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  • 1.
    Ala-Fossi, Marko
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Grönvall, John
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Karppinen, Kari
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nieminen, Hannu
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Chapter 4. Finland: Sustaining professional norms with fewer journalists and declining resources2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 153-196 Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 2.
    Ala-Fossi, Marko
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Lehtisaari, Katja
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Neuvonen, Riku
    Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Finland.
    Public service without broadcasting? Conditions for abandoning terrestrial television in Finland2014Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2014, s. 117-134Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Finnish Yleisradio (Yle) has been one of the most innovative public service broadcasters in Europe. The new tax-based funding system and broad remit have allowed the company to shift its focus from broadcast television and radio to online services without jeopardising its relevance or resources. Now Yle has set preconditions for the future availability of its online television in case digital terrestrial television (DTT) would be switched off and all ultra high frequencies reallocated. This is not because Yle would want to focus only on growing video audiences online, but because the Finnish spectrum policy favouring mobile industries could endanger Yle’s capability to fulfil its public service remit. We argue that Yle’s conditions for abandoning television broadcasting on DTT are so tight they might never be met by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. In this chapter, we also examine what consequences public service without broadcasting could have.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Chapter 5. Ala-Fossi et al.
  • 3.
    Almlund, Pernille
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Art, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mølster, Ragnhild
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 6. Expressions of governance, risk, and responsibility: Public campaigns in the crisis and risk management of Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 121-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 pandemic, public campaigns were an important part of the Scandinavian health authorities’ strategies to combat the spread of the virus. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had different strategies to manage the crisis: Denmark had the most political crisis management, Sweden the most informational, and Norway was placed somewhere in between. This chapter examines how public risk and crisis communication during a pandemic was handled in these campaigns in the Scandinavian countries, how they function as a governance technology, and how this was carried out rhetorically. We show how indirect, governmental steering dominated the campaign rhetoric in Scandinavia, through a focus on the culturally decided aspects of purity and danger, and through appeal to a sense of personal responsibility and willingness to avoid taking risks among the citizenry. Furthermore, we find that the campaigns are representative for the crisis management strategy in each country.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Martin
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hallén, Malin
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Ebba
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    From reality-TV to rurality-TV: Exploring the genre of idealised rural lifestyles in Nordic public service television2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, s. 277-298Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces rurality-TV as a genre, and we discuss how public service media, through this genre, contributes to symbolically resolving tensions between the rural and the urban, and we address processes of mobility and urbanisation in the Nordics. Three popular reality-TV programmes depicting rural life are analysed: Bonderøven [loosely translated as The Hillbilly], later known as Frank & Kastaniegaarden (DR), Hjälp vi har köpt en bondgård! [Help we have bought a farm!] (SVT), and Oppfinneren [The Inventor] (NRK). These are approached through three questions: What constitutes public service rurality-TV as a genre in terms of form and content? What values are negotiated in the programmes? How can we understand rurality-TV in the context of public service broadcasting in the media welfare state?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Chapter 13. Andersson et al.
  • 5.
    Arnesson, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Eric
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Chapter 3. To see and be seen: Gynaeopticism and platform surveillance in influencer marketing2023Inngår i: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 67-88Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focal point of this chapter is surveillance practices in relation to social media influencers and digital marketing. The aim is to examine how the idea of surveillance can be expanded to include both social and technological aspects that work at individual, peer, and top-down levels. Drawing on examples from the Swedish influencer industry, we discuss and problematise how surveillance can be understood in such a context and how different dimensions of surveillance are manifested, exploited, and contested. The chapter concludes that participatory and gendered peer- and self-surveillance are an inherent part of influencer culture, and that the commercial success of influencers depends upon these practices. Similarly, platform surveillance and data mining connected to digital advertising can be understood as part of a contemporary commercialised surveillance culture that is closely related to both digital technology and the political economy of the influencer industry.  

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  • 6.
    Backholm, Klas
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business, and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Nordberg, Camilla
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies,  Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chapter 15. Efficient authority communication in times of crisis: Examining how vulnerable language minorities experienced Covid-19 communication strategies in Finland, Norway, and Sweden2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 325-346Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates how vulnerable language minorities in Finland, Norway, and Sweden experienced communication from authorities during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Disadvantaged language minorities have been shown to have a higher risk of pandemic-related health issues, and information from authorities about the crisis is typically mainly focused on the majority of the population. This chapter builds on secondary analysis of existing research and uses the communication ecology framework to study how language minorities experienced information about the Covid-19 pandemic, and which information strategies they experienced as in need of improvement. Furthermore, expert suggestions of best practices for reaching vulnerable language minorities with communication about the pandemic are investigated. The results show that while mediated information channels are important, for vulnerable language minorities, interpersonal discussions and local, context-bound activities become central for efficient communication from authorities in times of complex societal crisis.

