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  • 1. Ackerman, Frank
    et al.
    Massey, Rachel
    Les véritables coûts de REACH2005Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fr]

    The proposed new chemicals policy of the European Community, REACH, is an important new development in environmental protection. Rather than waiting for government or independent researchers to determine that chemicals are hazardous, it will make manufacturers, importers, and professional users of chemicals responsible for the safe use. There is little doubt that REACH will give health and environmental benefits, but there has been little agreement about the resulting costs: -Will European manufacturers be crushed by the economic burden of chemicals regulation, as some industry sources have suggested? -Or, as projected in some public sector studies, will there be a minor cost impact, well within the ability of industry and worth the price? This report offers a new look at these costs. Frank Ackerman and Rachel Massey compare the current EC legislation on chemicals, the European Commission’s proposal and an alternative proposal addressing previous versions of REACH. The authors make a bottom-up calculation of the expected registration and testing costs under REACH and provide a new analysis of the indirect economic impacts. Ultimately they evaluate some prominent arguments about the costs of REACH and discuss the expected benefits. In the appendices there is the derivation of their economic impacts analysis and a critique of the best-known industry-oriented study.

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  • 2. Ahrens, Andreas
    et al.
    Reihlen, Antonia
    The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database: Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission launched on 29 October 2003 its proposal for a new chemical legislation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). In 2006 the Nordic Chemicals Group granted funds to the Nordic Product Register Group to start a joint Nordic project on "The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database. Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments". The objective of the project was to clarify the extent of overlap between REACH substance database and the Product Registers and characterize the added value of the Nordic Product Registers. The REACH substance database and the Product Registers are different systems. These differences are compared and discussed in this report with proposals for use of Product Register information in the implementation of REACH.

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  • 3. Ahtiainen, Jukka
    et al.
    Väänänen, Elina
    Regulatory Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: Are we facing the same challenges as the regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals?2012Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic NanoNet Workshop and EDC discussion was organised in October 2011 in Espoo, Finland as part of the 2011 Finnish chairmanship of the Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR). The workshop focused on the safety assessment and management of nanomaterials (NMs) while reflecting on experiences in regulating endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).  This report describes the presentations, break-out group discussions and conclusions of the meeting. The regulatory frameworks and links between NMs and EDCs as well as the applicability of test guidelines and risk assessment tools for nanomaterials were addressed in presentations and break-out group work.  Regulatory possibilities were further considered in a panel-led discussion. The Nordic dimension was of special interest: strengthening of Nordic regulatory cooperation in the field of nanosafety gained support, while commencing a TG/GD project in the OECD test guideline programme was seen a concrete idea for future cooperation.

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  • 4. Antvik, Gunilla
    et al.
    Lundbergh, Ivar
    Kemikaliefrågor i den nordiska miljö- och klimatsektorns samarbetsprogram 2019–2024: – rapport från en workshop med nordiska kemikaliemyndigheter2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport redovisas förslag till samarbetsfrågor inom kemikalieområdet inför utvecklingen av det nordiska samarbetsprogrammet för klimat och miljö 2019–2024. Rapporten är resultatet av en workshop i november 2017 då chefer och experter vid nordiska kemikaliemyndigheter diskuterade strategiskt viktiga områden inom kemikaliekontrollen på nationell nivå, i Norden, i EU och i ett internationellt perspektiv för 2019-2024 samt i ett längre perspektiv för att bidra till att uppfylla målen i Agenda 2030.

    Punkterna i kemikalieavsnittet i Miljöhandlingsprogrammet 2013-2018 ansågs fortsatt relevanta för nya huvudtemat ”Kemikalier – miljö och hälsa” och nya frågor identifierades. Kemikaliefrågor ansågs vara viktiga även för det nya programmets övriga huvudteman: Cirkulär ekonomi, Klimat och luft, Biologisk mångfald samt Kust och hav. Rapporten innehåller förslag på sådana frågor.

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  • 5. B. Hansen, Asger
    et al.
    Lassen, Pia
    Bügel Mogensen, Betty
    Boutrup, Susanne
    Dam, Maria
    Screening of phenolic substances in the Nordic environments2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Nordic study was to investigate the occurrence of different phenolic substances in the Nordic environment. The phenolic substances include both long and short chain alkylphenols, some bisphenols and monoetoxylates of octyl- and nonylphenols. Most of the selected substances are so-called high production volume (HPV) chemicals and are considered being more or less persistent in the environment and/or hazardous to aquatic organisms. Some are of even greater concern due to endocrine effects.

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  • 6. Bergman, Per
    Verifying the Efficacy of Biocidal Products and Treated Articles: - a comparative study of regulatory techniques2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One requirement in the biocides regulation (528/2012/EU) is that the efficacy of the biocidal product has to be demonstrated when applying for approval. It has to be shown that the product really has the intended effect on the harmful organism. How such a requirement will affect the marketing of articles treated with biocides is an interesting question that is discussed in the report. The study aims at giving an overview of different types of efficacy requirements in the biocidal rules but also and in other types of neighbouring regulations.

