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  • 1.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Kantola, Anu
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Pollack, Ester
    Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Chapter 7. Development trends and challenges in Nordic political journalism2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 135-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this chapter is to describe and discuss some important political journalism development trends in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The term political journalism traditionally refers to news, commentaries, and other genres related to the coverage of political processes, institutions, and policy questions. It is, however, difficult to draw a clear dividing line between political news and other types of current affairs coverage. While political logic once dominated the discourses of political journalism, the emergence of the news media as an independent institution gave journalists a substantial definitional power and an ability to define the communicative rules of the game, but professional political sources quickly learned to exploit news media logics for their own aims and objectives. During the last decade, the growth of social media networks and the relative weakening of the legacy media has created a less stable situation for the negotiation of control between journalists and their sources.

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  • 2.
    Almlund, Pernille
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Art, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mølster, Ragnhild
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 6. Expressions of governance, risk, and responsibility: Public campaigns in the crisis and risk management of Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 121-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Covid-19 pandemic, public campaigns were an important part of the Scandinavian health authorities’ strategies to combat the spread of the virus. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had different strategies to manage the crisis: Denmark had the most political crisis management, Sweden the most informational, and Norway was placed somewhere in between. This chapter examines how public risk and crisis communication during a pandemic was handled in these campaigns in the Scandinavian countries, how they function as a governance technology, and how this was carried out rhetorically. We show how indirect, governmental steering dominated the campaign rhetoric in Scandinavia, through a focus on the culturally decided aspects of purity and danger, and through appeal to a sense of personal responsibility and willingness to avoid taking risks among the citizenry. Furthermore, we find that the campaigns are representative for the crisis management strategy in each country.

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  • 3.
    Backholm, Klas
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business, and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Nordberg, Camilla
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies,  Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chapter 15. Efficient authority communication in times of crisis: Examining how vulnerable language minorities experienced Covid-19 communication strategies in Finland, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 325-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates how vulnerable language minorities in Finland, Norway, and Sweden experienced communication from authorities during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Disadvantaged language minorities have been shown to have a higher risk of pandemic-related health issues, and information from authorities about the crisis is typically mainly focused on the majority of the population. This chapter builds on secondary analysis of existing research and uses the communication ecology framework to study how language minorities experienced information about the Covid-19 pandemic, and which information strategies they experienced as in need of improvement. Furthermore, expert suggestions of best practices for reaching vulnerable language minorities with communication about the pandemic are investigated. The results show that while mediated information channels are important, for vulnerable language minorities, interpersonal discussions and local, context-bound activities become central for efficient communication from authorities in times of complex societal crisis.

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  • 4.
    Beyer, Audun
    et al.
    Institute for Social Research, Norway.
    Knudsen, Erik
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Andersen, Kim
    Department of Political Science and Public Management, University of Southern Denmark.
    Shehata, Adam
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chapter 17. Political media effects in a Nordic perspective2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 347-363Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we focus on one of the most central issues within the scholarly literature on political communication: political media effects. We centre our discussion on the role played by the Nordic context for political media effects and focus on media effects on political learning and knowledge gaps; agenda-setting, priming, and framing effects; and media effects on voting and other political behaviours. Because much of the research and theories that have shaped the political communication literature on media effects emanate from the US, we discuss how differences between the American and the Nordic contexts may influence how well the theories of political media effects emanating from an American perspective fit the Nordic countries. We pay particular attention to studies related to the different theories that have been conducted in the Nordic context.

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  • 5.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Department of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Guðmundsson, Birgir
    School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Chapter 12. The role of journalism in a time of national crisis: Examining criticism and consensus in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden during the Covid-19 pandemic2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 261-282Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to examine the conditions for the practice of critical journalism in Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, during the Covid-19 pandemic. We focus on two aspects, one practical and one discursive. First, we focus on journalists’ access to relevant information about the pandemic, as access plays a key role in the practice of critical reporting. Second, we focus on metajournalistic discourse, understood as how public debate about ­journalism shapes the practice of journalism. We found that information access was challenged in all three countries, but in different ways. We also found elements of a metajournalistic discourse. In Denmark, this discourse expressed concern about journalism being too critical, while in Sweden and Iceland, the concern was more a lack of critical reporting. We argue that the differences found can best be explained by the different Covid-19 communication strategies in the three countries.

