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  • 1.
    Boussauw, Kobe
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Van Meeteren, Michiel
    Loughborough University.
    Sansen, Joren
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Meijers, Evert
    Delft University of Technology.
    Storme, Tom
    Ghent University.
    Louw, Erik
    Delft University of Technology.
    Derudder, Ben
    Ghent University.
    Witlox, Frank
    Ghent University.
    Planning for agglomeration economies in a polycentric region: Envisioning an efficient metropolitan core area in Flanders2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 69, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To some degree, metropolitan regions owe their existence to the ability to valorize agglomeration economies. The general perception is that agglomeration economies increase with city size, which is why economists tend to propagate urbanization, in this case in the form of metropolization. Contrarily, spatial planners traditionally emphasize the negative consequences of urban growth in terms of liveability, environmental quality, and congestion. Polycentric development models have been proposed as a specific form of metropolization that allow for both agglomeration economies and higher levels of liveability and sustainability. This paper addresses the challenge of how such polycentric development can be achieved in planning practice. We introduce ‘agglomeration potential maps’ that visualize potential locations in a polycentric metropolitan area where positive agglomeration externalities can be optimized. These maps are utilized in the process of developing a new spatial vision for Flanders’ polycentric ‘metropolitan core area’, commonly known as the Flemish Diamond. The spatial vision aspires to determine where predicted future population growth in the metropolitan core area could best be located, while both optimizing positive agglomeration externalities and maintaining its small-scale morphological character. Based on a literature review of optimum urban-size thresholds and our agglomeration potential maps, we document how such maps contributed to developing this spatial vision for the Flemish metropolitan core area.

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  • 2.
    Carter, Helen
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Gutzon Larsen, Henrik
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University.
    Olesen, Kristian
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    A Planning Palimpsest: Neoliberal Planning in a Welfare State Tradition2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality through time and over space. These layers do not completely overlay one another, but present a palimpsest saturated with contradictions as well as possibilities. We propose the notion of the ‘planning palimpsest’ as a helpful metaphor for drawing attention to the historical-geographical characteristics of planning discourses and practices.

  • 3.
    Davidse, Bart Jan
    et al.
    HafenCity University Hamburg.
    Othengrafen, Meike
    HafenCity University Hamburg.
    Deppisch, Sonja
    HafenCity University Hamburg.
    Spatial planning practices of adapting to climate change2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although spatial planning is considered as crucial for climate change adaption, e.g. in the EU White Paper on Adaptation, there are uncertainties regarding the role of adaptation strategies in spatial planning practices. In this paper the potential role of spatial planning for climate change adaption is investigated by distinguishing between two adaptation strategies: avoidance and minimisation. A case study in Stockholm, Sweden, serves to analyse the implementation of these ways of adaptation in the strategic and detailed planning stages. Spatial planning documents reveal a mix of avoidance and minimisation strategies. Expert interviews were used for further analyses of the spatial planning processes around these documents. It was found that minimisation measures prevail, and that only under extraordinary circumstances, avoidance measures could be implemented. A conclusion is that a more prominent focus on avoidance measures is needed to utilise the full potential of spatial planning and to ensure more robust adaptation measures. In order to achieve this, a normative adaption hierarchy is proposed as a guiding spatial planning principle in decision making about adaptation to the effects of climate change.

  • 4.
    Geissler, Jean-Baptiste
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Vecchio, Giovanni
    Politecnico di Milano.
    The construction of a tradingzone as political strategy: a review of London Infrastructure Plan 20502017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 64, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent London Infrastructure Plan 2050 appears as an attempt for coming up with innovative answers to infrastructure issues, aiming at providing new spaces where different actors can collaborate, defining adequate visions and governance bodies. Our hypothesis is that the plan can be interpreted through the relevant and yet ambiguous concept of ‘trading zone’, which highlights the setting up of new spaces for confrontation but also shows their use as political vehicles to advocate for increased powers and resources. To investigate the issue, the paper reviews the literature on the concept of trading zone in order to discuss in this perspective the London Infrastructure Plan planning process. The analysis is developed as follows: after a theoretical discussion of trading zones and their relationship with infrastructure planning processes, two significant aspects of the London Infrastructure Plan are examined: the stakeholders’ engagement required by strategic planning processes, and the ongoing planning processes of London, influenced by the Localism agenda. Consequently, the London Infrastructure Plan 2050 is described and reviewed in the light of its political strategic meaning, providing a discussion of its vision, contents and planning process. The analysis uses and rediscusses the concept of trading zone by observing how local authorities may use planning processes to strategically position themselves and influence the complex governance of infrastructure planning.