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  • 7. Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Rudén, Christina
    Hanberg, Annika
    SciRAP workshop report: Bridging the gap between academic research and chemicals regulation - the SciRAP tool for evaluating toxicity and ecotoxicity data for risk assessment of chemicals2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report from a Nordic workshop on the SciRAP tools and their application in regulatory hazard and risk assessment, which was organised in Stockholm in November 2016. Thirty-one experts in toxicology and ecotoxicology from authorities and academia in the five Nordic countries attended the workshop. Participant presentations concerning specific issues and challenges in evaluating data for regulatory assessments of chemicals, as well as a pre-workshop exercise using the SciRAP tools provided the basis for discussions. Overall, the conclusion was that the SciRAP tools are useful to Nordic authorities when evaluating (eco)toxicity studies for hazard and risk assessment. Improvements to the SciRAP tools and website were suggested. The outcome of the workshop will be useful in moving forward and making further developments to the SciRAP tools to meet end-users’ needs.

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  • 8. Blom, Cécile
    et al.
    Hanssen, Linda
    Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated substances in articles2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFAS) make up a large group of substances that have been used for decades. There has been increasing focus on this group of substances as some of them have shown to be extremely persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. There is however, a large number of these compounds in use and for many of them there is little knowledge about the health and environmental properties. This project is a follow up of a NORAP project from 2012 where the main conclusion was the limited knowledge of which perfluorinated substances are used, and in what amounts. Our aim for this study was thus to gather more information on the use and the incidence of these substances in some every-day products

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  • 9. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Analysis of PFASs and TOF in products2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs) are a large group of substances used in industrial and consumer applications. There are thousands of PFASs on the global market, for many of which there is little information on their use. This study is a follow-up of a NORAP project from 2015 where different household products were analysed for PFASs. Here we further analysed these products for total organic fluorine (TOF) together with new analyses for individual PFASs and TOF in product types that are known to or suspected to contain PFASs. The analyses of new products showed that PFASs are widely used. The comparisons between analysed individual PFASs and TOF concentrations showed that for most samples the detected individual PFAS constituted only a very minor part of the TOF, illustrating large data gaps in our knowledge on which PFASs that are being used in these products.

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  • 10. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Andersson, Alicja
    Moore, Gregory
    Nordic Workshop on PFASs: Outcomes2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The “Nordic workshop on joint strategies for per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs)” was hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency in Stockholm, Sweden on 5-6 April, 2017.The aim of the workshop was to gather scientific and regulatory experts, identify common issues related to PFASs, recommend priorities and steps/strategies forwards and facilitate continued information exchange and cooperation. Participants consisted primarily of Nordic delegates but also representatives from other regions and arenas e.g. the European Commission, the EEA, the ECHA PFAS network.Conclusions discussed at the workshop can be considered as being supported by the several Nordic agencies and non-Nordic agencies.The outcomes of the workshop are detailed in this short communication and concern both general and specific considerations

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  • 11. Dam, Maria
    et al.
    Auðunsson, Guðjón A.
    Poulsen, Hans H.
    Berg, Ingrid A.
    Kristensen, Lone
    Stenersen, Jan
    Joensen, Fríðbjørg N.
    Davidsen, Vivie K.
    Petersen, Susanne B.
    Micropollutants in wastewater in four arctic cities - is the treatment sufficient?2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The four Nordic cities included in the present study form a gradient both in climate, from oceanographic temperate in Tórshavn at 620 N to arctic in Tromsø at 69.70N, and in population, from less than 6000 inhabitants in Sisimiut to close to 120 000 in Reykjavík. The cities are different and far apart but products from the sea has been mainstay to the economy and societal development. Thus, the management of sewage from the municipalities must maintain a clean and healthy marine environment. The wastewater treatment varies, from screening on fine mesh, via septic tank based purification solutions, to no purification at all. We measured the contaminants in wastewater streams and in recipient samples, and with that in hand assessed whether the wastewater treatment appeared sufficient, and if not, which mitigating solutions could be relevant for wastewater purification optimisation.

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  • 12. Falk-Filipsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Wallén, Maria
    Exposure based waiving and triggering of tests within REACH: A discussion paper within the Nordic projects on Information Strategies (NOIS)2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [un]

    The main objective with this work was to discuss and give guidance on when testing according to REACH may be omitted based on information on exposure. This includes interpretation of the terminology used for the specific exposure based waiving according to Column 2 of Annexes VIII-X in REACH and the general exposure based waiving according to Annex XI. In addition, it includes exposure based triggering of testing. Waiving of testing is considered to be risk-based rather than exposure-based. One issue with risk-based waiving is that the toxicological study under discussion for waiving is sometimes needed in order to decide whether the exposure is negligible. In order to waive testing it is necessary with detailed and extensive knowledge on exposure over the whole life-cycle. Information corresponding to an exposure scenario is needed even though this is only requested if the substance is a PBT eller vPvB or fulfils the criteria for classification.

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  • 13. Goldenman, Gretta
    et al.
    Fernandes, Meena
    Holland, Michael
    Tugran, Tugce
    Nordin, Amanda
    Schoumacher, Cindy
    McNeill, Alicia
    The cost of inaction: A socioeconomic analysis of environmental and health impacts linked to exposure to PFAS2019Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS (per and polyfluoroalkylsubstances) are known to be extremely difficult to degrade in the environment and to be bioaccumulative and toxic. Exposure to PFAS is suspected to increase the risk of adverse health effects, such as impacts on the thyroid gland, the liver, fat metabolism and the immune system. This study estimates the socioeconomic costs that may result from impacts on human health and the environment from the use of PFAS. Better awareness of the costs and problems associated with PFAS exposure will assist decision-makers and the general public to make more efficient and timely risk management decisions. Findings indicate that the costs are substantial, with annual health-related costs estimated to 2.8 – 4.6 billion EUR for the Nordic countries and 52 – 84 billion EUR for all EEA countries. Overall non-health costs are estimated at 46 million – 11 billion EUR for the Nordic countries. Upon request the excel spreadsheets used for the monetarisation and valuation in this report can also be provided along with a guidance on how to use the estimation of costs for value transfer. Please contact any of the consultants or members of the steering group from the Swedish Chemicals Agency or the Danish Environmental Protection Agency if you are interested in receiving these excel spreadsheets.

