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  • 1. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 2.
    Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Asli
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS FORMATION: The potential of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper describes the state of play of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) by examining EU and national policy contexts and by highlighting good practices of local food initiatives in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Belarus. The working paper investigates the key drivers and factors impeding the development of these initiatives. The working paper is based on desk studies, input received during meetings with stakeholders and researchers from the BSR, and interviews with good practice initiators in 2016–17. This working paper is one output of the Local food: Formation of local food markets project financed by the Swedish Institute. The overall aim of the project was to strengthen co-operation and to build knowledge of local food system formation by various actors working on rural development issues in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Another objective of the project was to investigate and share good practices in building, shaping, reproducing and promoting alternative food networks and markets over time and space in the BSR countries (Sweden, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Belarus).

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  • 3. Cederberg, Dorthe Licht
    et al.
    Ekroth, Susanne
    Engman, Joakim
    Fabech, Bente
    Guðjónsdóttir, Katrín
    Håland, Julie Tesdal
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg
    Kostaomo, Pirkko
    Legind, Charlotte
    Mikkelsen, Bjørg
    Ólafsson, Grímur
    Svensson, Kettil
    Food contact materials - metals and alloys: Nordic guidance for authorities, industry and trade2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals and alloys are widely applied as food contact materials, e.g. as process equipment in the food industry and as household utensils. Therefore, they are a potential source of food contamination. Migration of substances from food contact materials to food must not occur in amounts that endanger human health. Relevant for food contact materials made from metals and alloys are the migration (release) of metals, both the main components and foreseen impurities.

    In-house control based on a declaration of compliance, DoC, and supporting documentation at the producers and importers are important prerequisites to limit this contamination and to ensure compliance with the legislation. This is considered a general part of quality assurance, even though the European legislation does not specifically require a DoC for metals and alloys used as food contact materials.

    This Nordic guideline gives a short overview of toxicology, analytical feasibility, legislation and guideline values for release of metals from food contact materials. Therefore, the guideline will be a useful tool for industry and official food inspectors.

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  • 4. Franke, Ulrika
    et al.
    Hartikainen, Hanna
    Mogensen, Lisbeth
    Svanes, Erik
    Food losses and waste in primary production: Data collection in the Nordic countries2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has resulted in a suggested definitional and methodological framework for future food waste studies in primary production. It has also resulted in a first attempt to quantify food waste in primary production in the Nordic countries. The project was focused on primary production in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. One purpose has been to test adequate methods for collecting data on food losses and waste from primary producers in the Nordic countries. Another purpose was to estimate the amount of food losses and waste in primary production in the Nordic Countries. In order to collect data and quantify food losses and waste in primary production it was necessary to work on these definitions or possibly introduce new, more useful terms. Thus this project involved defining terms, developing methodologies and quantifying data.

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  • 5. Halloran, Afton (Editora jefa)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editore)
    Persson, Marie (Editore)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editore)
    Menú de Soluciones: Una guía nórdica para políticas alimentarias sostenibles2019Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [es]

    Por primera vez se reúnen en un mismo documento las soluciones de política alimentaria más innovadoras de la región nórdica. Este Menú de Soluciones abarca nutrición, cultura e identidad alimentarias, comida y alimentación públicas, desperdicio de alimentos y dietas sostenibles. Incluye 24 ejemplos de políticas locales, nacionales y regionales diseñadas para suscitar nuevas conversaciones e inspirar nuevas políticas en otras partes del mundo. Cada una de las soluciones supone un paso tangible para abordar un problema específico; en su conjunto, representan un enfoque nuevo e integral a la política alimentaria. También dan testimonio de cómo las políticas blandas pueden traducirse en soluciones y desempeñar un importante papel en la consecución de objetivos ambiciosos a nivel nacional e internacional.

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  • 6. Halloran, Afton (Lead Editor)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Dreamer's Guide: An abridged version of the Solutions Menu: A Nordic guide to sustainable food policy2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    What is the best way to make sure that all children have equal access to nutritional food? What are the best ways to instil a greater sense of food culture and identity and what societal benefits can it bring? What is the best way to transition to diets that are better for us and for the health of the planet? One approach is through food policy.

    Read on, find inspiration and get in touch to share your ideas and your own policy solutions!

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  • 7. Halloran, Afton (Lead Editor)
    et al.
    Fischer-Møller, Mads Frederik (Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Solutions Menu - A Nordic guide to sustainable food policy2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, the most innovative food policy solutions in the Nordic Region have been brought together in a single document. The Solutions Menu includes 24 policies that aim to change food consumption and intends to inspire new and robust policy responses to the societal and environmental challenges caused by our current food systems.