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  • 6.
    Christensen, Christa Lykke
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Relevance and identification in television content for children: Analysing DR commissioners’ perceptions of children’s media interests2023In: Audiovisual Content for Children and Adolescents in Scandinavia: Production, Distribution, and Reception in a Multiplatform Era / [ed] P.M Jensen, E. N. Redvall, & C.L Christensen, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 25-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter studies the perceptions of children among the commissioning editors responsible for children’s television at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. Taking as a starting point the historical evolvement of Danish children’s television, the chapter provides a framework to understand commissioners’ perceptions of children as an audience within the transforming logic of public broadcasting. Empirically, the study relies on interviews with commissioners of children’s television at DR. The analysis illustrates how increased competition, media professionalism, and digitalisation influence how the young audience is perceived. Before the turn of the century, children were considered as representatives of informed future citizens; the current view primarily perceives children as media users whom media professionals in public service companies consider as competent partners, in order to stay relevant and attract and keep as many young viewers and users as possible.

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  • 7.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 5. Crafting a crisis: How the genre of the justifying press conference constituted the Covid-19 pandemic as an emergency and legitimised the power of authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 97-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why did citizens adhere to the strict measures imposed by national authorities during the early phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in March 2020? One part of the answer is the way the first press conferences constituted the situation as an urgent crisis and the authorities as legitimate leaders in charge. This chapter examines the rhetoric of government press conferences in Scandinavia during the initial outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. I discuss the press conference as a rhetorical genre and establish the studied press conferences as instances of a subgenre of the political press conference: the justifying press conference. Phases, procedures, and aims of this subgenre are defined, and the arrival phase is particularly examined. This chapter demonstrates how the multimodal aspects of the press conferences contributed to constituting the pandemic as an emergency and establishing the ethos of the authorities as active and responsible. This constitution functioned as a multimodal justification of the measures and actions taken and the legitimising of the power of the authorities in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

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  • 8.
    Figenschou, Tine Ustad
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, OsloMet, Norway.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kolltveit, Kristoffer
    Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Pallas, Josef
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Chapter 16. Public bureaucracies2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 325-345Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public bureaucracies have mostly been invisible in research on political communication, but more recently, there has been an increasing interest in their communicative efforts. In this chapter, we review the literature and synthesise the scholarship on Nordic public bureaucracies in relation to political communication. Three research areas are put to the fore: 1) Mediatisation: how and to what extent bureaucracies prioritise the media and what consequences it has for activities, routines, and resource allocations across organisational contexts; 2) Reputation management: why and how bureaucracies make use of communication to build, maintain, and protect their reputation; and 3) Crisis communication: public actors’ abilities to provide information and support to citizens and communities before, during, and after crises. Although highly interconnected in practice, these strands of literature have largely been three separate academic discussions. We therefore suggest that a first step to consolidate research on communication and public bureaucracies would be to combine the knowledge research has gained in terms of media management, reputation management, and crisis communication. Such an effort would provide a much broader, but also detailed, knowledge on the motives, organising, content, and consequences of public bureaucracies and their communicative efforts.

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  • 9.
    Fiskvik, Jannicke
    et al.
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Vik Bjarkø, Andrea
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Grøtan, Tor Olav
    Software Engineering, Safety and Security, SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Chapter 11. Vaccine rhetoric, social media, and dissensus: An analysis of civic discourse between Norwegian health authorities and citizens on Facebook and Twitter during crisis2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 241-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To shed light on the rhetorical aspects of communication during crisis, we examined the Norwegian discourse on Facebook and Twitter related to the issue of Covid-19 vaccines. Based on our review of recent Nordic studies, we compare our findings with existing studies on social media and Covid-19 in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. We apply the conceptual frame of rhetorical citizenship in our analysis of the rhetorical practices by Norwegian health authorities and how citizens perceived, supported, or contested information about Covid-19 vaccines between July 2020 and March 2021. The analysis shows a change over time and a shift of moods and arguments reflecting the unfolding of the crisis, going from scepticism to optimism, to disappointment and critique of the health authorities. Observing that social media dynamics may further unproductive dissensus, we argue that rhetorical practices are an essential aspect of communication strategies to maintain civic deliberation and trust during crisis management.

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  • 10.
    Frandsen, Finn
    et al.
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Johansen, Winni
    Department of Management, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Chapter 8. Corporate crisis management: Managing Covid-19 in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 173-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents main challenges to the field of corporate crisis management and crisis communication, as well as to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Despite variations in state strategies for dealing with Covid-19, conditions and ways of handling the crisis of the SMEs appear to be quite similar in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, lending confirmation to the idea of a specific Nordic model. As SMEs were not prepared for this type of crisis, many of them turned to their trade associations for help in dealing with the problems created by the pandemic (lockdown, no income, lay-offs, etc.). Hence, based on a small explorative study, we also discuss in this chapter the role and communication of the trade associations in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, acting as intermediaries between companies, government, media, and the public in the rhetorical arena of the Covid-19 pandemic. The trade associations succeeded in increasing the media coverage of SMEs, which had an important impact on solutions such as state support packages and the communication with members (extra-communication) and staff despite lockdown and remote work.