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  • 7.
    Baroni, Alice
    et al.
    Department of Politics, Law and International Studies, University of Padova, Italy.
    d’Haenens, Leen
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Lo, Wai Han
    Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
    Chapter 3. Protecting journalists from harassment: Comparing existing protection mechanisms and the effects on democracy2022Inngår i: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, s. 59-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a quickly increasing body of studies and reports on harassment and intimidation of journalists around the world. These series of acts have a chilling effect on media freedom and journalists’ freedom of expression. The research literature on the topic has mostly focused on intimidation and harassment of journalists – particularly sexual harassment of women journalists – or journalists’ experiences of online harassment, and the impact on press censorship. In this chapter, we contribute to the debate by exploring the nexus between the harassment of journalists and the protection mechanisms adopted by leading news media organisations, professional journalism associations and other institutions, and national governments. We then discuss the effects on democracy in the 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM). Our findings indicate how legal support and protection mechanisms might enhance journalists’ capacity to realise the news media’s democratic role in practice.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 8.
    Bjerling, Johannes
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt2022Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Radio och TV i allmänhetens tjänst. Givet de förpliktigande orden är det inte konstigt att public service debatteras. I grund och botten är detta bra: Public service är en institution med makt och ska därför vara föremål för diskussion och debatt. 

    Men samtidigt som det är positivt att public service debatteras är det olyckligt om diskussionen fastnar i ”tyckande”. När det gäller public service finns det ju hyllmeter av akademisk forskning! Att tycka är inte fel – men att argumentera utifrån fakta väger onekligen tyngre. 

    Syftet med Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt är att på ett lättillgängligt sätt presentera vad empirisk forskning har kommit fram till i centrala frågor gällande public service. Kapitelförfattarna är verksamma vid svenska universitet och högskolor, och merparten av de resultat och slutsatser som presenteras bygger på genomgångar av tidigare publicerad forskning. I samtliga kapitel är det public services nyhetsjournalistik som fokuseras. 

    Public service: En svensk kunskapsöversikt vänder sig till alla med ett intresse för public service – inte minst politiker, journalister och samhällsdebattörer. 

    Boken har redigerats av Johannes Bjerling, vetenskaplig redaktör vid Nordicom. 

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  • 9.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Burkal, Rasmus
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Mayerhöffer, Eva
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Willig, Ida
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 4. Denmark: High media independence and informal democratic traditions in the newsroom2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 147-176Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 10.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Department of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Guðmundsson, Birgir
    School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Chapter 12. The role of journalism in a time of national crisis: Examining criticism and consensus in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden during the Covid-19 pandemic2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 261-282Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to examine the conditions for the practice of critical journalism in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, during the Covid-19 pandemic. We focus on two aspects, one practical and one discursive. First, we focus on journalists’ access to relevant information about the pandemic, as access plays a key role in the practice of critical reporting. Second, we focus on metajournalistic discourse, understood as how public debate about ­journalism shapes the practice of journalism. We found that information access was challenged in all three countries, but in different ways. We also found elements of a metajournalistic discourse. In Denmark, this discourse expressed concern about journalism being too critical, while in Sweden and Iceland, the concern was more a lack of critical reporting. We argue that the differences found can best be explained by the different Covid-19 communication strategies in the three countries.

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  • 11.
    Bonenfant, Maude
    et al.
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Dumont, Alexandra
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Lafrance St-Martin, Laura I.
    Department of Social and Public Communication, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Chapter 1. Being played in everyday life: Massive data collection on mobile games as part of ludocapitalist surveillance dispositif2023Inngår i: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 21-44Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance in videogames is a well-known phenomenon. Designated as the fastest-growing sector of the videogame industry, mobile games – particularly free-to-play games – capitalise substantially on the collection of user data. Based on the promise of offering personalised gaming and advertising experiences, a vast quantity of data, including personal identifier and geolocation data, is acquired through players’ mobile devices. While the information obtained may appear fragmented or invisible to players, they are consolidated in the hands of data brokers, resulting in a very lucrative economic sector. From this perspective, the practice of the mobile game, although innocuous at first consideration, raises essential ethical questions regarding the ludocapitalist surveillance dispositif established by this industry. In this chapter, we seek to problematise everyday surveillance in mobile gaming, explain how the videogame and marketing industries operate it, and examine gamers’ (“ordinary” citizens) involvement in the banalisation of this massive data gathering. 

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  • 12.
    Bonfadelli, Heinz
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    A. Meier, Werner
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schanne, Michael
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich.
    Chapter 9. Switzerland: Highly concentrated leading news media in austerity and downsizing mode2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 381-454 Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 13.
    Bonfadelli, Heinz
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Media Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Nord, Lars
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vandenberghe, Hanne
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Chapter 6. Comparing news media reach: Exploring effects of asymmetric news media consumption2022Inngår i: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, s. 129-146Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the topic of whether news media in different countries are still able to reach the general public and generate a shared public sphere as a prerequisite of democratic countries. The empirical part of the chapter focuses on the extent to which the different segments of the society use news media like newspapers, radio, television, and social media, comparing the results from 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) research project. We conclude that most people in most countries still use the news media regularly, although country-specific gaps exist related to sociodemographic factors like age, gender, and especially education and income. Most conspicuous is an intergenerational gap insofar 

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  • 14.
    Bucht, Catharina
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mediebarometern 2019: Tema generationer2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mediebarometern är en årlig undersökning av den svenska befolkningens tillgång till, och användning av, olika typer av medier. Resultaten i 2019 års undersökning bygger på svar från omkring 6 000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer i åldern 9 till 79 år. I Mediebarometern 2019: Tema generationer analyseras medieanvändningen i olika åldersgrupper. Rapporten har skrivits av Catharina Bucht vid Nordicom. 