    The Solutions Menu is produced by the Nordic Food Policy Lab, one of six flagship projects under the Nordic prime ministers’ Nordic Solutions to Global Challenges initiative.

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  • 8. Halloran, Afton
    et al.
    Persson, Marie
    Joining Forces: Takeaways from the Designing Your Menu of Food Policy Solutions2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This brief is a detailed account of some of the discussions that took place during the ‘Designing your menu of food policy solutions for sustainable diets policy lab’ at the EAT Stockholm Food Forum in 2018. Continue reading to understand how ‘stubborn optimists’ are creating tangible solutions to complex global challenges.

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  • 9. Halloran, Afton
    et al.
    Persson, Marie
    Wickramasinghe, Kremlin
    Iley, Roberta
    Kale, Maija
    Penney, Tarra
    In the spirit of collaboration: Transforming Baltic diets2019Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory multi-stakeholder processes are an indispensable part of food system transformation. However, bringing diverse groups of people together is no easy task. During the “Towards healthy and sustainable food systems in the Baltic region” workshop held in Riga from 27 February to 1 March 2019, a group of determined and energetic stakeholders took stock of various perspectives and initiatives using a systems approach.

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  • 10. Hivos and the Nordic Food Policy Lab of the Nordic Council of Ministers,
    Democratising good food: Mapping Sustainable, Inclusive and Healthy Gastronomy Initiatives2019Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Who are the people behind sustainable, inclusive and healthy gastronomy initiatives around the world? How do these frontrunners operate? What results are they achieving? What can we learn from these initiatives?In this brief, we will answer these questions and present a preliminary global mapping of sustainable gastronomy initiatives.

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  • 11. Matthiessen, J
    et al.
    LF, Andersen
    HE, Barbieri
    K, Borodulin
    VK, Knudsen
    Kørup, K
    Thorgeirsdottir, H
    E, Trolle
    Fagt, S
    The Nordic Monitoring System 2011–2014: Status and development of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and overweight2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results of the first and second collection of data in the joint Nordic Monitoring System of diet, physical activity and overweight. It is well recognized that health in the European Region needs to be improved and Nordic public health researchers have since 2008 developed and validated a Nordic method to assess diet and physical activity among adults and children. Data has collected on health behaviour and overweight in 2011 and 2014 among 18,000 adults and 5,000 children. During the three year survey period, significant changes have occurred in the Nordic countries, especially among adults. The Nordic Monitoring System shows that lifestyle and weight status differ between the Nordic countries despite highly comparable societal structures. Favorable and unfavorable health behaviour is present in all countries and there are areas to be improved in all countries.

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  • 12. Steffensen, Inger-Lise
    Safer food supplements in the Nordic countries: Report from a Nordic workshop November 21-22, 20182019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been incidents of serious health problems from intake of food supplements, also in the Nordic countries. Since the active substances in such products, the so-called ‘other substances’, are largely unregulated at the EU level, national regulations are needed. A collaboration regarding these substances through a Nordic network will benefit and strengthen the Nordic countries in this area of consumer safety. This project, called ‘Safer food supplements in the Nordic countries’, has established a network for sharing knowledge and risk assessments of ‘other substances’, arranged a workshop November 21-22, 2018, in Oslo, and thereby established a basis for further cooperation in this area. The project will therefore contribute to development of national regulations of ‘other substances’ and to safer food supplements in the future in the Nordic countries.

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  • 13. Tetens, Inge
    et al.
    Eneroth, Hanna
    Meltzer, Helle Margrete
    Schacht, Simon Rønnow
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Valsta, Liisa
    The Dual Risk Approach in Nutrition: Present and future perspectives and challenges2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes a Nordic symposium on the current use and challenges in applying a dual risk assessment approach in the setting of nutrition recommendations. The symposium is timed with respect to the forthcoming update of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). At the symposium invited experts addressed the methodological framework for the dual risk approach for setting nutrition recommendations, including the terminologies and the criteria for the assessment. Case studies were presented to underline some of the specific current Nordic challenges, including use of supplements. Especially, the lack of data for risk assessment in nutrition was addressed with examples on extrapolations to subgroups such as children and the elderly and to energy and protein. Also, the development of nutrition risk assessment using nutrient intakes and chronic disease endpoints was addressed.