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  • 11.
    Gelfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Humlab, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Department of Culture and Media Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Preface2023In: Everyday Life in the Culture of Surveillance / [ed] L. Samuelsson, C. Cocq, S. Gelfgren, & J. Enbom, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 6-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Ghersetti, Marina
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Ólafsson, Jón Gunnar
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Ólafsdóttir, Sigrún
    Faculty of Sociology, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Chapter 10. Watchdogs and government megaphones: The dual democratic roles of the news media during the Covid-19 pandemic in Iceland and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 217-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 pandemic highlights two democratic roles of the news media during a crisis: to provide important information and to be a critical voice of decisions made by those in power. In this chapter, we examine how the media in Iceland and Sweden conveyed authorities’ messages and to what extent the authorities’ actions were questioned. The study is based on content analysis of news reports collected during the first year of the pandemic (2020). Our findings show that reporting largely followed an informative discourse and that health and economy were the dominant themes. Authorities in both countries relied heavily on experts to convey information, which was reflected in the news coverage. Critical reporting on the implemented strategies and protective measures was limited, more so in Iceland than in Sweden, but the consequences of the pandemic were clearly more dire in the latter context. Discourses in both countries were more national than international, with only few references made to other countries, including Nordic neighbours.

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  • 13.
    Herkman, Juha
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Chapter 12. Populism and media and communication studies in the Nordic countries2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 241-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the developments of and research on political actors called populist in the Nordic countries. The focus is on contemporary populist right-wing parties – the Sweden Democrats, the Danish People’s Party, the Finns Party, and the Norwegian Progress Party – though we discuss the history of Nordic populist parties on a more general level as well. Nordic research on populism has for the most part adopted political scientific, ideational, and empirical perspectives lacking genuine theoretical considerations. However, contextual differences can be found, and sociological and cultural approaches to studying populism have been promoted of late. The perspective on populism in media and communication studies has concentrated especially on the political communication of populist actors and the relationship between the media and populism. The future challenges for Nordic populism studies are linked to changing media and political environments, requiring a new look at their relationship.

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  • 14.
    Hopmann, David Nicolas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science and Public Management, University of Southern Denmark.
    Karlsen, Rune
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Chapter 11. Elections and political communication in the Nordic countries2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 219-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is a review of the main features of elections and the related political communication and campaigning in the Nordic countries. The focus is on national election campaigns in Norway, Sweden, mainland Finland, and mainland Denmark, with occasional references to Iceland and to other types of election campaigns. The first part of the chapter begins with a discussion of the rules and regulations governing elections across the Nordics. This discussion is followed by a review of the rules and regulations governing election campaign communication. The second part of this chapter presents the research programmes of voters and voting behaviour in the Nordic countries, as well as research programmes on election campaign communication. The goal of this second part is not to provide a detailed overview of past findings, but to reveal crucial similarities and differences with respect to elections and political communication across the Nordic countries.

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  • 15.
    Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea
    et al.
    Department of Journalism and Media Studies, OsloMet, Norway.
    Nygaard, Silje
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 13. Right-wing alternative media in the Scandinavian political communication landscape2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 263-282Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The competition to set the public agenda has become increasingly tough. In this chapter, we explore the role of right-wing alternative media. This kind of news provider constitutes a relatively modest, but distinct, actor in the Scandinavian political communication landscape. Several sites have managed to gain attention through successful social media strategies and controversial reporting, often focusing on topics like immigration, crime, and Islam. In this chapter, we outline how alternative media are conceptualised and theorised in the literature, and how the boundaries between professional and alternative media are drawn and negotiated. Pointing to studies conducted in a Nordic context, we outline key characteristics of the right-wing alternative media scene in Scandinavia. From a research perspective, we argue that there are notable challenges associated with research on right-wing alternative media which are particularly related to fluidity, moving targets, and methodological limitations.

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  • 16.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjær
    Department of Political Science, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Chapter 15. Lobbying in Scandinavia2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 305-323Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is a tour of the Scandinavian lobbying landscape providing the state of the art for research on a contested and necessary activity. We discuss the particular context of the Scandinavian countries and current trends relevant for lobbying. Lobbying is often juxtaposed with the corporatist channel which implies institutionalised contact patterns between politicians and organised interests. The corporatist channel has, however, declined in importance while a number of trends have led to more diverse interest group systems, and new actors have assumed a more prominent role in Scandinavian lobbying. Besides discussing such trends, we also present some of the main findings about strategies and techniques used and what similarities and dissimilarities exist between the countries.