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    Omslag
  • 15.
    Byerly, Carolyn M.
    et al.
    Department of Communication, Culture & Media Studies at Howard University, USA.
    McGraw, Katherine A.
    Chapter 5. Axes of power: Examining women’s access to leadership positions in the news media2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, Maria (Eds.), Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 191-232Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 5, "Axes of power: Examining women's access to leadership positions in the news media", by Carolyn M. Byerly and Katherine A. McGraw examines how and to what extent women have made their way into the reporting and management levels within the profession of journalism, and whether their presence in the higher ranks of the newsroom hierarchy is associated with a larger amount of women-oriented news content. Although women have made significant strides as reporters and news presenters, the advancement to management and governance roles – the positions of power – has been significantly slower. Looking cross-nationally, the authors test the critical mass theory while also considering the extent to which national development, indicators of women’s status, and the numbers of women practicing journalism might affect women journalists’ place in newsroom hierarchies of the 59 nations they examine. The research is based on the largest global-level study to date on women’s occupational standing within the news industry, the Global Report on the Status of Women in News Media, led by Byerly (2011) for the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 16.
    Colbjørnsen, Terje
    et al.
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Larsen, Håkon
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Tallerås, Kim
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Liguzinski, Maciej
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Extending the media welfare state: The role of libraries in the Nordic countries2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, s. 299-316Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An account of the Nordic media welfare state that does not consider the library sector, its historical mandates, and the role it plays in securing universal access to media content while also contributing to sustaining the media industries, is missing a piece. With this chapter, we aim to contribute to a deeper understanding of the role of public libraries in relation to a wider media context. As holders of collections of media – books, but also audio and audiovisual media – as well as important enablers of public discussions and events, libraries co-exist with media industries in multiple ways: They purchase media content, promote various forms of media, and compete with the mass media for the attention of the public as well as the resources of the state. We ask questions about the intersections between libraries and the media industries: What are their mandates, social remits, and forms of regulation? What are the challenges that face them today? What are their roles within an extended media welfare state?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Chapter 14. Colbjørnsen et al.
  • 17.
    d’Haenens, Leen
    et al.
    Institute for Media Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Lo, Wai Han
    Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
    Moore, Martin
    Department of Political Economy, King’s College London, Great Britain.
    Chapter 16. Innovation in journalism: How technology affects the news media, publication formats, and the journalist profession2022Inngår i: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, s. 337-345Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes as its starting point an indicator for the diversity of news formats from the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) project as an important feature for plurality of information. A wide range of news formats through different types of newspapers, television, radio, and online media is seen as a positive characteristic of media systems, especially since ownership diversity does not automatically translate into news format diversity. We make a connection between diversity of news formats and innovation in journalism: As news media seek to develop new news formats and solutions, broadcasters and news editors are setting up “news labs” to meet the expectations of their audiences. New storytelling methods and algorithms are being experimented with. This chapter collects examples of good practices of innovation in journalism in the countries participating in the 2021 MDM, but it also offers the opportunity to look elsewhere. It becomes clear that output is changing and diversifying thanks to innovation, and that innovation shapes newsroom culture as well as the journalist profession. 

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  • 18.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 4. Explaining gender equality in news content: Modernisation and a gendered media field2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 147-189Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the chapter "Explaining gender equality in news content: Modernisation and a gendered media field" by Monika Djerf-Pierre, the author examines the possible explanations to the variations in gender equality in news media content across the globe, by drawing from two different approaches: the modernisation approach and the gendered media fields approach. The modernisation approach links the level of gender equality in the media to broader processes of socio-economic development and to the standing of women in society at large. The gendered field approach instead puts focus on how conditions in the media field influence the status of women in the news media in different societies. The results show that the media-world of news is considerably less “gender equal” than the “real-world”, but also that both approaches are important to consider; the extent to which gender inequalities in the news have been alleviated depends on a combination of societal and media field factors. Countries where women have a higher standing in society, more women in the journalism field, and more autonomy for journalists, also have more gender equality in the news.

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  • 19.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 1: Introduction. Comparing gender and media equalityacross the globe: Understanding the qualities, causes, and consequences2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 11-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter by Monika Djerf-Pierre and Maria Edström provides the rationale behind the project Comparing gender and media equality across the globe and clarifies the normative theories supporting the strive for gender equality in and through the news media. The project examines equality in news media content as well as in news media organisations and conducts empirical analyses of both the causes and consequences of media and gender equality in countries across the globe. Furthermore, a unique dataset is developed within the project; The GEM dataset pools together existing comparative data on gender equality in the media, making them available for use by the global research community.  The chapter also highlights previous research, discusses the key methodological considerations, explains the value of the various datasets used in the project, and provides an overview on the global commitments to improve gender equality in the media, as a context for this study. Finally, we give an overview of the whole book and a summary of the main insights from the project:

    • Gender equality in the news media is lacking in most countries in the world. 
    • Gender equality in the news media reflects that journalism is a semi-autonomous field. 
    • The news media misrepresents reality when it comes the actual progress of gender equality in the world.  
    • The news media logic operates as a global homogeniser. 
    • Progress is both fast and slow. 
    • The gender gap in the news content is most likely greater than the gender gap in news media access and use.
    • Monitoring instruments and reliable data are needed to know if progress occurs.
    • Gender data on the media are still lacking.
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  • 20.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 2: The GEM-Index: Constructing a unitary measure of gender equality in the news2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 59-98Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In chapter 2, "The GEM Index: Constructing a unitary measure of gender equality in the news" by Monika Djerf-Pierre and Maria Edström, the authors develop a unitary measure of gender equality in news media content. Although gender and journalism has been a prolific area of research since the 1970s, we still lack a robust and easy-to-use measure to quantify, assess, and track the magnitude and persistence of gender inequalities in the news. By drawing from data collected by the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP), the authors devise the Gender Equality in the news Media Index (GEM-I) – a composite index that estimate the gender gap between women and men regarding their status in the news. The GEM-I confirms a male bias in the news. Most countries in the world display news cultures that to various degrees marginalises women. Women get a regular but unequal presence in the news and more seldom appear in roles and topics that are gender-typed as masculine, such as politics and economy.

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  • 21.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Edström, MariaDepartment of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media2020Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of women’s voices, status, and recognition in the news media is a challenge to both human rights and a sustainable future. Comparing Gender and Media Equality across the Globe addresses longstanding questions in the study of gender equality in media content and media organisations across countries and over time. Drawing on data from the Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP), European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE), and the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF), this book offers new insights into the qualities, causes, and consequences of gender equality in and through the news media. The book contributes to the critical discussion on gender and journalism, showing that the news media do not reflect reality when it comes to the actual progress of gender equality in societies across the globe. The study aims to inspire future research by making existing data on gender and news media equality available to the global research community. The book presents the GEM-dataset, comprising hundreds of indicators on media and gender equality, and the GEM-Index, an easy to use measure to keep track of key aspects of gender equality in television, radio, newspapers, and online.

    “A trailblazing collection of high-quality studies from leading researchers all around the world. This splendidly edited book meets the great need for a comparative analysis of gender equality in and through news media in different regions. It is unique, full of useful empirical evidence, new insights, and reflections. This should without a doubt be required reading for anyone dealing with this issue – not least from the perspective of Agenda 2030”.

    – Professor Ulla Carlsson, UNESCO Chair on Freedom of Expression, Media Development and Global Policy at the University of Gothenburg

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  • 22.
    Djerf-Pierre, Monika
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edström, Maria
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Foreword2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequencesof Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 7-9Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 23.
    Dwyer, Tim
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communications, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Wilding, Derek
    Centre for Media Transition, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Koskie, Tim
    Centre for Media Transition, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Chapter 2. Australia: Media concentration and deteriorating conditions for investigative journalism2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 59-94Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 24.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 5. Crafting a crisis: How the genre of the justifying press conference constituted the Covid-19 pandemic as an emergency and legitimised the power of authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 97-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Why did citizens adhere to the strict measures imposed by national authorities during the early phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in March 2020? One part of the answer is the way the first press conferences constituted the situation as an urgent crisis and the authorities as legitimate leaders in charge. This chapter examines the rhetoric of government press conferences in Scandinavia during the initial outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. I discuss the press conference as a rhetorical genre and establish the studied press conferences as instances of a subgenre of the political press conference: the justifying press conference. Phases, procedures, and aims of this subgenre are defined, and the arrival phase is particularly examined. This chapter demonstrates how the multimodal aspects of the press conferences contributed to constituting the pandemic as an emergency and establishing the ethos of the authorities as active and responsible. This constitution functioned as a multimodal justification of the measures and actions taken and the legitimising of the power of the authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

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  • 25.
    Facht, Ulrika
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    MedieSverige 20232023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska medielandskapet utvecklas i ett nära samspel med det omgivande samhället. De sociala, ekonomiska, politiska och teknologiska landskapen formar – och formas av – medielandskapet i en ständigt pågående process. I MedieSverige 2023 får läsaren en bred och aktuell översikt över det svenska medielandskapet. Genom att först belysa utvecklingen på de medieteknologiska och mediepolitiska områdena i Sverige, går rapporten vidare till att redovisa utvecklingen på publik- och reklammarknaderna, för att avslutningsvis beskriva den svenska mediestrukturen.

    MedieSverige 2023 bygger på ett rikt datamaterial från en rad olika källor. Rapporten riktar sig till studenter, lärare, forskare, journalister, beslutsfattare och alla andra som vill lära sig mer om det svenska medielandskapet.

    Den första utgåvan av rapportserien MedieSverige utkom för 40 år sedan. MedieSverige 2023 utgör den femtonde volymen i serien. Rapporten är skriven av Ulrika Facht vid Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.

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  • 26.
    Facht, Ulrika
    et al.
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ohlsson, Jonas
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    MedieSverige 20212021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strukturen för medierna och marknaden för dem  utvecklas i ett nära samspel med det omgivande samhället. De sociala, ekonomiska, politiska och teknologiska landskapen formar – och formas av – medielandskapet i en ständigt pågående process. I MedieSverige 2021 får läsaren en aktuell och bred översikt över dagens svenska medielandskap. Genom att först belysa utvecklingen på de medieteknologiska och mediepolitiska områdena i Sverige, går rapporten vidare till att redovisa utvecklingen på publik- och reklammarknaderna, för att avslutningsvis beskriva den svenska mediestrukturen. MedieSverige 2021 bygger på ett rikt datamaterial från en rad olika källor. Rapporten riktar sig till studenter, lärare, forskare, journalister, beslutsfattare och alla andra som vill lära sig mer om utvecklingen på den svenska mediemarknaden. Den första utgåvan av rapportserien MedieSverige utkom för över 30 år sedan. MedieSverige 2021 utgör den fjortonde volymen i serien. Rapporten är skriven av Ulrika Facht och Jonas Ohlsson vid Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet. 