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  • 14. Trolle, Ellen
    et al.
    Larsson, Christel
    Berg, Christina
    Andersen, Lene Frost
    Fagt, Sisse
    Dietary assessment in adolescents: Report from a Nordic workshop December 20142015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop has discussed how to recruit adolescents to dietary surveys and how to reduce the burden of participation. Following results came up: Personal contact is very important both with regard to the recruitment and for conduction of dietary assessment. The studies need to be as simple as possible, but the adolescents also want to produce meaningful data. Tools that are based on new technological solutions might be useful but is resource and manpower demanding to develop. Schools are valuable as settings for studies or recruitment units for surveys. For older adolescents several settings might be needed since they might be engaged at different settings.

    The workshop revealed needs for further research. Increased Nordic research collaboration on different topics would bring the research area forward and improve knowledge about dietary health promotion among adolescents.

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  • 15. Öhrvik, Veronica
    et al.
    Carlsen, Monica Hauger
    Källman, Anna
    Martinsen, Thea Amalie
    Improving food composition data by standardizing calculation methods2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Food composition data is important in nutritional policy making. However, food analyses are expensive and to use analysed values only is not economically justifiable; hence recipe calculations are important for the quality of food composition databases. The aim with this project, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, was to improve and standardize the recipe calculation method. A general recipe calculation method was developed, implemented and validated by comparing analysed and calculated content. The method and the foods recalculated within the project will be used in national dietary surveys and are available to the public through the national food composition databases. This report may be used as a guide through recipe calculations. Furthermore, the importance of well-structured methods for recipe calculations and possible consequences otherwise are highlighted.

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  • 16.
    A guide for conducting SLR for NNR5: How to undertake a systematic review of nutrition recommendations2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This guide in conducting systematic literature reviews was developed for the revision of the 4th edition of the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR5 project) by the NNR5 working group. The aim of the guide is to give instructions on how to conduct systematic literature reviews for the experts engaged in the NNR 5 project. It is a working document and has been submitted to and approved of by the NNR 5 reference group that consists of senior experts representing various fields of nutrition science, both within and outside the Nordic countries.

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  • 17. Aalto, Sanni (Redaktör)
    Pastell, Helena (Redaktör)
    Valsta, Liisa (Redaktör)
    Food composition data and labelling: A challenging dialogue2020Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the activities of two projects that were carried out us-ing the infrastructure of the Nordic Food Analysis Network, i.e. the ‘Nordic Food Composition Data for Labelling (NordCoLa)’ project carried out between 2018 and 2020, and the preceding project ‘Fostering the quality and use of Nordic food composition data’, carried out under the Finnish Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2016. The primary aim of the NordCoLa project was to evaluate the needs, gaps and synergies of the Nordic food consumption databases in relation to the data to be used to implement the new European nutrient labelling legislation. This was to ensure quality food composition data in the Nordic countries for food producers and other users for nutrient labelling purposes. The results of the projects are summarised in this report. 

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  • 18.
    Food waste and Date labelling: Factors determining the durabilityof refrigerated foods2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Date labelling has been part of a Nordic project on reducing food waste. The project was part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative, contributing to circular economy work. Focus has been on how to improve the use and understanding of date labelling of foods in order to reduce food waste in the Nordic countries without challenging food safety. This publication is based on the project report Food waste and date labelling: Issues affecting the durability. Mappings undertaken has led to recommendations on restricted use of Use by- labelling, on harmonization for lower storage temperatures for perishable products, on oxygen free packaging for fresh meat  and on the need for guidance on date labels to reach out  better among stakeholders and consumers. A Nordic standpoint is that date labelling of eggs should be regulated like any other food.

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  • 19.
    Harvesting Bold Solutions: Ten takeaways from the Policy Lab ”Serving-Up Solutions for Agenda 2030” at the UN HLPF2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The clock is ticking and 2030 is just around the corner. Globally, more and more people are questioning whether we can reach the SDGs and the Paris Agreement without addressing unsustainable and unhealthy food consumption patterns. Can gastronomy and food culture change offer new approaches to achieving Agenda 2030? This is precisely the question that the Government of Sweden and the Nordic Food Policy Lab asked at the dialogue Serving-Up Solutions to Agenda 2030: Food as a Golden Opportunity, during the 2018 High-level Political Forum in New York.