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  • 17.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 16. Conclusions: In search of a Nordic model of crisis communication2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 349-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This concluding chapter summarises findings of the various contributions and points to new directions of research for the future. In the first part, we address the results from each of the book’s three empirically based sections: section II) politicians, public authorities, and the corporate sector as crisis managers and communicators; section III) media and crisis communication; and section IV) citizens and crisis communication. Furthermore, we disucss the relevance of a Nordic crisis management model based on these findings.

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  • 18.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg.
    Ihlen, ØyvindDepartment of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.Lindholm, JennyPolitical Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.Blach-Ørsten, MarkDepartment of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Communicating a Pandemic: Crisis Management and Covid-19 in the Nordic Countries2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume compares experiences of how the Covid-19 pandemic was communicated in the Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The Nordic countries are often discussed in terms of similarities concerning an extensive welfare system, economic policies, media systems, and high levels of trust in societal actors. However, in the wake of a global pandemic, the countries’ coping strategies varied, creating certain question marks on the existence of a “Nordic model”.  The chapters give a broad overview of crisis communication in the Nordic countries during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic by combining organisational and societal theoretical perspectives and encompassing crisis response from governments, public health authorities, lobbyists, corporations, news media, and citizens. The results show several similarities, such as political and governmental responses highlighting solidarity and the need for exceptional measures, as expressed in press conferences, social media posts, information campaigns, and speeches. The media coverage relied on experts and was mainly informative, with few critical investigations during the initial phases. Moreover, surveys and interviews show the importance of news media for citizens’ coping strategies, but also that citizens mostly trusted both politicians and health authorities during the crisis.  This book is of interest to all who are looking to understand societal crisis management on a comprehensive level. The volume contains chapters from leading experts from all the Nordic countries and is edited by a team with complementary expertise on crisis communication, political communication, and journalism, consisting of Bengt Johansson, Øyvind Ihlen, Jenny Lindholm, and Mark Blach-Ørsten.   

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  • 19.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Preface2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] Johansson, B., Ihlen, Ø., Lindholm, J., & Blach-Ørsten, M., Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sohlberg, Jacob
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chapter 13. Institutional trust and crisis management in high-trust societies: Rallies around the Nordic flags during the Covid-19 pandemic2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 285-301Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called rally-around-the-flag effect, more succinctly known as the rally effect, has been prominently discussed in both academic and public discourse during the Covid-19 pandemic. The rally effect entails spikes in support for and trust in political leaders, governments, and state agencies during a crisis. This chapter assesses the validity of this theory in the Nordics during the early phases of the Covid-19 pandemic. By studying people’s support for the government, institutional trust, and belief in the government’s strategy, we identify a wide range of evident rally effects that occurred toward the beginning of the first wave of Covid-19, creating opportunities for successful instances of crisis communication. Overall, our results show similar basic patterns in the relationship between the citizens and the state across the Nordic countries, despite the different pandemic strategies adopted among them.

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  • 21.
    Josefsen, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Child Welfare and Social Work, The Arctic University of Norway.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Chapter 10. Indigenous political communication in the Nordic countries2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 197-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of political communication will not be complete without taking into account the differences in experiences regarding the lack of recognition and experiences of oppression between indigenous citizens and citizens belonging to the ethnic majority. This chapter reviews the status of Nordic indigenous political communication and compares political institutions, actors, and conditions. Most attention is paid to Sámi political and media institutions in Norway and Sweden, as we have most data available from these settings, although some examples from Finland and Greenland are included, too. The overview shows similarities resulting from colonisation and assimilation, but also major differences between the main institutions, Sámi parliaments, party systems, and media institutions owing to different state policies. In conclusion, we point to the challenges for research on indigenous political communication in the Nordic countries.

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  • 22.
    Junk, Wiebke Marie
    Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 9. Lobbying access during the Covid-19 pandemic: An analysis of communication frequency between interest organisations and political  gatekeepers in Denmark and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 195-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter assesses how the Covid-19 pandemic has changed the communication frequency between interest organisations and political gatekeepers in the media, government, parliament, and bureaucracy in Denmark and Sweden. Based on cross-national survey data, it analyses how lobbying access to these important arenas of policy debate has changed after the outbreak of Covid-19. While there is only minor variation between the political arenas and countries, three clear findings stand out: 1) access to policy debates remained relatively stable: for over 60% of organisations, lobbying access did not change in the first months of the pandemic; 2) access after the outbreak of the pandemic is strongly related to pre-pandemic access, meaning it favours previous insiders; and 3) access still changed for a considerable share of organisations. Especially organisations that considered themselves more heavily affected by the crisis enjoyed more lobbying access during the pandemic than less-affected organisations.