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  • 14. Hafner, Prof. Dr.-Ing. A.
    et al.
    Gabrielii, Dr. C.H.
    Widell, Dr. K.
    Refrigeration units in marine vessels: Alternatives to HCFCs and high GWP HFCs2019Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing vessels can be equipped with energy efficient refrigeration technology applying natural working fluids. Ammonia refrigeration systems have been the first choice, but CO2 units have also become increasingly  common in the maritime sector in the last few years. When retrofitting or implementing CO2 refrigeration plants, less space on board is required and such units allow good service and maintenance. Nowadays, cruise ship owners prefer CO2 units for the provision refrigeration plants.Ship owners, responsible for the health and safety of the crew and passengers, must carefully evaluate the usage of flammable low GWP working fluids, due to a high risk that toxic decomposition products are formed, even without the presence of an open flame. Suggestions for further work include a Nordic Technology Hub for global marine refrigeration R&D and development support for key components.

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  • 15. Haug, Line Småstuen
    et al.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur
    Chemical exposure via the environment: Report from a NEXPO Workshop on human exposure to chemicals via the environment2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are exposed directly to chemicals in occupational settings and as consumers, but also indirectly due to contamination of the environment through air, food and drinking water. The report is the final product of a workshop in Oslo 2017 organised by the Nordic Exposure Group (NEXPO) in close cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The report includes a summary of the presentations given at the workshop, a list of available resources, the discussion points raised in the groups and plenary as well as the recommendations for improvements in guidance and tools for future assessments. The recommendations particularly point out a need for extending the ECHA guidance on Humans exposed indirectly via the environment.

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  • 16. Haukås, Hans T.
    et al.
    Pachai, Alexander Cohr
    Information sheets on natural refrigerants2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This set of information sheets is an updated version of “Information sheets on natural refrigerants” published by the Nordic Chemicals Group in 2008. It consists of 31 information sheets on natural refrigerants, covering a broad field of technical information. Natural refrigerants may already replace the group of potent greenhouse gases called HFCs for a number of applications, and the technology is under continuous improvement. The use of natural refrigerants differ from using HFCs in many ways, affecting a variety of aspects related to system design and operation, safety requirements etc. The objective of these information sheets is to provide information about the possibilities and limitations related to these fluids, and to make technical knowhow and practical experience available for system designers and installers, in order to promote more use of natural refrigerants.

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  • 17. Heijkenskjöld, Lolo
    Articles treated with antibacterial agents: Outline of a strategy to reduce unjustified use2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Do we need antibacterial garbage bags? A wide range of antibacterial consumer articles can be found on the Internet. Mostly there is no information on the antibacterial agents used or on their efficacy. Does this relate to bacterial resistance to antibiotics? The release of antibacterial agents from these articles creates a constant low exposure for microorganisms. This may help accelerating the development of bacterial resistance. Important research is on-going. Can we know if an article contains antibacterial agents? New rules in EU legislation apply for treated articles. When implemented, information will be given if an article is treated for antibacterial effects and the claimed effects will be substantiated. An outline for a strategy to prevent unjustified antibacterial articles was elaborated at a Nordic workshop, initiated by the Swedish presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 18. Heinälä, Milla
    et al.
    Stockmann-Juvala, Helene
    CLP Regulation and nanomaterial classification – a preliminary review of GHS and possible problem identification: Nordic Stakeholder Survey on Nanomaterial Hazard Classification and Labelling.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Classification Group under the auspices of the Nordic Chemical Group/Nordic Council of Ministers has carried out a web-based survey to gain information on the view and practical experience of Nordic stakeholders on the applicability of UN GHS and the EU CLP regulation on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in relation to nanomaterials. The aim of the project was to identify potential challenges concerning classification and labeling due to the unique and complex characteristics of nanomaterials, and to provide input to the ongoing work in the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on GHS. The main outcomes of the survey are presented in the current report.

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    Annex Nordic Survey
  • 19. Henrik Johansen, Per
    Unified Reporting to the Nordic Product Registers2009Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Product Registers has since 2003 been working on harmonizing the reporting process for companies in the Nordic countries. The objective of this report is to clarify the technical solution needed to accommodate the harmonization. This report describes a software model for implementing a joint reporting tool for the Nordic Product Registers. There exist various methods for implementing a solution to afford this, but the conclusion in this report is that a new client based on the fat-client paradigm should be developed. The report also contains cost estimates for the development and proposes two development plans for implementation.

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  • 20. Honkonen, Tuula
    et al.
    Khan, Sabaa A.
    Chemicals and Waste Governance Beyond 2020: Exploring Pathways for a Coherent Global Regime2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    SAICM was established a decade ago as a voluntary approach to complement regulatory gaps to achieve sound management of chemicals by 2020. Despite significant actions taken since then, chemicals still pose a grave risk through the pollution of air, water, soil, and food.

    In 2015, an international process was set in motion to design a new global framework for sound management of chemicals and wastes. The new framework will replace SAICM and it is envisaged to be adopted in 2020.