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  • 27.
    Fehlmann, Fiona
    Department of Applied Media Studies, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Chapter 2. The legitimacy of public service media: A suggestion for a change of perspective2023Inngår i: Public Service Media's Contribution to Society: RIPE@2021 / [ed] M. Puppis & C. Ali, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 31-46Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the legitimacy of public service media (PSM) is often mentioned in the context of frameworks, such as the European Broadcasting Union’s contribution to society initiative, the emphasis is rarely on the concept of legitimacy and its meanings. This chapter provides different theoretical perspectives on the concept of legitimacy and argues that to conceptualise legitimacy as perception can be particularly helpful in research investigating PSM’s potential contribution to society. To illustrate this argument, past debates in the context of public value are analysed to show how the legitimacy of PSM has been primarily understood as the result of strategic communication processes. In addition, several research questions, methodological approaches, and challenges that can be considered in research on PSM by understanding legitimacy as perception are outlined.

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  • 28.
    Fidalgo, Joaquim 
    Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), University of Minho, Portugal.
    Chapter 7. Portugal: Impoverished media struggling for survival2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 297-352Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 29.
    Fidalgo, Joaquim
    et al.
    Communication and Society Research Centre (CECS), University of Minho, Portugal.
    Thomass, Barbara
    Institute for Media Studies, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Ruggiero, Christian
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Bomba, Mauro
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Sallusti, Simone
    Department of Communication and Social Research, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Chapter 10. Ethical codes of conduct in journalism: Demands for a digitalising mediascape2022Inngår i: Success and failure in news media performance: Comparative analysis in the Media for Democracy Monitor 2021 / [ed] Trappel, J., & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2022, s. 211-230Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Codes of ethics are one of the most widespread instruments of (self-)regulation for journalistic activity, pointing out the best professional practices and ethical standards to be followed and the need to allow some kind of scrutiny by the public. Such codes have different names, scope, authorship, range of action, and enforcement capacity, as can be seen in the various reports of the 18 countries participating in the 2021 Media for Democracy Monitor (MDM) research project. In this chapter, an historical overview of the evolution of journalistic codes of ethics in different national media contexts is given, as well as an analysis of the cornerstones such codes are built upon in various countries. We discuss the specific virtues and shortcomings of such codes, with a particular emphasis on the new challenges brought by the digital media environment. The role played by codes of ethics, compared with the laws that regulate media, is also addressed. 

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  • 30.
    Fiskvik, Jannicke
    et al.
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Vik Bjarkø, Andrea
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Grøtan, Tor Olav
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Chapter 11. Vaccine rhetoric, social media, and dissensus: An analysis of civic discourse between Norwegian health authorities and citizens on Facebook and Twitter during crisis2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 241-260Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To shed light on the rhetorical aspects of communication during crisis, we examined the Norwegian discourse on Facebook and Twitter related to the issue of Covid-19 vaccines. Based on our review of recent Nordic studies, we compare our findings with existing studies on social media and Covid-19 in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. We apply the conceptual frame of rhetorical citizenship in our analysis of the rhetorical practices by Norwegian health authorities and how citizens perceived, supported, or contested information about Covid-19 vaccines between July 2020 and March 2021. The analysis shows a change over time and a shift of moods and arguments reflecting the unfolding of the crisis, going from scepticism to optimism, to disappointment and critique of the health authorities. Observing that social media dynamics may further unproductive dissensus, we argue that rhetorical practices are an essential aspect of communication strategies to maintain civic deliberation and trust during crisis management.

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  • 31.
    Frandsen, Finn
    et al.
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Johansen, Winni
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Chapter 8. Corporate crisis management: Managing Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 173-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents main challenges to the field of corporate crisis management and crisis communication, as well as to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Despite variations in state strategies for dealing with Covid-19, conditions and ways of handling the crisis of the SMEs appear to be quite similar in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, lending confirmation to the idea of a specific Nordic model. As SMEs were not prepared for this type of crisis, many of them turned to their trade associations for help in dealing with the problems created by the pandemic (lockdown, no income, lay-offs, etc.). Hence, based on a small explorative study, we also discuss in this chapter the role and communication of the trade associations in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, acting as intermediaries between companies, government, media, and the public in the rhetorical arena of the Covid-19 pandemic. The trade associations succeeded in increasing the media coverage of SMEs, which had an important impact on solutions such as state support packages and the communication with members (extra-communication) and staff despite lockdown and remote work.