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  • 23.
    Kalsnes, Bente
    et al.
    Department of Communication, Kristiania University College, Norway.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Kammer, Aske
    Media Innovation, Danish School of Media and Journalism, Denmark.
    Chapter 14. Scandinavian political journalism in a time of fake news and disinformation2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 283-304Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on fake news, disinformation, and misinformation, this chapter addresses how the main actors in the political communication process (politicians, news media, and citizens) deal with the increasingly complex information environment in Scandinavia. In this chapter, we examine how politicians apply the term “fake news” in relation to both news media and political opponents. Additionally, we address how the news media deal with the challenge of fake news and disinformation, typically through verification and fact-checking. Lastly, we examine how citizens relate to fake news, employing data from the Reuters Digital News Report (Newman et al., 2018) from the three Scandinavian countries: Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. This study demonstrates that we need new methods for digital source criticism, verification, and media literacy in an information environment suited to the information manipulation of text, icons, images, and video.

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  • 24.
    Kjeldsen, Jens E.
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Kock, Christian
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vigsø, Orla
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chapter 18. Political rhetoric in Scandinavia2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 365-383Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhetorical research in the three Scandinavian countries has made contributions to the study of political communication, representing approaches that are not often found in research coming from the social sciences or from more systemic, theory-based orientations. Rhetoric, both as an ancient tradition and as a modern discipline, tends to emphasise close study of actual pieces of communication – verbal, visual, or otherwise. This rarely leads to quantitative, generalisable findings, but instead to observations and conceptualisations of phenomena – which may then be studied from quantitative and empirical angles. Often, rhetorical studies will have a normative tilt, based on notions of democracy, deliberation, and the public sphere – often with an eye for malfunctions and possible remedies. A growing literature of studies in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway tend to share some of these characteristics. At the same time, rhetorical scholars in Scandinavia recognise the value of empirical observation and have made contributions of their own in that regard, for example, in the field of reception studies.

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  • 25.
    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
    et al.
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Media and politics in Denmark2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 29-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we point to some of the changes and continuities that have characterised the interplay between news media and politics in Denmark during the last two decades. The chapter has three main focus areas: first, we present key institutions and players within the Danish political and media systems; second, we point to some of the theoretical approaches that have dominated political communication research in Denmark since the early 2000s, among them institutional and sociological perspectives; and third, we conclude by suggesting some of the differences between political communication in Denmark, as both practice and research field, compared to the other Nordic countries. We aim to balance the chapter between a media studies approach and a political science approach to political communication, but, contrary to much other Danish political communication research, the chapter especially takes its point of departure in the former.

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  • 26.
    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
    et al.
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Roosvall, Anna
    Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Chapter 9. Cultural communication as political communication2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter makes the argument that issues related to the cultural public sphere should be considered part of the political communication circuit. Cultural journalism in the Nordic context is a central case in point. On the side of arts, popular culture, and lifestyle, Nordic cultural journalism at times includes reporting and debate about sociocultural and politically saturated issues such as climate change, migration, terrorism, freedom of speech, identity politics, and gender inequalities. The chapter highlights three theoretical approaches, intersecting with the field of political communication, which have been of particular importance in Nordic scholarship about cultural journalism: public sphere theory, the politics of recognition, and the sociology of (cultural) journalism. The media coverage and debates about #metoo in Danish and Swedish cultural journalism in late 2017 serve to illustrate the arguments about the political in cultural journalism and reveals its quantitative salience as well as its qualitative specificities.

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  • 27.
    Lindholm, Jenny
    et al.
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Carlsson, Tom
    Political Science with Media and Communication, Åbo Akademi University, Finland .
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Department of Political Science and Law, Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Helena
    Department of Leadership and Command & Control, Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Chapter 7. Communicating Covid-19 on social media: Analysing the use of Twitter and Instagram by Nordic health authorities and prime ministers2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 149-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses how Nordic health authorities and prime ministers used social media during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic. The research questions address the extent to which they interacted with other actors on social media and what communication objectives they pursued in messages to the public. The data consists of health authorities’ Twitter communication and prime ministers’ Instagram posts. The results show that both the health authorities and prime ministers primarily interacted internally with domestic governmental and administrative actors. Still, they pursued different communication objectives. Whereas the health authorities mainly instructed the public on how to act, the prime ministers provided support and appealed for solidarity. National differences are observed. The Danish case stands out, as both the national health authority and the prime minister clearly focused on communicating support to the public.

