologiska landskapen formar – och formas av – medielandskapet i en ständigt pågående process. I MedieSverige 2023 får läsaren en bred och aktuell översikt över det svenska medielandskapet. Genom att först belysa utvecklingen på de medieteknologiska och mediepolitiska områdena i Sverige, går rapporten vidare till att redovisa utvecklingen på publik- och reklammarknaderna, för att avslutningsvis beskriva den svenska mediestrukturen.

    MedieSverige 2023 bygger på ett rikt datamaterial från en rad olika källor. Rapporten riktar sig till studenter, lärare, forskare, journalister, beslutsfattare och alla andra som vill lära sig mer om det svenska medielandskapet.

    Den första utgåvan av rapportserien MedieSverige utkom för 40 år sedan. MedieSverige 2023 utgör den femtonde volymen i serien. Rapporten är skriven av Ulrika Facht vid Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.

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  • 23.
    Facht, Ulrika
    et al.
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ohlsson, Jonas
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    MedieSverige 20212021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strukturen för medierna och marknaden för dem  utvecklas i ett nära samspel med det omgivande samhället. De sociala, ekonomiska, politiska och teknologiska landskapen formar – och formas av – medielandskapet i en ständigt pågående process. I MedieSverige 2021 får läsaren en aktuell och bred översikt över dagens svenska medielandskap. Genom att först belysa utvecklingen på de medieteknologiska och mediepolitiska områdena i Sverige, går rapporten vidare till att redovisa utvecklingen på publik- och reklammarknaderna, för att avslutningsvis beskriva den svenska mediestrukturen. MedieSverige 2021 bygger på ett rikt datamaterial från en rad olika källor. Rapporten riktar sig till studenter, lärare, forskare, journalister, beslutsfattare och alla andra som vill lära sig mer om utvecklingen på den svenska mediemarknaden. Den första utgåvan av rapportserien MedieSverige utkom för över 30 år sedan. MedieSverige 2021 utgör den fjortonde volymen i serien. Rapporten är skriven av Ulrika Facht och Jonas Ohlsson vid Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet. 

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  • 24.
    Fehlmann, Fiona
    Department of Applied Media Studies, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Chapter 2. The legitimacy of public service media: A suggestion for a change of perspective2023In: Public Service Media's Contribution to Society: RIPE@2021 / [ed] M. Puppis & C. Ali, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 31-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the legitimacy of public service media (PSM) is often mentioned in the context of frameworks, such as the European Broadcasting Union’s contribution to society initiative, the emphasis is rarely on the concept of legitimacy and its meanings. This chapter provides different theoretical perspectives on the concept of legitimacy and argues that to conceptualise legitimacy as perception can be particularly helpful in research investigating PSM’s potential contribution to society. To illustrate this argument, past debates in the context of public value are analysed to show how the legitimacy of PSM has been primarily understood as the result of strategic communication processes. In addition, several research questions, methodological approaches, and challenges that can be considered in research on PSM by understanding legitimacy as perception are outlined.

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  • 25.
    Fidalgo, Joaquim 
    Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), University of Minho, Portugal.
    Chapter 7. Portugal: Impoverished media struggling for survival2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 297-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Fidalgo, Joaquim
    et al.
    Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), University of Minho, Portugal.
    Thomass, Barbara
    Institute for Media Studies, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Ruggiero, Christian
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Bomba, Mauro
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Sallusti, Simone
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Chapter 10. Ethical codes of conduct in journalism: Demands for a digitalising mediascape2022In: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, p. 211-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Codes of ethics are one of the most widespread instruments of (self-)regulation for journalistic activity, pointing out the best professional practices and ethical standards to be followed and the need to allow some kind of scrutiny by the public. Such codes have different names, scope, authorship, range of action, and enforcement capacity, as can be seen in the various reports of the 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) research project. In this chapter, an historical overview of the evolution of journalistic codes of ethics in different national media contexts is given, as well as an analysis of the cornerstones such codes are built upon in various countries. We discuss the specific virtues and shortcomings of such codes, with a particular emphasis on the new challenges brought by the digital media environment. The role played by codes of ethics, compared with the laws that regulate media, is also addressed. 