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  • 5.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio. Copenhagen University.
    Byskov Herslund, Lise
    Copenhagen University.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Umander, Karina
    Storuman municipality.
    Kantola, Anna
    Sodankylä municipality.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Local smart specialisation: An approach to increasing preparedness in rural communities with resource-based industries in the Northern Periphery2020In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 71, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common challenge for Northern communities is how to retain a local benefit from resource-based industries. This study assesses the process of developing a local smart specialisation strategy in two municipalities, Storumanand Sodankylä, both located in the Northern Periphery. The assessment framework applied is based on the concept of ‘strategic dimensions’(Healey, 2009), along with a qualitative set of process and outcome criteria(Innes and Booher, 1999). Our assessment of the strategic process indicates that all dimensions required for strategic planning were represented within it, but that they were mostly responsive rather than transformative in character. When comparing results from process criteria and outcome criteria, the process criteria score significantly higher. The strategic process engaged social networks and involved local stakeholders in discussion and joint prioritisation. According to the participating stakeholders, the local smart specialisation strategies in Storuman and Sodankylä enhanced local preparedness. However, a significant limitation was a lack of long-term human and financial resources to address challenges in relation both to resource-based industries and local, territorial development.

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  • 6.
    Medeiros, Eduardo
    Universidade de Lisboa.
    Territorial Cohesion: An EU Concept2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 60, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the concept of Territorial Cohesion, which has been gaining increasing interest within academia and the EU policy circles. In particular, this article examines its relevance and main dimensions, and also suggests a comprehensive definition based on those dimensions. Additionally, this paper proposes a methodology which can be used to measure Territorial Cohesion in a given territory. Furthermore, the article also highlights the importance of the territorial dimension as a key topic in the EU political agenda and, at the same time, gives a contribution to answer several questions for debate expressed in the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion.

  • 7.
    Mäenpää, Antti
    et al.
    University of Vaasa.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    In Search of Domains in Smart Specialisation: Case Study of Three Nordic Regions2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 68, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has promoted regional smart specialisation strategies for some years, and several studies on this topic have focused on key concepts such as the entrepreneurial discovery process and good implementation practices. However, the definition and the role of the domain in regional smart specialisation settings is largely missing, despite it being an important outcome of a successful entrepreneurial discovery process. This article aims to fill this research gap by establishing what a domain entails as a theoretical concept, its role in the entrepreneurial discovery process and how it has featured in regional smart specialisation strategies. Our study analyses and compares three smart specialisation strategies in the Nordic regions of Lapland (Finland), Värmland (Sweden) and Nordland (Norway), focusing on the understanding and adaptation of the domain concept. The results indicate that the regions have managed to establish domains, even though the concept itself has not been adopted in the regions because of insufficient clarification of the term.

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  • 8.
    Nicolaisen, Morten Skou
    et al.
    City of Aarhus.
    Olesen, Mette
    Nordjyllands Trafikselskab.
    Olesen, Kristian
    Aalborg University.
    Vision vs. Evaluation – Case Studies of Light Rail Planning in Denmark2017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 65, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light rail transit (LRT) is a popular public transport mode used to upgrade the public transport system and support urban development strategies. Despite the seemingly poorer socio-economic return of LRT in cost benefit analyses (CBA) compared to bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, LRT solutions are often chosen over BRT. Several studies show that the decisions to build such systems have not primarily been based on the socio-economic feasibility of the systems. Rather, they are often justified in terms of the branding value and positive image for public transportation, as well as the perceived ability to reduce road congestion and stimulate urban development. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT), the paper analyses how LRT systems have been applied in a Danish context and the role that the CBA has played in this process. The results show that conventional socio-economic factors in CBA, such as travel time savings, play a relatively minor role compared tothe larger urban transformation visions that LRT projects are embedded in.

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  • 9.
    Purkarthofer, Eva
    Aalto University.
    When soft planning and hard planning meet:: Conceptualising the encounter of European, national and sub-national planning2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 61, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite continuous research efforts, the role of the European Union regarding spatial planning remains unclear. This article proposes to employ the concepts of soft spaces and soft planning to better comprehend how European spatial planning finds its way into the national planning systems. The EU contributes to the creation of soft spaces, differing from administrative entities, while at the same time, it acts as a driver of soft planning, focusing– both for strategic and legal reasons – on coordination, cooperation and mutual learning, rather than ‘hard’, regulatory planning. The article claims further that instead of depicting the connections between the EU and its member states, research should pay increased attention to the encounter of European and domestic planning within a country. The scales, actors and instruments that deal with EU inputs within a country might prove to be crucial factors that ultimately determine the impact of EU policies on spatial planning. To illustrate the encounter of European and domestic planning in the light of soft and hard planning, the article introduces a conceptual framework and thereby provides an outline for further empirical research.

