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  • 1.
    Clausson, Eva K
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Schoolchildren's health as judged by Swedish school nurses: a national survey.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 690-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To use school nurses' knowledge and experience for a better understanding of schoolchildren's health problems and their association to socioeconomic background and gender.

    METHODS: Mail questionnaires were sent to a nationally representative, random sample of Swedish school nurses (n=129). The questionnaire included structured and open-ended questions asking for school nurses' judgement of schoolchildren's health status; changes over the previous two years; estimation of schoolchildren's most common reasons for consulting the school nurse; and estimation of factors influencing schoolchildren's health.

    RESULTS: Swedish school nurses judged schoolchildren's mental health to have deteriorated during the previous two years with increasing health complaints, especially among girls and in disadvantaged housing areas. Disturbed family relations were considered as one important explanatory factor. Girls were more inclined to consult school nurses with subjective health complaints. Boys more often consulted the nurses with physical injuries.

    CONCLUSIONS: School nurses work closely with the children and meet them continuously during the school age period. They have a genuine knowledge of schoolchildren's health, which should be used even more, both in research and practice. The results may be applicable in other countries with similarly organized school health systems.

  • 2.
    Elo, Sirkka L
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Calltorp, Johan B
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Health promotive action and preventive action model (HPA model) for the classification of health care services in public health nursing.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 200-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for an expanded approach to develop knowledge of public health nursing as a sphere of public health. The aim of this paper was to construct a theoretical model for healthcare services in the area of public health nursing based on the analysis and classification of healthcare services used in public health nursing practice.

    METHODS: Patient records were examined using a qualitative research approach. The categorization and classification of the actions followed certain criteria. Three methods were used for verifying and modifying the concept.

    RESULTS: Of the identified categories 34 dealt with healthcare services, three with administrative services, and five with coordination. The six recognized domains of the healthcare services are health promotive services, health protective services, diagnostic services, therapeutic services, rehabilitation services, and terminal healthcare services. Using the public health approach, the Health promotive action and preventive action model (HPA model) was constructed in order to visualize where in the course of the process of health-ill health and developmental stages the public health nurses provide healthcare services. Health promotion and the levels of prevention are described on the operational and conceptual levels in this paper.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result is expected to have an important effect on how public health nurses conceptualize their field of knowledge. The classification reflects current public health policy by focusing on health promotion and illness prevention. The developed HPA model will support health service research.

  • 3.
    Forsman, Anna K
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. THL National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mental Health Promotion Unit, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Wahlbeck, Kristian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. THL National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cognitive components of social capital and mental health status among older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 757-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To determine the associations between the cognitive aspects of social capital and mental health status in older adults.

    METHODS: Data on older people (65 years of age or older, n = 1,102) were retrieved from a general population mental health survey conducted in Finland in 2008. The response rate was 61%. The associations between self-reported depression (measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form, CIDI-SF) or psychological distress (measured by the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) and perceived social support, sense of belonging, and trust were tested by logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: For the cognitive social capital indicators, difficult access to help from neighbours showed a significant association with depression. Furthermore, not having people to count on, experiencing a lack of concern from other people, and feeling mistrust towards other people were all significantly associated with psychological distress.

    CONCLUSIONS: Links between mental health and cognitive social capital indicate that social support and trust may be important factors to consider when developing interventions to promote mental health and prevent mental disorders among older adults.

  • 4.
    Kringeland, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Daltveit, Anne Kjersti
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, Medical Birth Registry of Norway, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Möller, Anders
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    What characterizes women in Norway who wish to have a caesarean section?2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 364-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of pregnant women who wish to have a caesarean section.

    METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Pregnant women booked for antenatal care in Norway between 1999 and 2006 were invited to participate in the study. Data on women's interest in mode of delivery and a set of associated variables were gathered from a questionnaire completed by 55,859 women at 30 weeks of pregnancy.

    RESULTS: A wish for caesarean section was expressed by 10% of the women, and 33% thought that the woman herself should be allowed to decide whether to have a caesarean section or not. A negative experience from a previous labour, a second birth, an age>35, a low level of education, being single, being unemployed, having an assisted conception, expecting more than one foetus, experiencing urinary and bowel incontinence before current pregnancy, experiencing pelvic pain, having a fear of childbirth and reporting negative intra-psychic phenomena were significantly associated with a wish for caesarean section.

    CONCLUSIONS: At 30 weeks of pregnancy, one out of 10 women in a sample of Norwegian women would choose a caesarean section. Negative experiences from previous pregnancies and fear of giving birth are two of the strongest factors associated with a wish for a caesarean section and should be taken into consideration.