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  • 20.
    NNR 2012: Responses from hearing process2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the Nordic Council of Ministers´ policy on transparency and in order to receive comments from the scientific community and stakeholders, the proposal for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012 has been open for public consultation. This has been done in a stepwise process where the background material and the draft recommendations for different topics were published for public consultation in different batches. A total of six batches were sent out, comprising all the chapters and main subject areas of the NNR2012. This publication brings all the entries received during the hearing.

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  • 21.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012: Integrating nutrition and physical activity2014 (uppl. 5)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have collaborated in setting guidelines for dietary composition and recommended intakes of nutrients for several decades through the joint publication of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). 

    This 5th edition, the NNR 2012, gives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for nutrients, and compared with earlier editions more emphasis has been put on evaluating the scientific evidence for the role of food and food patterns contributing to the prevention of the major diet-related chronic diseases.

    Recommendations on physical activity are included and interaction with physical activity has been taken into account for the individual nutrient recommendations wherever appropriate. A chapter on sustainable food consumption has been added. 

    A Nordic perspective has been accounted for in setting the reference values.The NNR 2012 has used an evidence-based and transparent approach in assessing associations between nutrients and foods and certain health outcomes. 

    Systematic reviews form the basis for the recommendations of several nutrients and topics, while a less stringent update has been done for others. 

    The systematic reviews and individual chapters have been peer reviewed and the systematic reviews are published in the Food & Nutrition Research journal.The draft chapters were subject to an open public consultation. 

    Recommendations have been changed only when sufficient scientific evidence has evolved since the 4th edition.

    The primary aim of the NNR 2012 is to present the scientific background of the recommendations and their application. 

    A secondary aim is for the NNR 2012 to function as a basis for the national recommendations that are adopted by the individual Nordic countries.

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  • 22.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 1: Summary, principles and use2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR 2012) puts the whole diet in focus. The recommendations emphasize food patterns and nutrient intakes that, in combination with sufficient and varied physical activity, are optimal for development and function of the body and that contribute to a reduced risk of certain diet-associated diseases. The development of the NNR is based on current scientific knowledge and an overall assessment of the available evidence.Previous editions of the NNR mainly focused on setting DRVs for the intake of, and balance between, individual nutrients for use in planning diets for various population groups. In the current 5th edition, however, more emphasis is put on the role of dietary patterns and food groups in contributing to the prevention of the major diet-related chronic diseases. Nutrition research has traditionally strived to identify the specific mechanisms and health impacts of single nutrients, but most foods contain many nutrients as well as a multitude of other potential bioactive constituents that can affect bioavailability, uptake, and metabolic responses. Nutrients and other constituents interact with each other and the surrounding food matrix in complex ways. Thus, associations between single factors and chronic disease can be difficult to identify and difficult to interpret. In contrast, studies of dietary patterns or whole diets examine the association of combinations of many foods and nutrients with health.The NNR 2012 has established the scientific evidence for an optimal intake and combination of nutrients for various groups in the general population. The evidence underlying the DRVs for nutrients includes the scientific evidence regarding food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns and thus also accounts for factors other than nutrients.Long-term energy balance and adequate physical activity are other importantcharacteristics of healthy nutrition and lifestyle. NNR 2012 putsemphasis on the importance of adequate physical activity that, in combinationwith an appropriate food pattern, supports the long-term maintenanceof a healthy body weight.The scientific documentation is found in the individual chapters.

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  • 23.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 2: Energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrates, protein, alcohol, fluid and water balance and physical activity2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Components of daily energy expenditureDefinitions of energy requirementThe basic principle behind the formulation of energy requirement reference values is energy balance, i.e. the physiological state in which daily energy intake equals energy expenditure and both body weight and energy content (defined by body composition) are constant. For some people, especially those who are over- or underweight, the recommended energy intake might be lower or higher than energy expenditure for a prescribed time period, but long-term energy balance is the ultimate goal even in treatment of undernourishment and obesity. Therefore, the NNR defines the energy requirement in adults as “the energy intake needed to cover energy expenditure in individuals with body weight, body composition and physical activity compatible with good health. In addition, energy requirement is affected by the energy needed for growth in children, for deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for milk production during lactation” (1). However, because body energy stores are very large (at least 30 times the daily energy energy expenditure, there is no need for energy intake and energy expenditure to be equal over short periods of around 1 to 4 days (2).The daily energy expenditure can be divided into the following components:•Basal (or resting) energy expenditure (BEE or REE)•Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)•Energy expenditure caused by physical activityEnergy expenditure is measured in kJ (1000 kJ = 1 MJ) per time unit (usually MJ/d). One kilojoule equals 0.24 kcal (or 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), a unit that is still often used in the literature.On average, daily energy expenditure is higher in men than in women but the difference disappears after adjustment for the difference in body size and body composition between the sexes. Very cold or hot environments,genetic differences, hormonal status (e.g. serum concentrations ofthyroid and growth hormones), sympathetic nerve activity, psychologicalstate, pharmacological agents, and several disease states have been shownto increase or decrease energy expenditure, mainly by affecting REE (3, 4).

