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  • 1.
    Carter, Helen
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Gutzon Larsen, Henrik
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University.
    Olesen, Kristian
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    A Planning Palimpsest: Neoliberal Planning in a Welfare State Tradition2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality through time and over space. These layers do not completely overlay one another, but present a palimpsest saturated with contradictions as well as possibilities. We propose the notion of the ‘planning palimpsest’ as a helpful metaphor for drawing attention to the historical-geographical characteristics of planning discourses and practices.

  • 2.
    Langlais, Richard
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Dymén, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Addressing social sustainability through everyday life: Experience from a pilot study in four Nordic city-regions2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing globalization, climate change and shifting demographics are creating a new context for discussion of development and its spatial distribution. This is a new challenge for planners and politicians, who are expected to develop and approve plans encompassing the existing built environment, new settlements and urban infrastructure, at the same time as the context rapidly shifts. This forces a re-assessment of how growth and development are envisioned in planning interventions. Some policymakers support a major shift towards green growth, based on radical improvements in energy systems, as the new paradigm leading to sustainability. Green growth has been embraced in order to mobilize green investments and to mitigate the current economic and environmental crises. It is often criticized, however, for neglecting the effects on the everyday lives of the individuals who reside in the city-regions where green growth is envisioned. Nordic cities are not only growing, but becoming more culturally and socioeconomically diverse. In that context, the quest for green growth raises profound professional, technical, theoretical and ethical questions for planners and politicians, including implications arising from increased socio-cultural diversity and associated perspectives.

    The objective of the pilot study presented here is (1) to consider whether, and if so, how, knowledge about everyday life practices of different groups of women and men are present and integrated into Nordic cityregion planning; and (2) to test the usefulness, for researchers and planners, of assessing city-region planning through the eyes of everyday life theory. The research included several interviews, a workshop, and text analysis of documents concerning city-region policy and the processes of sustainable urban and regional planning. Local perspectives were scrutinized through the lens of gender, then extended to consider intersectionality. Intersectionality is a theoretical tool that attempts to foster understanding of a multiplicity of social contexts, including the different discourses of power and their implications for individuals and how they relate to their social, economic and ecological situations. Preliminary findings indicate that although the theory of everyday life is not a highly visible and literal component of Nordic city-region planning, the four city-regions all, to varying degrees, express its philosophical inclinations. Awareness of everyday life conditions and perspectives, and consequent fundamental objectives, present particular challenges to planners, who are responding with a number of innovative practical approaches.

  • 3.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H.G.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kristensen, Iryna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Developing a greener economy in Nordic regions: interventions to overcome the challenges2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study specifically examines the main challenges that impede green growth in Nordic countries, and identifies potential ways of overcoming these challenges and driving the green growth agenda forward. The methodology of the research comprised a survey, sent out to all 74 NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 3) regions in the Nordic countries, and interviews with key national experts, focusing on challenges and government interventions related to the implementation of green growth initiatives. The results highlighted differences between Nordic regions in their work on green growth. In addition, we conducted a policy review of existing Nordic national-level bioeconomy and cleantech strategies, identifying their main focuses, explicit (or implicit) mentions of challenges to developing green growth and government interventions necessary to promote it. Based on the survey, interviews and our national policy review, we identified several such challenges and government interventions in Nordic regions.

  • 4.
    Lohenoja, Camilla
    University of Helsinki.
    From subordination to “own work”: Perceived life changes of former Haliya bonded labourers after their liberation2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the perceived life changes of former Haliya bonded labourers in Nepal after their liberation. It concentrates on the subjective perceptions of the labourers, a field that has had little attention in literature to date. Nineteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews of former Haliyas, were conducted in a rural village in Baitadi, Far-Western Nepal in the summer of 2013. These were then analysed, using qualitative content analysis. The paper is constructed on the concept of social status, more precisely subordination, and it suggests that diminishing subordination, such as caste discrimination, dependency and forcing, is more important in former bonded labourers’ lives than the lack of improvement in material benefits. Therefore it can be argued that the literature on bonded labour stresses too much the quantitative data and the meaning of material conditions, and fails to see the importance of the personal experience and improved social status as the most important change in their lives. This suggests that it might be useful to examine the importance of social status when tackling inequality questions as well.