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  • 28.
    Lindén, Carl-Gustav
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Morlandstø, Lisbeth
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Norway.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Chapter 8. Local political communication in a hybrid media system2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L, Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 155-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the local media and local political conditions in the Nordic countries from the perspective of power. The rapid changes in the local media system described in this chapter have led to a redistribution of this power in the local community in different directions. The starting point for our analysis is the four variables defined by Hallin and Mancini (2004) to describe different media systems and to identify change in power and power relations. We find that local media structures are changing, with downsized newspapers and decreasing use of local newspapers while social media is becoming more prominent. Norway and Sweden try to balance decreasing commercial conditions with state support, while there is a strong regional public service in all Nordic countries. Political parallelism in the old sense of political power and control of newspapers has gone. Professional journalists have become only one group among many different producers of local media content, duly losing power over local agendas.

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  • 29.
    Montefusco, Maria
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Welfare Centre.
    Meetings for all: Advice and inspiration for accessible conferences, seminars and other events2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic co-operation consists primarily of a variety of large and small meetings. We create nordic added value at these meetings: we learn about and from one another.

    There is a lot to think about at Nordic meetingevents. There are different languages and content,not to mention travel and technology. Itis important to think ahead so everyone willbe able to participate in the meeting on equalterms. These materials provide advice and inspiration

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  • 30.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Grusell, Marie
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Chapter 6. Media and politics in Sweden2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Göteborg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 113-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces political communication in Sweden with a particular focus on the most important developments during the last decade, and we discuss current main actors and structures and the dynamic interplay between voters, politics, and media. Important changes are taking place with regard to the party system, the media system, and voter behaviour, and the current transformations have various causes. On the supply side, no part of the Swedish society is untouched by the new opportunities offered by digitalisation and new media technology. The hybrid media system parallels news media and social media and blurs the lines between information and entertainment. Mass media companies converge to platform neutral digital media companies, and political parties navigate between traditional and digital communication channels in their efforts to reach voters. On the demand side, new media habits and media diets develop, more individual and fragmented than ever before.

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  • 31.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Olsson Gardell, Eva-Karin
    Department of Political Science and Law, Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Chapter 3. Communicating the Covid-19 pandemic: A comparison of  government communication in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a Pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 53-71Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we utilise a framing analysis to compare Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish government communication during the Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020. The results show that the perceptions of the seriousness of the crisis and the expected challenges facing Scandinavian societies were shared by all three governments, but they framed their communications slightly differently. Though based on common perceptions of an extraordinary threat to society and efforts to demonstrate national solidarity, a key component of the differences between the three Scandinavian prime ministers’ framing of the crisis was related to the issue of political control: One prime minister had come to office with the intention of assuming full political control in crisis situations, another framed management of the crisis in accordance with the delegation of power, and the third sought balance between expert agencies and political control through transparency and openness.

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  • 32.
    Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 19. Conclusion: Nordic political communication between change and continuity2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 385-396Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the contributions in this anthology is that it is hardly relevant to talk about a clear-cut Nordic model of political communication that highly contrasts other democratic states and their political communication systems. Global trends such as digitalisation and commercialisation of media systems and blurring lines between national and global political issues influence political communication. Still, there are many observations that confirm the existence of prevailing Nordic system peculiarities, such as comparably higher levels of voter turnout and political trust and relatively strong private and public news media. While these merging characteristics exist, it is relevant to look more carefully upon factors in the Nordic countries that seem to contribute to continuity and stability in political communication systems. In our view, it is particularly interesting to pay attention to relevant factors in the Nordic countries that may contribute to resilience in these societies. So far, the Nordic countries have shown considerable ability to embrace international political communication trends without jeopardising essential nation-specific distinctive features. Whether this resilience will prevail in the future remains an open question.

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  • 33.
    Rasmussen, Joel
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    E. Kjeldsen, Jens
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 4. Strategic Covid-19 management in communicational practice: At the crossroads to remain open or not in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 73-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines how leading politicians and representatives of the public health authorities in Scandinavia attempted to create consent for their strategic choices to adopt or refrain from collective prevention measures, such as border and school closures, when such measures became relevant in the region in March 2020. It thus also concerns the broader strategic choices of the administrations in their attempts to curb or stop Covid-19. Based on a strategy-as-practice perspective, the chapter assumes that strategies are not artefacts that organisations only possess, but they are shaped, consolidated, and made public communicatively. The analysis of statements from press conferences shows how strategies are shaped communicatively through claims regarding a number of themes: economic consequences; the validity of epidemiological measures; secondary public health effects; the issue of risk severity (and in the Swedish case, natural immunity); and risk management history. The chapter also highlights the pragmatic arguments used and the dialogicality involved when a particular strategic choice is made viable through the presentation of alternatives. The chapter thus helps to bridge a gap between major response choices facing national and agency leaders on the one hand, and on the other, numerous micro-level communication efforts facilitated in part through press conferences.