  • 5.
    Kulla, Gunilla
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Ekman, Sirkka-Lsa
    Divison of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden,.
    Heikkilä, A Kristina
    School of Health Science and Social Work, Va ̈ xjo ̈ University, Sweden.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Differences in self-rated health among older immigrants--a comparison between older Finland-Swedes and Finns in Sweden.2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Research has shown a tendency among immigrants and ethnic minorities to have a lower health status compared with the majority population. This applies to Finnish immigrants in Sweden. This group, however, also consists of persons who belong to a small ethnic minority in Finland, the Finland-Swedes, who speak Swedish as their mother tongue. In Finland, this minority has been shown to have better health and longer lives than the majority of Finnish-speaking people. Most of the previous research has studied the objective health of immigrants and minorities, while less is known about their subjective health. The aim of this study was to describe and compare self-rated health in older Finland-Swedes and Finns living as immigrants in Sweden.

    METHODS: The study was carried out as a sample-based cross-sectional study. Data was collected by a postal structured questionnaire. The response rate among the Finland-Swedes was 47% (n = 169) and among the Finns was 54% (n = 643). Data was analyzed descriptively and tested with Pearson's chi-square test.

    RESULTS: The results showed significant differences between the language groups in self-rated health, age of retirement and causes for retirement. The Finland-Swede immigrants rated their health as better than the Finnish-speaking ones. They had retired at an older age and less frequently because of health problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there may be significant differences in health, at least in subjective health, between immigrant groups. Due to the low response rate, the results cannot be generalized.

  • 6.
    Niclasen, Birgit
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Centre for Health Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, Denmark.
    Child health in Greenland.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 313-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland.

    METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles were sorted by topic, type, quality of study, and relevance for child health today, providing 47 articles.

    RESULTS: Children in Greenland have become taller and have improved their general health. The morbidity found in Greenlandic children is similar to that found elsewhere even though the magnitude of problems might differ. The child mortality is relatively high and unevenly distributed. The acute disease pattern is dominated by infections, mostly airway infections. Otitis and its sequelae is a problem. An increase in chronic conditions such as atopy, asthma, obesity, and disabilities has taken place. Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children.

    CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis.

  • 7.
    Niclasen, Birgit
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    National indicators of child health and well-being in Greenland.2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 347-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to identify core indicators of children's health and well-being at the national level, adapt them to the needs of children in Greenland, and present empirical data about them.

    METHODS: The indicators were based on the actual knowledge about the health of children in Greenland, on the goals identified in the National Public Health Strategy and in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as on experiences from international studies. Criteria to determine quality and relevance were identified.

    RESULTS: It is proposed that the 28 core indicators of child health that fulfilled the selected criteria be implemented immediately and that another 25 indicators be implemented later. Data showed that large subgroups of children are vulnerable because of their socioeconomic and demographic conditions, that morbidity associated with health behaviour and mortality was high, and that at-risk health behaviour was frequent compared to children in the other Nordic countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The carefully selected indicators could be powerful tools in monitoring core issues in children's health and the factors influencing it. They are also a necessary starting point for determining the outcomes of the country's health and welfare policies. Although relevant indicators were identified, a lack of both validated data sources and routine data collections was obvious. Data on the proposed indicators showed many affected children in Greenland.

  • 8.
    Tran, Toan Khanh
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Family Medicine Department, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Family Medicine Department, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Horby, Peter
    Bondjers, Göran
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (GU), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    DodaLab: an urban health and demographic surveillance site, the first three years in Hanoi, Vietnam.2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 765-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE: Health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSSs) are important sources for health planning and policy in many low and middle income countries. Almost all HDSSs are in rural settings. The article aims to present the experiences and some concrete results for the first three years of operation of an urban HDSS in Hanoi, Vietnam, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of conducting health studies in HDSSs.

    DESIGN, POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE: The DodaLab urban HDSS was established in 2007 in three communes at different economic levels in Dong Da district, Hanoi, Vietnam. Demographic, social and economic information about 10,000 households and their 37,000 persons was obtained through household interviews. Quarterly follow-up was initiated to provide information about vital events, birth, death and migration. A new household survey was undertaken in 2009. The existing rural HDSS FilaBavi, started in 1999, with 12,000 households and 52,000 persons, was used as the blueprint.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to establish and run an urban HDSS with experiences from the rural site. The urban and rural contexts are different and demographically, economically and socially complex, but the use of HDSSs can facilitate research beyond very simplified models for comparisons. General statements about external validity of results from the HDSS cannot be made. This issue has to be considered specifically in every situation as an integral part of the research so that the results can be made useful outside the researched HDSS and in performing relevant comparisons.

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