    This report is the first attempt to analyse functions needed for effective chemicals and waste governance and to identify options for the institutional form in the post-2020 era. The report aims to increase understanding of reforms required to protect human health and the environment from hazardous chemicals and wastes, in light of the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development.

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  • 21. Honkonen, Tuula
    et al.
    Khan, Sabaa A.
    Report from a Nordic Seminar: Global Chemicals and Waste Governance Beyond 2020 | 16-17 January 2017 | Helsinki, Finland2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an outcome of the expert seminar 'Global Chemicals and Wastes Governance Beyond 2020' held on 16-17 January 2017 in Helsinki, Finland. The seminar explored forms and functions for effective global governance of chemicals and wastes beyond 2020. The conclusion was that promising forms for the Post-2020 regime could consist of voluntary approaches or mixed instruments, with both legally-binding and voluntary elements. One specific model for this kind of approach that was explored is the 'National Action Plan' mechanism. Many of the functional elements highlighted include the involvement of all key stakeholders and sectors, the need for an effective science-policy interface, and use of a lifecycle approach. The seminar brought together 50 policy-makers and international experts in the field of international environmental law and global chemicals and wastes governance.

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  • 22. Huber, Sandra
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    Goetsch, Arntraut
    Davanger, Kirsten
    Kaj, Lennart
    Herzke, Dorte
    Schlabach, Martin
    Ó. Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    Vester, Jette
    Arnórsson, Mímir
    Mortensen, Inge
    Schwartson, Richard
    Dam, Maria
    Pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products as environmental pollutants: - Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is substantial in industrialized and high-income north-western European societies. Faroe Island, Iceland and Greenland are part of this modern society, although some areas are more suffused by technology and modern living than others. This also pertains to the standards of the local solutions for waste water treatment systems, but not so much to the health services. The present report summarises the results of screening analyses of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in presumed hotspots in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland. The study focuses on sewage lines from households and industry in general, and from hospitals. In all 38 pharmaceuticals or metabolites of pharmaceuticals and 7 personal care products were analysed.

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  • 23. I. Massey, Rachel
    et al.
    G. Hutchins, Janet
    Becker, Monica
    Tickner, Joel
    Toxic Substances in Articles: The Need for Information2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of toxic chemicals in articles is a growing concern for public health and the environment. International trade results in substances being transported among regions. From toys and household items to electronic equipment and automobiles, toxic substances in articles are an increasingly important factor contributing to the global burden of toxic substances. Toxic substances in articles may pose threats at every stage of the product life cycle - production, use, and disposal or recycling. In this report, we consider a factor that is critical for the sound management of substances in articles: the availability of information. At present, there is no global system for provision of information about substances in a wide range of articles. First, the report describes the problem of toxic substances in articles, with detailed case studies of selected examples and considers the advantages that would result from better information management systems. Second, the report considers existing efforts to generate and disseminate information about substances in articles, both regulatory requirements and voluntary initiatives. Third, the report offers suggestions as to the questions and themes that would need to be considered in order to improve management of information about substances in articles.

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  • 24. Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Quaternary ammonium compounds: Analyses in a Nordic cooperation on screening2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the findings of a Nordic environmental study. The quaternary ammoniums included are compounds which are used in large volumes in a variety of industrial, health sector and domestic products. The quaternary ammoniums are used to provide antistatic, antibacterial, emulating and other properties in a range of formulations like hair conditioners, cosmetics, in fabric softeners and in cleansing and disinfecting products. Some quaternary ammoniums are poorly degraded and some are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The samples analysed were taken mainly near assumed hot-spot areas as in sewage lines and in receiving waters, but also in background areas far from anthropogenic sources. Samples include water, sludge, sediment and fish.

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  • 25. Klar, Markus
    et al.
    Rumar, Karin
    Ramström, Frida
    Nordic project on enforcement of internet trade2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from enforcement on e-commerce show that products bought directly from companies outside EU had more than double the amount of non-compliances compared to products bought from companies within EU. In a joint Nordic enforcement project, 361 products from 161 companies were controlled if they fulfilled relevant chemical legislation. The Nordic inspectors checked articles (like toys), biocides, chemical products, cosmetic and hygienic products and plant protection products. The results show a higher rate of non-compliance for products bought directly from companies outside the EU (78 % compared to 32 %). These companies may not consider themselves responsible for that the products comply with chemical legislation in the EU. Almost all EU companies were responsive and communicative and removed non-compliant products or changed incorrect information on their website.

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  • 26. Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
    et al.
    Hansen, Pernille Winton
    Workshop Report HBM4EU: Nordic workshop for scientists and regulatory agencies discussing HBM4EU - the European human biomonitoring initiative2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists and regulatory specialist from the Nordic countries to discuss priority setting of which substances to include in the biomonitoring programs and promote the communication between scientists and authorities regarding use of HBM data in a regulatory context (e.g. REACH). Discussions during the workshop will provide the basis for moving forward in future Nordic collaboration and contribution to HBM4EU. The prioritization of substances should be made with the concern of toxicity, exposure and persistency in mind. The substances or groups of substances that the participants find to be most important in the HBM4EU is additional metals, triclosan, nanomaterials, microplastics, poly- and perfluorinated substances, chemical UV-filters, pesticides, phosphorous containing flame retardants, organophosphates, preservatives and particles.