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  • 27.
    Fiskvik, Jannicke
    et al.
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Vik Bjarkø, Andrea
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Grøtan, Tor Olav
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Chapter 11. Vaccine rhetoric, social media, and dissensus: An analysis of civic discourse between Norwegian health authorities and citizens on Facebook and Twitter during crisis2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 241-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To shed light on the rhetorical aspects of communication during crisis, we examined the Norwegian discourse on Facebook and Twitter related to the issue of Covid-19 vaccines. Based on our review of recent Nordic studies, we compare our findings with existing studies on social media and Covid-19 in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. We apply the conceptual frame of rhetorical citizenship in our analysis of the rhetorical practices by Norwegian health authorities and how citizens perceived, supported, or contested information about Covid-19 vaccines between July 2020 and March 2021. The analysis shows a change over time and a shift of moods and arguments reflecting the unfolding of the crisis, going from scepticism to optimism, to disappointment and critique of the health authorities. Observing that social media dynamics may further unproductive dissensus, we argue that rhetorical practices are an essential aspect of communication strategies to maintain civic deliberation and trust during crisis management.

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  • 28.
    Frandsen, Finn
    et al.
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Johansen, Winni
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Chapter 8. Corporate crisis management: Managing Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 173-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents main challenges to the field of corporate crisis management and crisis communication, as well as to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Despite variations in state strategies for dealing with Covid-19, conditions and ways of handling the crisis of the SMEs appear to be quite similar in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, lending confirmation to the idea of a specific Nordic model. As SMEs were not prepared for this type of crisis, many of them turned to their trade associations for help in dealing with the problems created by the pandemic (lockdown, no income, lay-offs, etc.). Hence, based on a small explorative study, we also discuss in this chapter the role and communication of the trade associations in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, acting as intermediaries between companies, government, media, and the public in the rhetorical arena of the Covid-19 pandemic. The trade associations succeeded in increasing the media coverage of SMEs, which had an important impact on solutions such as state support packages and the communication with members (extra-communication) and staff despite lockdown and remote work.

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  • 29.
    Färdigh, Mathias A.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 7. Fairer sex or fairer system?: Exploring the relationship between gender equality in the media and media corruption2020In: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, p. 261-291Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central question in the chapter "Fairer sex or fairer system? Exploring the relationship between gender equality in the media and media corruption", by Mathias Färdigh, is whether results from previous research on the share of women in parliament and lower levels of corruption also pertains to the relationship between the share of women journalists and lower levels of corruption in the media. Previous research points out two plausible assumptions. The first is that women possess certain characteristics and therefore do not descend to corruption to the same extent as men (the fairer sex hypothesis). The second assumption is instead that it is the system in which women live and operate that affects the level of media corruption (the fairer system hypothesis). Based on these two alternative assumptions, the purpose of chapter 7 is to examine which of the two is the most appropriate when it comes to understanding the mechanisms behind media corruption: Is it the share of women journalists in the media or is it the system where women journalists live and operate, that affects the level of media corruption or both? The chapter suggests that the level of gender equality in a society has a bigger impact on reducing media corruption than the share of women journalists.

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  • 30.
    Gelfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Humlab, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Afterword: Future directions for surveillance in practice and research2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 205-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions in this book shed light on the complexity of surveillance in a digital age and problematise power relations between the many actors involved in the development and performance of surveillance culture. More and more actors and practices play an increasing role in our contemporary digitalised society, and the chapters show how people negotiate surveillance in their use of digital media, often knowingly leaving digital footprints, and sometimes trying to avoid surveillance. The digital transformation will continue in the foreseeable future. The coordination and analysis of data is viewed by many government agencies, corporations, and other actors as important tools for improving public administration, health, and economic growth. For this development to be legitimate, it is important that hard values, such as technical and legal developments, and soft values, such as ethical and cultural values, are taken into consideration. 

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  • 31.
    Gelfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Humlab, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Enbom, Jesper
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Introduction: The complex web of everyday surveillance2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities to surveil people have increased and been further refined with the implementation of digital communication over the last couple of decades, and with the ongoing process of digital transformation, surveillance can now go in any direction, leaving a label such as “surveillance state” somewhat outdated. Corporations and governmental organisations may surveil people, people may surveil each other, and surveillance may take place in subtle ways that are difficult for the surveilled to detect. In David Lyon’s terms, we are living in a “culture of surveillance”, a culture that surrounds and affects our everyday life. Today, it is of utmost relevance to study people’s attitudes, motives, and behaviours in relation to the fact that we live in a culture of surveillance. This includes the need for cultural and ethical perspectives to understand and nuanced contemporary discussions on surveillance, not least in the highly digitalised context of the Nordic countries. The chapters in this anthology address these issues from a variety of disciplinary and theoretical frameworks.  