  • 5.
    Lundqvist, Martin
    Lund University.
    Everyday conceptualizations of sustainable peace in Nepal: post-liberal peace and beyond?2015In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By employing semi-structured interviews this article investigates the peacebuilding environment in Kathmandu, Nepal, with an eye in particular to capture everyday conceptualizations of sustainable peace, and to investigate whether these might contribute to more holistic peacebuilding approaches in the country. The article draws initial inspiration from the post-liberal peace framework put forth by Oliver Richmond, which problematizes the liberal peace model by highlighting its tendency to neglect the local context and needs, as well as its frequent reliance on top-down and technocratic measures. Instead, Richmond calls for peacebuilding approaches which are more holistic and sensitive to the everyday needs of inhabitants of post-conflict societies. It is found that the post-liberal peace approach largely corresponds to the manner in which the interlocutors of this article conceptualize sustainable peace, i.e. by highlighting everyday issues such as material improvements, social justice, and national political stability. However, the article concludes by arguing that there are also issues of practical concern with both the post-liberal peace framework and the manner in which sustainable peace is conceptualized by interlocutors in Kathmandu.

  • 6.
    Medeiros, Eduardo
    Universidade de Lisboa.
    Territorial Cohesion: An EU Concept2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 60, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the concept of Territorial Cohesion, which has been gaining increasing interest within academia and the EU policy circles. In particular, this article examines its relevance and main dimensions, and also suggests a comprehensive definition based on those dimensions. Additionally, this paper proposes a methodology which can be used to measure Territorial Cohesion in a given territory. Furthermore, the article also highlights the importance of the territorial dimension as a key topic in the EU political agenda and, at the same time, gives a contribution to answer several questions for debate expressed in the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion.

  • 7.
    Purkarthofer, Eva
    Aalto University.
    When soft planning and hard planning meet:: Conceptualising the encounter of European, national and sub-national planning2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 61, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite continuous research efforts, the role of the European Union regarding spatial planning remains unclear. This article proposes to employ the concepts of soft spaces and soft planning to better comprehend how European spatial planning finds its way into the national planning systems. The EU contributes to the creation of soft spaces, differing from administrative entities, while at the same time, it acts as a driver of soft planning, focusing– both for strategic and legal reasons – on coordination, cooperation and mutual learning, rather than ‘hard’, regulatory planning. The article claims further that instead of depicting the connections between the EU and its member states, research should pay increased attention to the encounter of European and domestic planning within a country. The scales, actors and instruments that deal with EU inputs within a country might prove to be crucial factors that ultimately determine the impact of EU policies on spatial planning. To illustrate the encounter of European and domestic planning in the light of soft and hard planning, the article introduces a conceptual framework and thereby provides an outline for further empirical research.

     

  • 8. Rostgaard, Tine
    et al.
    Høy Worm, Vibeke
    Sigurjónsson, Jón Anton
    Næs, Jónas Tór
    Finne-Soveri, Harriet
    Österlund, Maj-Len
    Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig
    Ouren, Thorstein
    Granberg, Ann-Kristin
    Ældreomsorg i Norden2015 (ed. 500)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    FRÅGAN om kvalitet i äldreomsorgen är viktig och mer aktuell än någonsin. Avsikten med denna rapport är att skapa en överblick över situationen i Norden och därmed ge varandra inblick i och inspiration till hur utmaningarna inom äldreomsorgen bäst kan mötas.

    I TAKT med befolkningens stigande medelålder blir det under många år framöver en utmaning för de nordiska länderna att tillfredsställa behoven inom äldreomsorgen.Antalet äldre ökar samtidigt som födelsetalet faller och det blir allt svårare att rekrytera personal till äldreomsorgen.

    PROGNOSER pekar på att gruppen äldre blir långt mer differentierad än någonsin tidigare och kräver mer individuellt anpassad omsorg och vård. Äldreomsorgen ska således tillfredsställa både de resursstarka och dem som har långvariga och kroniska sjukdomar.

    RAPPORTEN sätter fokus dels på den nuvarande situationen i Norden, dels på hur vi framöver kan hantera kvalitetsbegreppet och lära av varandras olika kvalitetssystem