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  • 27. Kristiansen, Alexander
    et al.
    Sillrén, Barbro
    Skals, Dorrit
    Oddsson, Einar
    Kihlberg, Elisabeth
    Hagen, Gro
    Ollikka, Jussi
    Yassine, Sara
    Classification and labelling of construction products: Nordic CLP project 2016–20172018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical authorities in the Nordic countries(Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have participated in this enforcement project focusing on inspecting classification and labelling of construction products according to the CLP (Classification Labelling and Packaging) regulation. The safety data sheets were also inspected according to annex II of the REACH regulation.

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  • 28. Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Wang, Thanh
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Langseter, Anne Marie
    Grønhovd, Siri Merete
    Ræder, Erik Magnus
    Lyche, Jan Ludvig
    Yeung, Leo
    Chen, Fangfang
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Aro, Rudolf
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    PFASs in the Nordic environment: Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Nordic Environment2019Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a screening study of in all ninety-nine conventional and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Nordic environment. In addition, extractable organic fluorine (EOF) was analysed. The latter can provide the amount, but not identity, of organofluorine in the samples, which in turn can be used to assess the mass balance between known and unknown PFASs. The study was initiated by the Nordic Screening Group and funded by these and the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Chemicals Group.A total of 102 samples were analyzed in this study, including bird eggs, fish, marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, surface water, WWTP effluents and sludge, and air. Samples were collected by institutes from the participating countries and self-governing areas; Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

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  • 29. Kökeritz, Ingrid
    On Products Containing Ozone Depleting Substances: A Guide to Customs Officers and Inspectors in the Nordic Countries2008Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This guidebook is written for environment protection inspectors and cus-toms officers in the Nordic countries to highlight the importance of controlling importation and sale of products that contain ozone depleting substances (ODSs), in particular CFCs and HCFCs. It describes the international restrictions as well as the EU and national regulations on this subject and gives some indications on how to plan control priorities and strategies. The expectations are that the guidebook should be used as a starting point for closer cooperation between the authorities involved ­ inspectors, customs officers, police and prosecutors at all levels ­ and lead to allocation of resources, collection of more experience and, eventually, also specialized enforcement campaigns. The guidebook is funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers and initiated by the Nordic Ozone Group, a cooperation between the officers in charge of ODS controls at the central environment protection agencies in the five Nordic countries.

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  • 30. Laakso, Senja
    et al.
    Suomalainen, Kati
    Koivisto, Sanna
    Literature Review on Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Non-Target Animals2010Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are the principal means of controlling pest rodents in the Nordic countries. Due to the intrinsic properties of second generation anticoagulants, i.e. extremely slow elimination from the body and high toxicity, they are prone to accumulate in the non-target species which consume poisoned rodents. Despite wide use there are no published studies on occurrence of residues of anticoagulant rodenticides in the non-target animals in the Nordic countries. This review of publicly available studies was aimed to find out which anticoagulant substances are found and in which species. The concentrations are reported as well as the proportion of exposed animals. We have further compiled a list of species that could potentially be exposed to anticoagulant rodenticides in the Nordic countries. The review shows that anticoagulant residues have been found everywhere they have been measured and secondary exposure to second generation anticoagulants is common among certain avian and mammalian predators. The results call for initiation of measurements of anticoagulant rodenticides also in the Nordic countries.

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  • 31. Larsen, Poul Bo
    et al.
    Christophersen, Daniel Vest
    Andersen, Dorthe Nørgaard
    The applicability of the GHS classification criteria to nanomaterials2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report reviews the applicability of the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) hazard classification criteria to manufactured nanomaterials considering the recent data generated and compiled in the nanomaterial testing program under the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. In addition, data from the EU NANoREG project, the EU NanoSafety Cluster projects, REACH registrations and publicly available literature were used. The project focused on four nanomaterials and selected health hazard classes. The available test data were evaluated with respect to applicability of the test methods, applicability of the GHS criteria, identified data gaps and uncertainties and need for revision of GHS criteria or guidance. The report also highlights specific issues to be considered when classifying nanomaterials.

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  • 32. Luotamo, Marita
    Nordic comments on the Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals: HERAG Fact Sheets2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The HERAG (Health Risk Assessment Guidance Project) was initiated and financed by metal industry associations, represented by the International Council on Mining &amp, Metals (ICMM), the European Confederation of Iron and Steel Industries (Eurofer) and the European Association of Metals (Eurometaux). The HERAG project consisted of exposure assessment, effects assessment and risk characterisation. From these a set of key-topics were selected for which Fact sheets (FSs) were developed for metals and inorganic metal compounds. The fact sheets focus on the applicability of the current Technical Guidance Document (TGD, 2003) on risk assessment of chemicals under the EU Existing Substances Regulation (793/93/EC). The fact sheets have been critically reviewed by a Nordic expert group. The opinions of the Nordic experts are compiled in the present report. The report concludes that the guidance presented in most of the fact sheets is at a very general level and might be applicable to all substances, not only for metals. The experience from the implementation of the Existing substances regulation (793/93/EC) risk assessments, which are done according to the TGD methodology, is that TGD allows deviations when required, as long as they are justified and done in a transparent way. Therefore, there is no reason to believe that special aspects of metal toxicology could not be considered under RIP (REACH Implementation Projects) projects. The present review has revealed a number of flaws and shortcomings in the proposed fact sheets, which further support the inclusion of metals health risk assessment under the general risk assessment RIP, corresponding to TGD (2003).