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  • 32.
    Färdigh, Mathias A.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMG) at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Chapter 7. Fairer sex or fairer system?: Exploring the relationship between gender equality in the media and media corruption2020Inngår i: Comparing Gender and Media Equality Across the Globe: A Cross-National Study of the Qualities, Causes, and Consequences of Gender Equality in and through the News Media / [ed] Djerf-Pierre, M. & Edström, M., Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2020, s. 261-291Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The central question in the chapter "Fairer sex or fairer system? Exploring the relationship between gender equality in the media and media corruption", by Mathias Färdigh, is whether results from previous research on the share of women in parliament and lower levels of corruption also pertains to the relationship between the share of women journalists and lower levels of corruption in the media. Previous research points out two plausible assumptions. The first is that women possess certain characteristics and therefore do not descend to corruption to the same extent as men (the fairer sex hypothesis). The second assumption is instead that it is the system in which women live and operate that affects the level of media corruption (the fairer system hypothesis). Based on these two alternative assumptions, the purpose of chapter 7 is to examine which of the two is the most appropriate when it comes to understanding the mechanisms behind media corruption: Is it the share of women journalists in the media or is it the system where women journalists live and operate, that affects the level of media corruption or both? The chapter suggests that the level of gender equality in a society has a bigger impact on reducing media corruption than the share of women journalists.

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  • 33.
    Gelfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Humlab, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Afterword: Future directions for surveillance in practice and research2023Inngår i: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 205-211Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions in this book shed light on the complexity of surveillance in a digital age and problematise power relations between the many actors involved in the development and performance of surveillance culture. More and more actors and practices play an increasing role in our contemporary digitalised society, and the chapters show how people negotiate surveillance in their use of digital media, often knowingly leaving digital footprints, and sometimes trying to avoid surveillance. The digital transformation will continue in the foreseeable future. The coordination and analysis of data is viewed by many government agencies, corporations, and other actors as important tools for improving public administration, health, and economic growth. For this development to be legitimate, it is important that hard values, such as technical and legal developments, and soft values, such as ethical and cultural values, are taken into consideration. 

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  • 34.
    Gelfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Humlab, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Enbom, Jesper
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Introduction: The complex web of everyday surveillance2023Inngår i: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 9-20Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities to surveil people have increased and been further refined with the implementation of digital communication over the last couple of decades, and with the ongoing process of digital transformation, surveillance can now go in any direction, leaving a label such as “surveillance state” somewhat outdated. Corporations and governmental organisations may surveil people, people may surveil each other, and surveillance may take place in subtle ways that are difficult for the surveilled to detect. In David Lyon’s terms, we are living in a “culture of surveillance”, a culture that surrounds and affects our everyday life. Today, it is of utmost relevance to study people’s attitudes, motives, and behaviours in relation to the fact that we live in a culture of surveillance. This includes the need for cultural and ethical perspectives to understand and nuanced contemporary discussions on surveillance, not least in the highly digitalised context of the Nordic countries. The chapters in this anthology address these issues from a variety of disciplinary and theoretical frameworks.  

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  • 35.
    Ghersetti, Marina
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Ólafsson, Jón Gunnar
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Ólafsdóttir, Sigrún
    Faculty of Sociology, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Chapter 10. Watchdogs and government megaphones: The dual democratic roles of the news media during the Covid-19 pandemic in Iceland and Sweden2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 217-240Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 pandemic highlights two democratic roles of the news media during a crisis: to provide important information and to be a critical voice of decisions made by those in power. In this chapter, we examine how the media in Iceland and Sweden conveyed authorities’ messages and to what extent the authorities’ actions were questioned. The study is based on content analysis of news reports collected during the first year of the pandemic (2020). Our findings show that reporting largely followed an informative discourse and that health and economy were the dominant themes. Authorities in both countries relied heavily on experts to convey information, which was reflected in the news coverage. Critical reporting on the implemented strategies and protective measures was limited, more so in Iceland than in Sweden, but the consequences of the pandemic were clearly more dire in the latter context. Discourses in both countries were more national than international, with only few references made to other countries, including Nordic neighbours.

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  • 36.
    Grünangerl, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Trappel, Josef
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Tomaz, Tales
    Department of Communication Studies, University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Chapter 3. Austria: Confirmed democratic performance while slowly digitalising2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 95-152Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 37.
    Guðmundsson, Birgir
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Iceland’s media policy and the Nordic media welfare model: A fragile support and uncertain future2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, Univeristy of Gothenburg , 2024, s. 155-176Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Icelandic media system shares many characteristics with the media systems of other Nordic countries. In a Nordic comparison, however, the state has until very recently been less active in the media market, and the consensual characteristic of the Nordic media welfare state model has been largely absent. The media market in Iceland has been in turmoil for over a decade, and most news media companies have been run at a loss or with meagre returns for years. This has led to a fundamental but hotly debated shift in media policy, introducing press subsidies for the first time. It has thus been argued that in Iceland, a market libertarian approach to media policy has been challenged by the Nordic media welfare state model. Findings from an analysis of the legislative debate about the media policy change indicate that support for a Nordic media welfare state model is unstable in Icelandic politics, thus its future is uncertain.