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  • 34.
    Sandberg, Siv
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chapter 2. The role of administrative tradition in government responses to crises: A comparative overview of five Nordic countries2023In: Communicating a Pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 31-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to compare how the various responses to the Covid-19 pandemic by the governments of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland relate to the different administrative traditions and models of governance in these countries. For example, the Nordic countries differ in the degree of discretion that individual ministers have to propose actions within their area of responsibility. In this chapter, I examine to what extent these differences are reflected in the policies these five countries undertook in order to mitigate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020, and I provide a framework for understanding these policy choices. The differences in how the Nordic countries responded to the Covid-19 pandemic have puzzled observers, especially the contrast between Sweden’s reliance on soft policy measures and Denmark’s rapid and centralised crisis management. Although the Covid-19 crisis is unique in many respects, a comparison of Nordic governance models and administrative traditions is important for understanding why the countries acted differently.

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  • 35.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ihlen, ØyvindDepartment of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.Kristensen, Nete NørgaardDepartment of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Nord, LarsDepartment of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are stable democracies with solid infrastructures for political dialogue and negotiations. However, both the “Nordic model” and Nordic media systems are under pressure as the conditions for political communication change – not least due to weakened political parties and the widespread use of digital communication media. 

    In this anthology, the similarities and differences in political communication across the Nordic countries are studied. Traditional corporatist mechanisms in the Nordic countries are increasingly challenged by professionals such as lobbyists, a development that has consequences for the processes and forms of political communication. Populist polit­ical parties have increased their media presence and political influence, whereas the news media have lost readers, viewers, listeners, and advertisers. These developments influence societal power relations and restructure the ways in which political actors communicate about political issues. 

    This book is a key reference for all who are interested in current trends and developments in the Nordic countries. The editors, Eli Skogerbø, Øyvind Ihlen, Nete Nørgaard Kristensen, and Lars Nord, have published extensively on political communication, and the authors are all scholars based in the Nordic countries with specialist knowledge in their fields.

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  • 36.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsen, Rune
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Chapter 5. Media and politics in Norway2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 91-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the development of the Norwegian political and media systems. Norway is a small, stable, established welfare democracy characterised by a constitutional monarchy, unitary structure, parliamentary government, proportional representation election system, multiparty politics, and coalition governments. The main characteristics of the media system are that it is digital and “hybrid”, as literally all legacy media (television, broadcasting, newspapers – national, regional, and local) are produced, distributed, and consumed on multiple platforms. In this chapter, we discuss Norwegian political communication research, emphasising the dominating theoretical strands that can be singled out for this particular national research community: election communication, social media and politics, political journalism, public-sphere studies, and studies of political rhetoric. In conclusion, we discuss some future challenges related to developments in the political sphere and media environment, highlighting disruptive changes in the media and new political issues.

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  • 37.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nord, Lars
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Chapter 1. Introduction: A Nordic model for political communication?2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 13-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have been termed a supermodel for political and economic governance. This anthology explores how and why the political communication systems contribute to explaining and understanding why the Nordic countries stand out as stable, democratic welfare states. The state and nation-building processes of these small European countries were not at all identical, but the ensuing political systems show many similarities. Yet, there are also considerable differences. Part One of the anthology explores developments in the media structure and relation-ship between media and politics in the five Nordic countries. The chapters are co-authored by scholars from political communication, media, and journalism from each country and emphasise particular national traits. Part Two studies and compares political communication across the Nordic countries within particular domains, such as political journalism, local journalism, lobbyism, elections, and the spread of fake news, with a specific eye for similarities and differences between the Nordic countries. We conclude with the argument that Nordic political communication is and should be international and comparative. Still we want to highlight the need to also continue with in-depth national or Nordic comparative studies.