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  • 33. M. Pacyna, Jozef
    et al.
    Sundseth, Kyrre
    G. Pacyna, Elisabeth
    Munthe, John
    Belhaj, Mohammed
    Åstrom, Stefan
    Panasiuk, Damian
    Glodek, Anna
    Socio-economic costs of continuing the status-quo of mercury pollution2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury is considered a global pollutant and it has been concluded that a significant portion of humans and wildlife throughout the world are exposed to methyl mercury at levels of concern. The Governing Council of UNEP has concluded that long-term international action is required. Most of the measures needed to reduce emissions will lead to costs to society. However, mercury pollution also results in costs to society including for example damage costs from negative impacts on human health and the environment, loss of income from reduced commercial fisheries, administrative costs for scientific research and development, control and risk communication. The aim of this report is to present an estimate of the socio-economic costs of continued mercury contamination of the environment as an input to the global considerations on what international long-term action should be taken. The study contains an analysis of the damage costs of continuing mercury pollution without any further measures until 2020. The analysis has mainly focussed on IQ losses due to the exposure to methyl mercury via ingestion of contaminated fish. Other human health, social and environmental damages are also discussed as are costs of controlling mercury emissions. Furthermore, societal benefits of reducing mercury emissions are presented for two emission reduction scenarios.

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  • 34. Maag, Jakob
    et al.
    D. Hylander, Lars
    Pirrone, Nicola
    Brooks, Ned
    Gilkeson, John
    Smit, Mark
    Mercury substitution priority working list: An input to global considerations on mercury management2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury is among our most serious health and environmental hazards and man-made emissions of mercury result in human exposure, directly and via fish consumption. As an input to global considerations on mercury management, we present a mercury substitution priority working list, or: An identification of the least essential mercury uses. Our assessment indicates that: Many mercury uses may today be readily eliminated, if politically desired. Global mercury demand may be reduced significantly by substitution of the least essential uses. Applying a prioritized phase-out list may help focusing on the main problems, securing a cost effective phase-out process. We therefore recommend that a prioritised phase-out work list for intentional mercury uses is discussed and developed further in international cooperation, for example in the Open-ended Working Group considering legal and other initiatives on mercury established under the auspices of UNEP. The list could serve as: A valuable tool in mutual communication and discussion of possible global mercury reductions A tool for a step-wise reduction development, if desired politically A part of forming a common vision for global mercury reduction.

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  • 35. Meister, Reinhard
    et al.
    Falck, Jonas
    Environmental Hazard Classification of Metals and Metal Compounds: – A Probabilistic Assessment of Classification Power for Data Generated by the T/D Protocol2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to give guidance for understanding the performance and reliability of a classification rule, when applied to data generated by the transformation/dissolution (T/D) protocol. The classification of sparingly soluble metal compounds is based on ecotoxicity reference values and on the measured concentrations of metal ions of experiments performed according to the T/D protocol and the standard operating procedure. The assessment was conducted by Dr. Reinhard Meister, TFH Berlin - University of Applied Sciences. The Nordic project group on Classification and Labelling under the Nordic Chemicals Group has been responsible for the project and the report is written by Reinhard Meister and Jonas Falck. The project was financed by The Nordic Council of Ministers. The probabilistic assessment presented in this report, apart from being issued by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is also intended for publication by the OECD as part of an OECD Phase 2 report concerning the validation of the transformation/dissolution (T/D) protocol (Annex 10 of /1/).

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  • 36. Nieminen, Timo
    Efficacy requirements for drinking water disinfectants - survey and proposal: Requirements according to Biocidal Products Regulation in relation to disinfection practices in the Nordic countries2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water disinfectants used in large water treatment plants and in associated water distribution systems are regulated by the Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) 528/2012. According to the regulation, biocidal products need to be sufficiently effective. The criteria for efficacy are laid down in Guidance on the Biocidal Products Regulation, Volume II Efficacy - Assessment and Evaluation (Parts B+C). Author’s opinion is that not all the requirements in the current guidance version 3.0 (April 2018) are suitable for drinking water disinfectants as they are used in drinking water plants in the Nordic countries. The document presents reasoning behind these views and suggests modifications for the next version of the guidance.

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  • 37. Nilsson, Charlotte
    Retinoids in Mammalian Reproduction, with an Initial Scoping Effort to Identify Regulatory Methods2020Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This Nordic report builds on ideas brought forward in the OECD Detailed Review Paper (DRP) 178 on screening and testing methods and endpoints for evaluating endocrine disruptors. It was identified that the retinoid system is not presently included in any OECD test guideline, and that it is urgent to cover this knowledge gap.

    The present TemaNord report is a contribution to an upcoming OECD DRP on retinoids. An overview of retinoid biology in female and male reproduction is presented. The report identifies that, in general, there is a lack of studies investigating effects of chemicals on reproduction, while simultaneously examining effects on retinoid related parameters. This is a major data gap. However, selected in vitro and/or in silico retinoid-related endpoints, presented in this report, could possibly be part of a broader screening test battery aimed at reproductive toxicity.

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  • 38. Nimpuno, Nardono
    et al.
    Scruggs, Caroline
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Hayashi, Shiko
    Totoki, Yoshiaki
    Urban Swart, Maren
    Tholin, Mia
    Information on Chemicals in Electronic Products: A study of needs, gaps, obstacles and solutions to provide and access information on chemicals in electronic products2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals used in the electronics sector have negative consequences for human and environmental health. These include chemicals such as lead, mercury, brominated flame retardants, halogenated flame retardants, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and phthalates. Typical electronic waste handling practices in developing countries are detrimental to the health of workers, their environment, and their communities. There are issues associated also with formal recycling in modern facilities, and the production phase is often problematic as well, with electronics workers potentially being exposed to carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. In addition, it is becoming apparent that recycling of valuable materials must be made more efficient as the price of virgin materials, metals, and minerals increases and their availability decreases. The problems are exacerbated by the fact that there has been a rapid increase in sales of electronics in the past several years, making e-waste one of the fastest-growing waste streams today. In order to minimize any potential risks to human or environmental health, electronics stakeholders in different stages of the life cycle of electronic products need information on what chemicals are present in the products, their properties, use and potential risks. This report studies the extent to which existing information systems meet the needs of different stakeholder groups, highlights information gaps and obstacles and discusses potential solutions to optimize the flow of information on chemicals in electronics. The report is carried out within the UNEP project on Chemicals in Products.

