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  • 1.
    Granerud, Arild
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Severinsson, Elisabeth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    The struggle for social integration in the community--the experiences of people with mental health problems.2006In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 288-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of social integration is part of the ideological motivation behind the transition from institutionalized to decentralized psychiatry. Modern community mental health care considers social integration as vital for improving mental health. However, reports suggest that efforts to socially integrate people who suffer from mental health problems have not been as successful as anticipated. The aim of this study was to explore how people with mental health problems experience their ability to integrate socially into a community in central Norway. Three multistage focus groups, consisting of 17 people with mental health problems, were set up in two counties of different sizes. In this explorative study, data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis method. The participants experienced shame and fear of exclusion in their struggle to become integrated in the community. They had a sense of loneliness, had to struggle for equality and experienced being neglected. The days passed very slowly and they reported a lack of financial resources. They wanted to work or take part in other daytime activities and sought reciprocal relationships. In conclusion, those working in community mental health care need to ensure that people suffering from mental health problems experience a sense of belonging in the community, thus enabling them to develop a network and achieve social integration.

  • 2.
    Rahm, G B
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Renck, Barbro
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, K C
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    'Disgust, disgust beyond description'- shame cues to detect shame in disguise, in interviews with women who were sexually abused during childhood.2006In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 100-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shame is a recurrent theme in the context of sexually abused women. Sexual abuse is taboo and shameful, and so is shame. Shame affects the development of a person and relationships, and is mentally painful. It is often covert. One aim of the present study was to explore whether and how women exposed to sexual abuse during childhood verbally express unacknowledged overt and covert shame, when interviewed about their physical and mental health, relations and circumstances relating to the sexual abuse. Another aim was, if shame was present, to describe the quality of the shame expressed by the women. A mainly qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was used. Ten women attending self-help groups for women who were sexually abused during childhood were recruited as informants. The interviews were analysed for verbal expressions of shame by identifying code words and phrases, which were first sorted into six shame indicator groups and then categorized into various aspects of shame. The frequency of the code words and phrases was also counted. The findings clearly reveal that the affect of shame is present and negatively influences the lives of the informants in this study. It was possible to sort the code words and phrases most often mentioned into the indicator groups 'alienated', 'inadequate' and 'hurt', in the order of their frequency. It is obvious that shame affects the lives of this study's informants in negative ways. One important clinical implication for professionals in health care and psychiatric services is to acknowledge both sexual abuse and shame in order to make it possible for patients to work through it and thereby help them psychologically to improve their health.

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