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    Chapter 7. Guðmundsson & Jóhannsdóttir
  • 38.
    Halvorsen, Lars Julius
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Science and History, Volda University College, Norway.
    Bjerke, Paul
    Faculty of Media and Journalism, Volda University College, Norway.
    Cracks in the foundations? Shifting consensual relations in two media fields in Norway2023Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, 1, s. 135-154Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the Nordic media model is consensual relations between state and industry stakeholders. However, recent studies indicate that these relationships have become less consensual in some Nordic countries. In this article, we investigate the developments and current situation in the Norwegian media and literary field through a comparative case study of the print news media and the book market. In both industries, the regulatory schemes were developed, while democratic corporatist solutions were widespread. Despite large political transformations in other societal sectors, we find that the most important parts of the two systems are still intact, while the state remains predominantly supportive. In the field of news media, intra-industry relations are largely intact, enabling the field to protect their privileges from outsiders and unwanted political initiatives. In the more heterogenous and less organised field of literature, tensions between actors are rising, and this poses a threat to the Norwegian literary welfare state.

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    Chapter 6. Halvorsen & Bjerke
  • 39.
    Hellingwerf, Karin
    Nordicom, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mediebarometern 2021: Tema bokläsning2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mediebarometern är en årlig undersökning av den svenska befolkningens tillgång till, och användning av, olika typer av medier. Undersökningen har genomförts sedan 1979 och det gör Mediebarometern till den äldsta studien i sitt slag i världen. Resultaten i 2020 års undersökning bygger på svar från omkring 6 000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer i åldern 9 till 85 år. I Mediebarometern 2021: Tema bokläsning analyseras hur samhällets digitalisering påverkat svenska befolkningens bokvanor.

    Rapporten har skrivits av Karin Hellingwerf vid Nordicom.

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  • 40.
    Hendrickx, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Truyens, Pauljan
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Donders, Karen
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Picone, Ike
    Department of Communication Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Chapter 1. Belgium (Flanders): News diversity put under pressure2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 2) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 7-42Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 41.
    Horowitz, Minna
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nieminen, Hannu
    Department of Public Communication, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania; Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Communication rights and the Nordic epistemic commons: Assessing the media welfare state in the age of information disorder2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, s. 96-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information disorder occurs when the fact-based, reliable, and professionally validated provision of information becomes confronted by information that attacks previously trusted media platforms, disputes the known or scientifically validated facts, or uses rumours and gossip as sources. Information disorder intensifies during turbulent times, as evidenced by the global rise of xenophobic movements, disbelief in science, and belief in conspiracies. Although Nordic countries fare remarkably well by many measures that assess democratic and robust communication environments, they also face these challenges. In this chapter, we view the Nordic media welfare state as ideally entailing an epistemic commons – a shared forum for trustworthy knowledge and culture – that supports citizens’ communication rights of access to and availability of diverse content, as well as privacy and dialogical public communication. Based on these key principles embedded in the Nordic media welfare state model, we assess its present condition by employing the framework of communication rights as our analytical tool. We argue that rights-based approaches in policy and practice are essential if a Nordic digital media welfare state is to be realised and maintained.

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    Chapter 4. Horowitz & Nieminen
  • 42.
    Horz-Ishak, Christine
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Communication Studies, Institute of Translation and Multilingual Communication (ITMK), TH Köln - University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Thomass, Barbara
    Institute for Media Studies, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Chapter 5. Germany: Solid journalistic professionalism and strong public service media2021Inngår i: The Media for Democracy Monitor 2021: How Leading News Media Survive Digital Transformation (Vol. 1) / [ed] Trappel, J. & Tomaz, T., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, s. 197-256Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 43.
    Humphreys, Edward
    Internationella Handelshögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, Sverige.
    Programformat och medier i konvergens: Formathandel, juridiskt skydd och branschpraxis2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Långt borta är den tid då radio- och tv-producenter kunde åka till andra länder för attta del av populära program, för att sedan mer eller mindre fritt kopiera dem och anpassadem till hemmapubliken. Den internationella handeln med tv-program är i dag mycket omfattande och har utvecklats till en industri som omsätter stora belopp. Kring programmen eller snarare varan med dess olika innehåll finns paket med rättigheter och skyldigheter. Inom tv-branschen använder man begreppet formathandel, som växt fram på ett oreglerat sätt. Avsaknaden av specifika lagregler för denna speciella form av handel gör att programformaten är svårtolkade och skiljaktiga. Vad är det man betalar för? Syftet med denna bok är att analysera formatkonceptet och de rättsliga sammanhang ensamt att behandla de formella och informella spelregler som marknadsaktörerna i dagensförändrade medielandskap följer. I samband med detta identifieras problemområden och möjliga låsningar. Med i bilden finns även producenternas och tv-bolagens perspektiv, både nationellt och internationellt. Boken vänder sig inte endast till medieaktörer och mediejurister utan också till forskare och studenter.

    Edward Humphreys är jurist med inriktning på immaterialrätt. Som advokat (solicitor) i Englandhar han företrätt flera medieföretag i upphovsrättsliga och andra immaterialrättsliga ärenden. Humphreys har varit knuten till Rättsvetenskapliga sektionen och forskningscentrum MediaManagement and Transformation Centre vid Högskolan i Jönköping.

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  • 44.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, Johan
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Afterword: What’s next for the media welfare state?2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, s. 319-332Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This final chapter summarises some of the findings presented in the preceding chapters and asks what’s next for the media welfare state. Continuing the discussion from previous chapters about the increasingly precarious situation of the media welfare state in a media landscape dominated by global actors and transnational policymaking, but also adding a discussion about the political challenges from right-wing populism, the chapter nevertheless ends with a positive vision for the future of the media welfare state, with a renewed role for the institution of public service media.