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  • 39. Olsson, Ing-Marie
    The Cost of Inaction: A Socioeconomic analysis of costs linked to effects of endocrine disrupting substances on male reproductive health2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors(EDs) is suspected to lead to a number of negative effects on human health and for wildlife. In this report the costs for effects on male reproductive health (testicular cancer, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and infertility) are estimated. The model used is built on incidence of disease in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) and cost per case based on cost per patient data from Sweden. Extrapolation to EU28 is made based on population size. Assuming that EDs constitute 2, 20 or 40% the total costs for the selected health effects are 3.6, 36.1 or 72.3 million Euros/year of exposure in the Nordic countries, this corresponds to 59, 592 and 1,184 million Euros/year at EU-level. As these costs only represent a fraction of the endocrine related diseases there are good reasons to continue the work to minimize exposure to EDs.

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  • 40. Parkman, Helena
    Critical Review of "Metals Environmental Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals" (MERAG)2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment of metals may need specific guidance in how to handle natural background, essentiality, and long historical use of metals. It may also be necessary to take bio-availability into account. The aim of the present project was to critically review proposals on principles for risk assessment of metals (MERAG), developed by the metals industry, in co-operation with the UK Government during 2005-2006. The different MERAG proposals were reviewed by different Nordic consultancies, and their views are summarised in the report. The project was initiated and coordinated by the Nordic Risk Assessment Project (NORAP), which receives funding from the Nordic Chemicals group, a subgroup to the Nordic Council of Ministers. This review was considered urgent, in order to be prepared for a possible proposal to implement the MERAG principles within the Technical Guidance Document on Chemical Safety Assessment, which is developed for use under the REACH regulation.

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  • 41. Pedersen, Per Henrik
    HCFC phase out in the Nordic countries2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    AS of January 2015, it is no longer allowed to refill HCFC refrigeration systems in the Nordic countries. This might cause problems for some owners and users of HCFC refrigeration systems if they have not yet planned to install alternative refrigeration systems.This report has been prepared by the Danish Technological Institute in cooperation with Hans Haukås, Norway, for the Nordic Ozone Group under the Nordic Council of Ministers in an effort to ease the final transformation from the use of HCFC to alternative refrigerants and to encourage the use of alternatives that do not harm the environment. The aim of this report is to provide information which can be used to guide the refrigeration industry and the owners and users of HCFC-refrigeration systems. The report also provides examples of how to change to more environmental friendly refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants

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  • 42. Petersen, Karina
    et al.
    Lindeman, Birgitte
    Road to regulation of endocrine disruptors and combination effects2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions regarding regulation of endocrine disruptors (EDs) and combination effects are ongoing in Europe. Among the central topics of discussion are establishment of criteria for identification of EDs, whether there is a threshold for endocrine disrupting effects and how EDs should be handled within relevant EU regulations. In addition, a roadmap for further EU work regarding combination effects has been presented, but more detailed discussions are needed regarding scientific issues and regulatory intervention. Possible Member State initiatives to provide input to these EU processes were discussed in a Nordic workshop held in Oslo in November 2013. This report describes the workshop presentations, initiatives and thoughts from each of the Nordic countries, the plenary discussions, and the main workshop outcomes.

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  • 43. Pilenvik, Mariana
    et al.
    Falck, Jonas
    The influence of hazard classification on the use of chemicals: A pilot project2012Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot project is to investigate the relationship between the implementation of classification and labelling of chemical substances and their use. The system that has been examined is the EU legislation for classification and labelling of chemical substances and mixtures. The focus lies on substances with harmonised classification at European Union (EU) Community level as dangerous for the environment which by themselves or in a mixture above a certain concentration limit lead to classification and labelling with the symbol “Fish and tree” and the indication of danger Dangerous for the environment (N). Other effects were also included to some extent. EU Environmental hazard classification has been conducted since the mid 1990s and from the early first decade of the 21st century for chemical substances and mixtures. Now, almost 20 years after the first criteria were implemented it is interesting to look back and see whether this classification has had an impact on the use of these substances.

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  • 44. Posner, Stefan
    et al.
    Roos, Sandra
    Brunn Poulsen, Pia
    Ólína Jörundsdottir, Hrönn
    Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga
    Xenia Trier, D
    Astrup Jensen, Allan
    A. Katsogiannis, Athanasios
    Herzke, Dorte
    Cecilie Bonefeld-Jörgensen, Eva
    Jönsson, Christina
    Alsing Pedersen, Gitte
    Ghisari, Mandana
    Jensen, Sophie
    Per- and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries: Use, occurence and toxicology2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA.The study includes three major parts:

    1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information.

    2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1).

    3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances prioritized in 2).

    There is a lack of physical chemical data, analystical reference substances, human and environmental occurrence and toxicology data, as well as market information regarding PFCs other than PFOA and PFOS and the current legislation cannot enforce disclosure of specific PFC substance information.