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  • 32.
    Ghersetti, Marina
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Ólafsson, Jón Gunnar
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Ólafsdóttir, Sigrún
    Faculty of Sociology, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Chapter 10. Watchdogs and government megaphones: The dual democratic roles of the news media during the Covid-19 pandemic in Iceland and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 217-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 pandemic highlights two democratic roles of the news media during a crisis: to provide important information and to be a critical voice of decisions made by those in power. In this chapter, we examine how the media in Iceland and Sweden conveyed authorities’ messages and to what extent the authorities’ actions were questioned. The study is based on content analysis of news reports collected during the first year of the pandemic (2020). Our findings show that reporting largely followed an informative discourse and that health and economy were the dominant themes. Authorities in both countries relied heavily on experts to convey information, which was reflected in the news coverage. Critical reporting on the implemented strategies and protective measures was limited, more so in Iceland than in Sweden, but the consequences of the pandemic were clearly more dire in the latter context. Discourses in both countries were more national than international, with only few references made to other countries, including Nordic neighbours.

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  • 33.
    Grünangerl, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Trappel, Josef
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Tomaz, Tales
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Chapter 3. Austria: Confirmed democratic performance while slowly digitalising2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 95-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Hellingwerf, Karin
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mediebarometern 2021: Tema bokläsning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mediebarometern är en årlig undersökning av den svenska befolkningens tillgång till, och användning av, olika typer av medier. Undersökningen har genomförts sedan 1979 och det gör Mediebarometern till den äldsta studien i sitt slag i världen. Resultaten i 2020 års undersökning bygger på svar från omkring 6 000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer i åldern 9 till 85 år. I Mediebarometern 2021: Tema bokläsning analyseras hur samhällets digitalisering påverkat svenska befolkningens bokvanor.

    Rapporten har skrivits av Karin Hellingwerf vid Nordicom.

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  • 35.
    Hendrickx, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Truyens, Pauljan
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Donders, Karen
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Picone, Ike
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Chapter 1. Belgium (Flanders): News diversity put under pressure2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 7-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Horz-Ishak, Christine
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Communication Studies, Institute of Translation and Multilingual Communication (ITMK), TH Köln - University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Thomass, Barbara
    Institute for Media Studies, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Chapter 5. Germany: Solid journalistic professionalism and strong public service media2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 197-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Humphreys, Edward
    Internationella Handelshögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, Sverige.
    Programformat och medier i konvergens: Formathandel, juridiskt skydd och branschpraxis2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Långt borta är den tid då radio- och tv-producenter kunde åka till andra länder för attta del av populära program, för att sedan mer eller mindre fritt kopiera dem och anpassadem till hemmapubliken. Den internationella handeln med tv-program är i dag mycket omfattande och har utvecklats till en industri som omsätter stora belopp. Kring programmen eller snarare varan med dess olika innehåll finns paket med rättigheter och skyldigheter. Inom tv-branschen använder man begreppet formathandel, som växt fram på ett oreglerat sätt. Avsaknaden av specifika lagregler för denna speciella form av handel gör att programformaten är svårtolkade och skiljaktiga. Vad är det man betalar för? Syftet med denna bok är att analysera formatkonceptet och de rättsliga sammanhang ensamt att behandla de formella och informella spelregler som marknadsaktörerna i dagensförändrade medielandskap följer. I samband med detta identifieras problemområden och möjliga låsningar. Med i bilden finns även producenternas och tv-bolagens perspektiv, både nationellt och internationellt. Boken vänder sig inte endast till medieaktörer och mediejurister utan också till forskare och studenter.

    Edward Humphreys är jurist med inriktning på immaterialrätt. Som advokat (solicitor) i Englandhar han företrätt flera medieföretag i upphovsrättsliga och andra immaterialrättsliga ärenden. Humphreys har varit knuten till Rättsvetenskapliga sektionen och forskningscentrum MediaManagement and Transformation Centre vid Högskolan i Jönköping.

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  • 38.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Mitric, Petar
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 8. The appeal of public service fiction in an internationalised media context: Findings from a survey of 8–17-year-old Danes2023In: Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era / [ed] P.M Jensen, E.N. Redvall, & C.L Christensen, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 139-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 39.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Redvall, Eva NovrupDepartment of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Christensen, Christa LykkeDepartment of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian children and adolescents’ media consumption has changed dramatically in the past decade. Films, series, and social media content on global platforms like Netflix, Disney+, and YouTube are now a major part of young people’s media diet, while encounters with domestic films, series, and platforms are in decline, severely challenging the ways domestic players think about young audiences. The contributions in this book explore these recent developments in the production, distribution, as well as reception of fictional content for children and adolescent audiences in the thoroughly digitalised and transnationalised Scandinavian countries. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, such as interviews, case studies, textual analyses, and surveys, the contributors present recent studies on how commissioners and producers develop children’s content in the highly competitive, professionalised, and digitalised media environment, and on how children think about Scandinavian vis-à-vis global content. Collectively, the book offers readers new knowledge on how Scandinavian media distributors, producers, and creatives – and their young audiences – act in the face of this new reality. This book is relevant for scholars, students, and industry professionals with an interest in children and adolescents, culture, and media.