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  • 38.
    Skogerbø, Eli
    et al.
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nord, Lars
    Department of Media and Communication Science, Mid Sweden University.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Preface2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 7-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 39.
    Stopniece, Santa
    University of Jyväskylä.
    “Opportunities, but Nothing Very Concrete”: The Challenge Finns Face with Chinese Delegations’ General Level of Interest in Finland2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the challenge of finding common ground between the Finns and the Chinese in the context of co-operation, trade and inward investment facilitation related to general lack of specific interest displayed by the Chinese. The article is ethnographic in nature and is mainly based on data obtained from interviewing individuals working for local governments in Finland and one of the state agencies responsible for attracting foreign investment. The study uses Speech Codes Theory (Philipsen, 1997) when analyzing the cultural aspects of expectations regarding communication between Chinese and Finns. According to interviewees, lack of serious interest, vague government guidelines, the longer time needed to build relationship, and involvement of intermediaries all contribute to the difficulty to move the discussions to a more specific level of focus. Finnish expectations regarding this type of communication are that it should be direct and task-oriented, because they feel pressure to yield real results quickly and efficiently. Suggested strategies to make the co-operation talks more specific are presenting the expertise areas of Finland, clarification regarding too general terms used by the Chinese, and investing into building personal relationships with them.

  • 40.
    Strandberg, Kim
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Carlson, Tom
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chapter 4. Media and politics in Finland2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 69-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter depicts developments in Finland during the last decade regarding the interplay between the political system and the media system, both in general and in conjunction with elections. We also suggest central theoretical perspectives through which the developments in Finland can be understood. The theoretical lenses that are discussed as most relevant for the Finnish case are mediatisation and hybrid media theory. Additionally, we provide an overview of the foci and methodological developments within the field of political communication research in Finland. Essentially, as in most of the Nordic countries that this anthology addresses, all three of these areas have undergone changes in Finland during the last decade. Finally, the chapter points out future challenges for Finnish political communication research.

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  • 41.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Faculty of Culture and Society, Malmö University, Sweden.
    Wizards of the Web: An Outsider’s Journey into Tech Culture, Programming, and Mathemagics2021Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our connected data societies, the importance of algorithms and automated systems is obvious. They determine search engines’ rankings, what driverless cars do when a child appears on the road, and stock market changes. Today data-driven algorithms and automated systems are everywhere.

    While algorithms and automated systems themselves are often a topic of controversy and debate, this book is about the people behind them; it is an account of the cultures, values, and imaginations that guide programmers in their work designing and engineering software and digital technology. Technology, it is argued, is not neutral and developed free of context. And since algorithms and automated systems exercise power in connected data societies, it is pivotal to understand their creators, who could be labelled, it is argued in the book, Wizards of the Web.

    This book is the result of an ethnographically inspired study based on interviews with software engineers and programmers, observations made at tech head quarters and conferences in Denmark, Sweden, Brazil, Germany, India, and the US, and a case study of the introduction of algorithmic automation on the front page of a Scandinavian newspaper.

    The author, Jakob Svensson, is professor of Media and Communication Studies at Malmö University. The book is part of the research project Behind the Algorithm (funded by the Swedish Research Council, 2018–2020). 

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  • 42.
    Ytre-Arne, Brita
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Moe, Hallvard
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Chapter 14. Citizens’ news use during Covid-19: Concerns about misinformation and reliance on local news in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Communicating a pandemic: Crisis management and Covid-19 in the Nordic countries / [ed] B. Johansson, Ø. Ihlen, J. Lindholm, & M. Blach-Ørsten, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, p. 303-324Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses how citizens in four Nordic countries navigated the complex information environment during the Covid-19 pandemic, where news from various sources mixed with abundant information across digital platforms. In response to concerns about false and misleading information in a public health crisis, we ask to which degree Nordic citizens worried about being misinformed regarding Covid-19, and how they evaluated the trustworthiness of pandemic news. In the context of a global crisis affecting everyday life, we ask how people relied on local news for information specifically relevant to their situation. To answer our research questions, we draw on comparative survey data from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, combined with qualitative in-depth interviews on pandemic news experiences in Norway. Our analysis contributes with a contextualised understanding of pandemic news use in the Nordics, emphasising the relevance of societal structures of high trust and extensive news provision.

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  • 43.
    Ólafsson, Jón Gunnar
    et al.
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Chapter 3. Media and politics in Iceland2021In: Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Skogerbø, E., Ihlen, Ø., Kristensen, N. N., & Nord, L., Gothenburg: Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2021, p. 51-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the political and media landscapes in Iceland in comparison to the other four Nordic countries. The political communication literature routinely groups the Nordic countries together and defines them in terms of a Nordic model. Iceland has, however, seldom been included in this literature, and research on political communication in the country is scarce. The chapter shows that the Icelandic media and political systems differ in significant ways from those in the other Nordic countries. Corporatism is less developed in Iceland, as is journalistic professionalism, and remnants of political parallelism have carried over to a highly commercial media system. This has operated without the public service requirements or support for private media that characterise the other Nordic countries. Iceland was particularly impacted by the 2008 financial crisis, and the years following have seen various changes regarding media and politics. Recent developments indicate that the Icelandic system might be becoming more similar to the other Nordic countries.

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