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  • 45. Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    Hansson, Katarina
    Andersson, Hanna
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Lunder, Helene
    Schlabach, Martin
    Selected Plasticisers and Additional Sweeteners in the Nordic Environment2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report Selected plasticisers and additional sweeteners in the Nordic Environment describes the findings of a Nordic environmental study. The study has been done as a screening, that is, it provides a snapshot of the occurrence of selected plasticisers and sweeteners, both in regions most likely to be polluted as well as in some very pristine environments. The plasticisers analysed were long chained phthalates and adipates, and the sweeteners analysed were aspartame, cyclamate and sucralose. The purpose of the screening was to elucidate levels and pathways of hitherto unrecognized pollutants. Thus the samples analysed were taken mainly from sewage lines, but also in recipients and biota, both in assumed hot-spot areas and in background areas.

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  • 46. Schlabach, Martin
    et al.
    Haglund, Peter
    Reid, Malcolm
    Rostkowski, Pawel
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    Bæk, Kine
    van Bavel, Bert
    Suspect screening in Nordic countries: Point sources in city areas2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results of a suspect screening study in samples from city areas in the Nordic countries. In contrast to target analysis, suspect screening starts with a general sample preparation and identification including as much compounds as possible. The resulting list of recorded compounds will be identified by comparison with a list of suspected compounds. Suspect screening has shown to be very useful for identification of emerging environmental pollutants. It was possible to identify: Perfluorinated compounds (PFC), chlorinated and brominated compounds, flame retardants, bisphenols, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), industrial additives, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP). This study was jointly performed by NILU, NIVA, and Umeå University on behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The study was supervised by the Nordic screening group.

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  • 47. Schlabach, Martin
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Norström, Karin
    Kaj, Lennart
    Andersson, Hanna
    Herzke, Dorte
    Borgen, Anders
    Harju, Mikael
    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFR) in the Nordic Environment2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report describe the results of screening analyses of the occurrence of ”new” brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in environmental samples from the Nordic countries. The aim of the screening was to establish whether, and if then to what extent, the non-polybrominated diphenyl eters BFRs are present at detectable levels in the environment. If the substances subjected for screening are found in amounts which are potentially harmful for the environment this will be followed up on national level. The Nordic screening project is run by a project group with representatives from the National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus Denmark, the Finnish Environment Institute, the Environment and Food Agency of Iceland, the Environment Agency of the Faroe Islands, the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The project is supported by the Nordic Chemicals Group and the Aquatic Ecosystems Group as well as the participating institutions. The chemical analyses have been carried out jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL).

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  • 48. Skals, Dorrit
    et al.
    Joanna Harder, Britt
    Norrthon Risberg, Susanna
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    Forsbacka, Anna
    Tuhkunen, Sari
    Løkken, Kari
    Hagen, Gro
    Kontroll av klassifisering og merking av kjemiske stoffer og blandinger etter det nye CLP-regelverket: Nordisk tilsynsprosjekt 2012-20132013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Tilsynsmyndighetene for kjemikalier i Danmark, Sverige, Finland og Norge har gjennomført et felles tilsynsprosjekt i 2012-2013. Hovedformålet med prosjektet har vært å kontrollere om nordiske importører, produsenter og distributører av kjemikalier etterlever det nye klassifiserings- og merkingsregelverket CLP (Classification, Labelling and Packaging) som trådte i kraft i 2010. Prosjektet omfattet også kontroll av klassifisering og merking i sikkerhetsdatabladene og at sikkerhetsdatabladene følger de nye kravene i vedlegg II til REACH (forordning (EU) nr. 453/2010). Det ble også kontrollert om virksomhetene hadde overholdt meldeplikten for kjemiske stoffer til det europeiske kjemikaliebyrået (ECHA). Rapporten gir en oversikt over gjennomføringen av prosjektet og lovgivningen for kjemikalier i EU/EØS området. Resultater og konklusjoner er beskrevet bå de for hver enkelt land og samlet.

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  • 49. Sørensen, Michael Munk
    et al.
    Feng, Mattias Carlsson
    Bahr, Jenny von
    Sletten, Thea Marcelia
    Kiiski, Johanna
    Krarup, Signe
    Valuation Literature on Chemicals: A Description of an Inventory of Valuation Literature on Chemicals2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project has been to create an easily accessible inventory of studies that cover the full impact pathway from chemical exposure (or emission) to socio-economic valuation of the related health impacts. The main outcome is an excel-based database of 45 identified studies covering 15 substances or substance groups. For the vast majority of chemicals in use there are no studies with monetary valuations.

    The identified studies can support policy assessment by providing possible reference values and support to value transfer. The database includes information on region and health impact analysed as well as on the valuation method used. A brief guidance note describes how each study might be used for value transfer.The report describes the search strategy, summarises the findings, identifies knowledge gaps and provides suggestions for future updates of the database.

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  • 50. Taxell, Piia
    et al.
    Talasniemi, Petteri
    Räisänen, Jouni
    Santonen, Tiina
    Combining exposure scenario information for mixtures with combination effects2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aims of the present study were 1) to examine how the existing methods for combining component-based exposure scenario information for mixtures cover combination effects of the components, 2) to evaluate whether there is a need to develop further guidance to formulators for taking into consideration combination effects when combining exposure scenario information, and 3) to evaluate the usability of the Mixie software on combination effects in the REACH context. The report presents the outcomes of the study.

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