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  • 40.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Redvall, Eva Novrup
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Christensen, Christa Lykke
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Front matter2023In: Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era / [ed] P.M Jensen, E. N. Redvall, & C.L Christensen, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 6-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 41.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 1. Introduction: Communicating a pandemic in the Nordic countries2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] Johansson, B., Ihlen, Ø., Lindholm, J., & Blach-Ørsten, M., Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 11-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are generally praised for their performance in terms of political and economic governance. The Nordic model, defined as a stable democratic welfare state, has been considered a role model internationally, but also used as a framework for research interpreting political communication, the media systems, as well as crisis management of Covid-19 in the Nordic countries. This edited volume takes the Nordic model as a point of departure, and scholars in crisis communication, media, journalism, political science, and rhetoric explore crisis communication in the Nordics during the Covid-19 pandemic. The chapters compare experiences of strategic communication, media coverage, media use, and citizen response and point out both differences and similarities among the five countries. In this introductory chapter, we present the backdrop against which the empirical analyses can be understood. We discuss the Nordic model, give a brief overview of the Nordic experiences of Covid-19, and highlight the immense field of crisis communication research on Covid-19. In addition, the normative function of crisis communication during a pandemic is discussed, and also how to understand the specific risk culture in the Nordic countries. In the last part of the introduction, we give a short overview of the chapters of the book.

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  • 42.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 16. Conclusions: In search of a Nordic model of crisis communication2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 349-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This concluding chapter summarises findings of the various contributions and points to new directions of research for the future. In the first part, we address the results from each of the book’s three empirically based sections: section II) politicians, public authorities, and the corporate sector as crisis managers and communicators; section III) media and crisis communication; and section IV) citizens and crisis communication. Furthermore, we disucss the relevance of a Nordic crisis management model based on these findings.

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  • 43.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg.
    Ihlen, ØyvindDepartment of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.Lindholm, JennyPolitical Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.Blach-Ørsten, MarkDepartment of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Communicating a Pandemic: Crisis Management and Covid-19 in the Nordic Countries2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume compares experiences of how the Covid-19 pandemic was communicated in the Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The Nordic countries are often discussed in terms of similarities concerning an extensive welfare system, economic policies, media systems, and high levels of trust in societal actors. However, in the wake of a global pandemic, the countries’ coping strategies varied, creating certain question marks on the existence of a “Nordic model”.  The chapters give a broad overview of crisis communication in the Nordic countries during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic by combining organisational and societal theoretical perspectives and encompassing crisis response from governments, public health authorities, lobbyists, corporations, news media, and citizens. The results show several similarities, such as political and governmental responses highlighting solidarity and the need for exceptional measures, as expressed in press conferences, social media posts, information campaigns, and speeches. The media coverage relied on experts and was mainly informative, with few critical investigations during the initial phases. Moreover, surveys and interviews show the importance of news media for citizens’ coping strategies, but also that citizens mostly trusted both politicians and health authorities during the crisis.  This book is of interest to all who are looking to understand societal crisis management on a comprehensive level. The volume contains chapters from leading experts from all the Nordic countries and is edited by a team with complementary expertise on crisis communication, political communication, and journalism, consisting of Bengt Johansson, Øyvind Ihlen, Jenny Lindholm, and Mark Blach-Ørsten.   

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  • 44.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sohlberg, Jacob
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chapter 13. Institutional trust and crisis management in high-trust societies: Rallies around the Nordic flags during the Covid-19 pandemic2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 285-301Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called rally-around-the-flag effect, more succinctly known as the rally effect, has been prominently discussed in both academic and public discourse during the Covid-19 pandemic. The rally effect entails spikes in support for and trust in political leaders, governments, and state agencies during a crisis. This chapter assesses the validity of this theory in the Nordics during the early phases of the Covid-19 pandemic. By studying people’s support for the government, institutional trust, and belief in the government’s strategy, we identify a wide range of evident rally effects that occurred toward the beginning of the first wave of Covid-19, creating opportunities for successful instances of crisis communication. Overall, our results show similar basic patterns in the relationship between the citizens and the state across the Nordic countries, despite the different pandemic strategies adopted among them.