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  • 45.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, Johan
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Introduction: The future of the digital media welfare state2024Inngår i: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, s. 7-22Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, comparative media studies have classified and compared differentmedia systems around the world. Analyses suggest that the media systems ofthe Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) sharecertain traits, rendering them media welfare states. In this introductory chapter,we discuss the constituents of the Nordic media model and its contemporary statusand challenges. We then introduce the 14 chapters included in this volume. Thechapters are written by Nordic scholars and deal with a range of aspects connectedto the transformation or stability of the Nordic media system in the digital era.

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  • 46.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, JohanDepartment of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.Stiernstedt, FredrikSchool of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State?2024Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The media systems of the Nordic countries have for long been characterised by universality, freedom, trust, and cooperation between stakeholders. In comparative media systems research, the Nordic countries have been described as belonging to a single model – the Nordic media welfare state. The future of this model is now more uncertain than ever, as it is under increasing pressure from global tech companies, new digital media infrastructure, and developments in media policy, which all seem to elude domestic regulatory control. These developments raise questions about both the current state and the future of the media welfare state in a digital society – questions that this edited volume seeks to explore through conceptual, theoretical, and empirical analyses.

    The first section of this edited volume analyses the current state of the media model in the Nordic countries and focuses on some of the challenges that the media welfare states are facing. The section provides a comparative analysis of how the media are used and how they are regulated. It also analyses specific challenges such as disinformation and hate speech and the current measures taken to tackle such issues. 

    The second section of this volume addresses conceptual and theoretical issues regarding the concept of the Nordic media welfare state. Through both historical and contemporary case studies, the section extends the concept of media welfare by attending to digital infrastructures, libraries, environmental issues, as well as the integration of the media with other aspects of social welfare. In the final chapter of the book, the editors propose that the digital media welfare state can be expanded and adapted to the digital media landscape using the public service media companies as a platform to connect cultural institutions and citizens.

    This book is of interest to students, researchers, and anyone seeking to understand developments in the media industries and media policy in the Nordic countries. The chapters in this volume are written by experts in their respective fields and provide the reader with both an overview and detailed knowledge about the Nordic media model. The editors – Peter Jakobsson and Johan Lindell at Uppsala University and Fredrik Stiernstedt at Södertörn University – have collaborated in several research projects that connect to the question of the future of the digital media welfare state.

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  • 47.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Mitric, Petar
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 8. The appeal of public service fiction in an internationalised media context: Findings from a survey of 8–17-year-old Danes2023Inngår i: Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era / [ed] P.M Jensen, E.N. Redvall, & C.L Christensen, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 139-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • 48.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Redvall, Eva NovrupDepartment of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Christensen, Christa LykkeDepartment of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era2023Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian children and adolescents’ media consumption has changed dramatically in the past decade. Films, series, and social media content on global platforms like Netflix, Disney+, and YouTube are now a major part of young people’s media diet, while encounters with domestic films, series, and platforms are in decline, severely challenging the ways domestic players think about young audiences. The contributions in this book explore these recent developments in the production, distribution, as well as reception of fictional content for children and adolescent audiences in the thoroughly digitalised and transnationalised Scandinavian countries. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, such as interviews, case studies, textual analyses, and surveys, the contributors present recent studies on how commissioners and producers develop children’s content in the highly competitive, professionalised, and digitalised media environment, and on how children think about Scandinavian vis-à-vis global content. Collectively, the book offers readers new knowledge on how Scandinavian media distributors, producers, and creatives – and their young audiences – act in the face of this new reality. This book is relevant for scholars, students, and industry professionals with an interest in children and adolescents, culture, and media.

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  • 49.
    Jensen, Pia Majbritt
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies and Journalism, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Redvall, Eva Novrup
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Christensen, Christa Lykke
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Front matter2023Inngår i: Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era / [ed] P.M Jensen, E. N. Redvall, & C.L Christensen, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 6-7Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 50.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 1. Introduction: Communicating a pandemic in the Nordic countries2023Inngår i: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] Johansson, B., Ihlen, Ø., Lindholm, J., & Blach-Ørsten, M., Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, s. 11-30Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are generally praised for their performance in terms of political and economic governance. The Nordic model, defined as a stable democratic welfare state, has been considered a role model internationally, but also used as a framework for research interpreting political communication, the media systems, as well as crisis management of Covid-19 in the Nordic countries. This edited volume takes the Nordic model as a point of departure, and scholars in crisis communication, media, journalism, political science, and rhetoric explore crisis communication in the Nordics during the Covid-19 pandemic. The chapters compare experiences of strategic communication, media coverage, media use, and citizen response and point out both differences and similarities among the five countries. In this introductory chapter, we present the backdrop against which the empirical analyses can be understood. We discuss the Nordic model, give a brief overview of the Nordic experiences of Covid-19, and highlight the immense field of crisis communication research on Covid-19. In addition, the normative function of crisis communication during a pandemic is discussed, and also how to understand the specific risk culture in the Nordic countries. In the last part of the introduction, we give a short overview of the chapters of the book.

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