  • 9.
    Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Volgmann, Kati
    Münter, Angelika
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Unpacking polycentricity at the city-regional scale: Insights from Dusseldorf and Stockholm2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 59, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The normative concept of polycentricity has become a promising tool to pursue spatial policy goals such as spatial equity and justice, sustainable and balanced development, and, more recently territorial cohesion, at various scales across Europe. As earlier research has shown, a number of cityregions use the concept for their planning and development work. In pursuit of polycentric development, they call for a robust terminology, solid analysis and methods. As a result, literature analysing polycentricity at the city- or mega-regional scale has grown significantly and it appears that some consensus has been achieved in regards to the main facets and dimensions. Recognizing that the potentials to comprehend city-regional dynamics by focussing on the extent to which polycentric urban patterns evolve has not yet been fully utilised, this paper intends to contribute to a more comprehensive view on polycentricity at the city-regional scale. In doing so, we study the (potentially) emerging urban patterns of two cases, the Dusseldorf and Stockholm city-regions, employing different theoretical starting points and analytical approaches. With this in mind, we aim to unpack the concept of polycentricity at the city-regional scale and to offer academics, as well as planning professionals and policy-makers, further insights into qualifying, analysing and understanding the complexity of the topic at hand. Likewise, we argue that sound strategies to promote and mobilise different facets of polycentric development should be carefully reflected and related to the theoretical, methodological and even normative starting point of any attempt to comprehending polycentricity.

  • 10.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredriksson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Towards sustainable Nordic city-regions: A synthesis of the activities of the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 2013–2016, the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions (NWG4) and Nordregio have developed and shared knowledge about sustainable urban development, planning and green growth. Working in close collaboration with representatives from ministries and national authorities, policymakers and municipal and regional planners within larger Nordic city-regions, we have identified a number of common challenges and opportunities for sustainable urban development. City-regions are important arenas for addressing the many challenges associated with urban sustainability, inclusiveness and attractiveness. This synthesis highlights some of these key challenges, indicates where there is potential to develop more sustainable and co-ordinated planning and policy-making. It also provides insight into implementation, monitoring and evaluation of various plans and policies through different tools, models and concepts. In addition to outlining common challenges and opportunities for Nordic urban areas and governing city-regions, this report highlights some of the specific national concerns for cityregional planning in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It also provides an overview of municipal reforms and regional reforms in the Nordic region as well as an introduction to all the Nordic spatial planning systems. First comes a brief overview of the challenges addressed in this report. The different sections describe these in more depth and contextualising them with relation to the main findings from connected projects carried out by Nordregio. This is followed by national overviews of the spatial planning systems and regional reforms in all Nordic countries, as well as national concerns for city-regional planning. The report is concluded with a section about the NWG4 and a list of the related Nordregio publications.

  • 11.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tammi, Iilpo
    Wang, Shinan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Anderson, Timothy
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    A Spatial Analysis of City-Regions: Urban Form & Service Accessibility2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the urban form of a city, planners must engage with complex questions of density, land use distribution, and accessibility to services and amenities. These issues, in turn, relate to critical strategic planning goals, such as regional equity, attractiveness, and environmental sustainability. In our research, conducted on behalf of the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth - sustainable urban regions, we tested a new methodological approach for integrating and measuring several of these dimensions. In doing so, we provided a spatial analysis of population density, service accessibility, and commuting pattern metrics of four case study areas in the Nordic Region: Funen (DK),Stockholm (SE), Tampere (FI) and Trondheim (NO). This analysis was applied with the following general principle in mind: where many types of services, public transportation and other amenities that people take benefit from in their everyday life are available within a convenient time distance, we can talk of well-functioning nodes in the urban form of a city. By considering this principle in relation to the urban patterns that are mapped, we aimed to determine how our analytical approach can be relevant for strategic planners working at the municipal or regional level. 

  • 12.
    Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2014: Nordisk statistisk årsbok 20142014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Statistical Yearbook is published for the 52nd time. It is a reference book containing comprehensive and easily accessible statistics of various aspects of social life in the five Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In addition data are also presented on the Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Åland Islands. The aim of the yearbook is, as far as possible, to present comparable data on the Nordic countries. Additional tables can be accessed free of charge via our homepage www.norden.org/facts. Here it is also possible to read and download the Nordic Statistical Yearbook in pdf format free of charge.

  • 13.
    Trafficking in Human Beings: Report from a conference on Identification of victims and criminals – why we do not notice them2014 (ed. 2014:526)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries, most of the reported cases of trafficking in human beings today concern women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation, but experiences from Europe indicate that human trafficking has increased also in farming, household work, construction, and house building, as well as in begging, shoplifting and thefts. The conference Identification of victims and criminals – why we do not notice them on 30–31 May 2013 in Tallinn, Estonia formed the conclusion of a Nordic-Baltic-Northwest Russian cooperation project. Around 80 participants attended the two-day conference to discuss ways of identifying victims and criminals and to find answer to the question of why we do not notice victims or criminals, even though we now have available to us facts, figures, research and knowledge about human trafficking as a part of international organized crime.

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