     

  • 10.
    Ringholm, Toril
    et al.
    Norway Inland University of Applied Sciences.
    Nyseth, Torill
    University of Tromsø.
    Gro, Sandkjær Hanssen
    NIBRHiOA.
    Participation according to the law?: The research-based knowledge on citizen participation in Norwegian municipal planning2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 67, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Volgmann, Kati
    Münter, Angelika
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Unpacking polycentricity at the city-regional scale: Insights from Dusseldorf and Stockholm2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 59, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The normative concept of polycentricity has become a promising tool to pursue spatial policy goals such as spatial equity and justice, sustainable and balanced development, and, more recently territorial cohesion, at various scales across Europe. As earlier research has shown, a number of cityregions use the concept for their planning and development work. In pursuit of polycentric development, they call for a robust terminology, solid analysis and methods. As a result, literature analysing polycentricity at the city- or mega-regional scale has grown significantly and it appears that some consensus has been achieved in regards to the main facets and dimensions. Recognizing that the potentials to comprehend city-regional dynamics by focussing on the extent to which polycentric urban patterns evolve has not yet been fully utilised, this paper intends to contribute to a more comprehensive view on polycentricity at the city-regional scale. In doing so, we study the (potentially) emerging urban patterns of two cases, the Dusseldorf and Stockholm city-regions, employing different theoretical starting points and analytical approaches. With this in mind, we aim to unpack the concept of polycentricity at the city-regional scale and to offer academics, as well as planning professionals and policy-makers, further insights into qualifying, analysing and understanding the complexity of the topic at hand. Likewise, we argue that sound strategies to promote and mobilise different facets of polycentric development should be carefully reflected and related to the theoretical, methodological and even normative starting point of any attempt to comprehending polycentricity.

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  • 12. Telle, Stefan
    An Institutionalist View on Experimentalist Governance: Local-level obstacles to policy-learning in European Union Cohesion Policy2017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 66, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper has the dual objective of contributing to theory development as well as to the debate about the added value of EU Cohesion Policy. Experimentalist governance theory suggests that a virtuous feedback loop between policy design and implementation can the input- and output-legitimacy of policy making. EU Cohesion Policy formally resembles this experimentalist setting, but persistent debates about its added value suggest that the virtuous loop is blocked. The paper uses new institutionalism theory to systematically identify theoretical explanations for this blockage. It argues that the experimentalist link between organizational structure, pooling of experiences, greater participation, and policy learning is highly precarious. First, the rational-choice perspective suggests that the link rests on the optimistic assumption of a common utility function among the participating actors. Moreover, the structural funds provide strong incentives for grant-seeking. Second, the discursive perspective shows that the identification of shared interests depends on highly demanding speech conditions. Third, the sociological perspective highlights that the evaluation of information is socially conditioned. Therefore, learning may be based on fallacious assumptions and lead to undesired results. The paper substantiates these insights with empirical evidence from one case of institutionalized cross-border cooperation in East Central Europe.

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  • 13.
    Tulumello, Simone
    Universidade de Lisboa.
    Multi-level Territorial Governance and Cohesion Policy: Structural Funds and the Timing of Development in Palermo and the Italian Mezzogiorno2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 62, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the role of changing arrangements of multi-level territorial governance in the European Cohesion Policy. It hypothesises the existence of a temporal duality between successful/unsuccessful phases of Cohesion Policy between the 1990s and 2000s, that is, a structural change in the implementation of Structural Funds stemming from the reforms at the turn of the millennium. The article seeks to understand the implications of such a duality using case study analysis, with the theoretical aim of exploring in-depth the connections between the European and the local scale. It analyses in the long term (1994-2013) the use of Structural Funds for urban development in a specific context, the city of Palermo in the Objective 1 region of Sicily, under-explored by international literature. The phases of Structural Funds are understood in the wider context of Palermo, Sicily and Southern Italy, emphasising the temporal coherence between (i) the phases of autonomous/dependent development, (ii) evolution/involution in the implementation of cohesion policies, and (iii) shifting multi-level territorial governance arrangements. The local case confirms the duality hypothesised and, based on this, wider considerations for the future of Cohesion Policy are set out.

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  • 14.
    Vinci, Ignazio
    University of Palermo.
    Governing the Metropolitan Dimension: A Critical Perspective on Institutional Reshaping and Planning Innovation in Italy2019In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 70, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in other European countries, over recent decades the question of metropolitan government has captured political and academic attention in Italy too. The debate has been recently fuelled by a national reform introduced to create 14 metropolitan authorities to provide for new government solutions in the territories of the larger urban areas. Based on literature and empirical observation, this paper presents a critical view of that process by examining the following questions: How do metropolitan areas relate to broader Italian urban policy? How does the reform contribute to a reshaping of multi-level governance through national and local initiatives? And how does institutional reorganisation address territorial diversity? Based on the critical understanding of these issues presented in this paper, it is argued that several obstacles still need to be overcome before metropolitan government can be properly established and institutionally effective.

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  • 15.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Innovation Networks in Different Industrial Settings: From Flexible to Smart Specialization2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 63, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key research objective of this paper is to analyse industrial specialisation by developing innovative networks linked to the region. Institutional and entrepreneurial innovation systems, smart specialisation and a network based research framework for entrepreneurship are used as conceptual foundations in the paper. Based on theoretical elaborations our analyses illustrate how certain interventions have stimulated regional development and innovation in two specific Scandinavian regions. Our results highlight that both regions have gone from interventions fostering flexible specialization, with the motive of staying resilient and competitive over time, to an approach based on smart specialization with a focus on one or a limited number of strong industries.

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