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  • 1.
    Nguyen, Huong Thu
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Research Institute for Child Health, National Hospital of Pediatrics, 18/879 La Thanh road, Hanoi, Dong Da district, Vietnam..
    Eriksson, Bo
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Nguyen, Liem Thanh
    Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bondjers, Göran
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Ascher, Henry
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Physical growth during the first year of life.: A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam.2012In: BMC Pediatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, p. 26-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length) of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations.

    METHODS: Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis.

    RESULTS: Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education.

    CONCLUSION: Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal education and economic conditions lead to poor nutrition for mothers and children in turn causing inferior birth weight and growth.

  • 2.
    Nguyen, Huong Thu
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Research Institute for Child Health, National Hospital of Pediatrics, 18/879 La Thanh road, Hanoi, Dong Da district, Vietnam..
    Eriksson, Bo
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Bondjers, Göran
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Tran, Toan Khanh
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Family Medicine Department, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Liem Thanh
    Ascher, Henry
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Factors associated with physical growth of children during the first two years of life in rural and urban areas of Vietnam.2013In: BMC Pediatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 13, p. 149-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Differences between urban and rural settings can be seen as a very important example of gaps between groups in a population. The aim of this paper is to compare an urban and a rural area regarding child growth during the first two years of life as related to mother's use of antenatal care (ANC), breastfeeding and reported symptoms of illness.

    METHODS: The studies were conducted in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    RESULTS: We found that children in the urban area grow faster than those in the rural area. There were statistical associations between growth and the education of the mother as well as household resources. There were positive correlations between the number of ANC visits and child growth. We also saw a positive association between growth and early initiation (first hour of life) of breastfeeding but the reported duration of exclusive breastfeeding was not statistically significantly related to growth. Reporting symptoms of illness was negatively correlated to growth, i.e. morbidity is hampering growth.

    CONCLUSIONS: All predictors of growth discussed in this article, ANC, breastfeeding and illness, are associated with social and economic conditions. To improve and maintain good conditions for child growth it is important to strengthen education of mothers and household resources particularly in the rural areas. Globalization and urbanization means obvious risks for increasing gaps not least between urban and rural areas. Improvement of the quality of programs for antenatal care, breastfeeding and integrated management of childhood illness are also needed in Vietnam.

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