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  • 45.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    et al.
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Ólafsson, Jón Gunnar
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Guðmundsson, Friðrik Þór
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Chapter 7. Iceland: A small media system facing increasing challenges2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 275-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 46.
    Jørgensen, Rikke F.
    The Danish Institute for Human Rights, Denmark.
    Chapter 5. It all depends on context: Danes’ attitudes towards surveillance2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 109-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often emphasised that Danes are relatively tolerant to state surveillance, and seen from a European perspective, there is a high degree of trust between citizens and the state in Denmark. The question is, however, where Danes set the boundaries for different types of state surveillance. Based on findings from the Danish Values Survey, this chapter analyses Danish citizens’ views on three categories of state surveillance: CCTV surveillance in public places; monitoring of e-mails and other information exchanged on the Internet; and the collection of information on citizens without their knowledge. It argues that the considerable variations in the Danes’ attitudes towards the three types of surveillance may be explained by the different types of exposure they entail, as well as the privacy norms associated with each.  

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  • 47.
    Kaplan, Shawn
    College of Arts and Sciences, Adelphi University, USA.
    Chapter 2. To be a face in the crowd: Surveillance, facial recognition, and a right to obscurity2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 45-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines how facial recognition technology reshapes the philosophical debate over the ethics of video surveillance. When video surveillance is augmented with facial recognition, the data collected is no longer anonymous, and the data can be aggregated to produce detailed psychological profiles. I argue that – as this non-anonymous data of people’s mundane activities is collected – unjust risks of harm are imposed upon individuals. In addition, this technology can be used to catalogue all who publicly participate in political, religious, and socially stigmatised activities, and I argue that this would undermine central interests of liberal democracies. I examine the degree to which the interests of individuals and the societal interests of liberal democracies to maintain people’s obscurity while in public coincide with privacy interests, as popularly understood, and conclude that there is a practical need to articulate a novel right to obscurity to protect the interests of liberal democratic societies. 

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  • 48.
    Karadimitriou, Achilleas
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Media Studies, School of Economics and Political Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Ruggiero, Christian
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Biancalana, Cecilia
    Department of Cultures, Politics, and Society, University of Turin, Italy and Institute of Political Studies, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bomba, Mauro
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Lo, Wai Han
    Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
    Chapter 5. Investigative journalism and the watchdog role of news media: Between acute challenges and exceptional counterbalances2022In: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, p. 101-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates to what extent leading news media advocate investigative journalism and perform appropriately their watchdog function, assuming that in various media markets these core journalistic practices are currently adapting to an austere (compared with the past) media ecosystem, as well as to a differentiated newsroom role against a background of digital revolution in the media field. By means of digital tools, journalistic investigation has been facilitated to a great extent. However, the acute crises afflicting the media industries have operated as a severe deterrent to costly investigative journalism. Given the prevalent financial constraints in media markets, testified to by journalists in most countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM), investigative reporting seems to have become a luxury process, despite it being a journalistic bulwark against fake news narratives and unethical standards in media organisations. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the existence of investigative reporting being proportional to the financial strength that characterises the media organisations at the national level, and that targeted public subsidies, where applicable, seem to have proved effective during times of economic recession.

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  • 49.
    Kim, Eun-mee
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Lee, Jae-woo
    Seoul National University.
    Chapter 9. South Korea: Relatively healthy, still trying hard to adapt to digitalisation2021In: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 387-424Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 50.
    Lindberg, Tobias
    Nordicom, University of Gothenburg.
    Nordic News Media in Global Competition: The Conditions for News Journalism  in the Digital Platform Economy2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic News Media in Global Competition describes how the Nordic media markets developed between 2016 and 2021. The greatest interest is devoted to the areas where global platforms such as Apple, Facebook, and Google set the framework for the Nordic media companies and their conditions for conducting news journalism. 

    The report sheds light on how the so-called platform economy has affected where advertisers choose to place their advertising investments, the changes to the infrastructure for advertising, the new laws introduced related to media, and how the public chooses to consume news. The report also highlights how media companies have strengthened their profitability since 2016 by developing digital payment solutions and lowering their costs – as well as the differences and similarities that exist between the various Nordic markets. 

    Nordic News Media in Global Competition shows that the Nordic economies have developed into some of the most digitally well-developed in the world. The report also highlights the fact that the Nordic media markets are among the world's most digitally mature. Another conclusion of the report is that the platform companies have strengthened their positions in the advertising and audience markets in all Nordic countries since the mid-2010s. 

    The study was initiated and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and carried out by Tobias Lindberg, researcher at Nordicom at the University of Gothenburg. 

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