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  • 24.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 3: Vitamins A, D, E, K, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Biotin, Pantothenic acid and vitamin C2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin A refers to any compound possessing the biological activity of retinol (1). The term ‘retinoids’ includes both the naturally occurring forms of vitamin A as well as the many synthetic analogues of retinol with or without biological activity (2).All-trans retinol, the parent retinoid compound, is a primary alcohol. In most animal tissues, the predominant retinoid is retinyl palmitate but other fatty acid esters, such as retinyl oleate and retinyl stearate, are also found. Most of these compounds also occur in the all-trans configuration. Furthermore, the 11-cis aldehyde form, 11-cis retinal, is present in the retina of the eye, and several acid forms such as all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, and 9-cis retinoic acid can be present in many tissues (3, 4).Vitamin A exists in the plant world only in the form of precursor compounds such as β-carotene. β-carotene is one of 50 to 60 members of a large class of naturally occurring compounds called carotenoids that have vitamin A activity. In all cases, a requirement for vitamin A activity is that at least one intact molecule of retinol or retinoic acid can be obtained from the carotenoid.Recommendations on vitamin A include both vitamin A activity as retinol and some provitamin A carotenoids. The term ‘retinol equivalents’(RE) is used to convert all sources of preformed retinol and provitamin Acarotenoids in the diet into a single unit. The conversion factors for therelevant carotenoids are based on human studies that showed that theabsorption of a single dose of 45 mg to 39 mg β-carotene ranges from9% to 22% (5). In addition, a number of factors such as protein-energymalnutrition, zinc deficiency, dietary fat, alcohol consumption, infections,and the degree of food processing and food matrix can affect the bioavailabilityand bioconversion of retinol and carotenoids (3–5). Based on theseand similar studies, the US Institute of Medicine, IoM (5) introduced theconcept ‘retinol activity equivalents’ (RAE). 1 RAE is equal to:• 1 μg of dietary or supplemental preformed vitamin A (i.e. retinol)• 2 μg of supplemental β-carotene• 12 μg of dietary β-carotene• 24 μg of other dietary provitamin A carotenoids (e.g. α-carotene andβ-cryptoxanthin)The same factors are used in the NNR, but the term ‘retinol equivalents’(RE) is maintained.

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  • 25.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 4: Food, food patterns and health: Guidelines for a healthy diet, breastfeeding, sustainable food consumption and dietary antioxidants2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrition research has traditionally strived to identify the specific mechanisms, imbalances, and health impacts of single nutrients, but the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR 2012) puts the whole diet in focus. Similar to previous editions, the 5th edition sets dietary reference values (DRVs) for individual nutrients, which are intended as a tool when planning diets for various population groups, assessing dietary intakes in the population, and formulating public health nutrition programs and policies. Most food items, however, contain many nutrients that interact with each other. Therefore, the concept of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) was introduced by the FAO. FBDGs are defined as advice expressed at the food level that represents a ‘translation’ of energy and nutrient intake recommendations into foods and is aimed at the general population or specific population groups (1).Non-communicable diseases are not simply caused by single nutrient imbalances, but are diseases with multifaceted aetiologies (2, 3). The search for preventive measures against chronic disease, therefore, needs to takea broad approach. Over the past 15 to 20 years, a large number of observationalstudies and experimental trials have recognized the complexity ofthe diet and thus have focused on the impact of whole diets and of patternsof food consumption when examining diet-disease associations. Such anapproach has resulted in a significant amount of new and original data.The dietary habits in the Nordic countries have several common features,and food consumption trends tend to be similar. Some characteristics ofthese diets are an ample supply of milk and dairy products, moderate tohigh consumption of meat, and moderate consumption of vegetables andfruit. Consumption of fish is moderate to high overall, but lower in Denmark.Potatoes and cereal products are also consumed in moderate to highamounts. Cultural and culinary traditions differ, however, in terms of mealpatterns, food choices, and traditional dishes and each Nordic country hasdeveloped and formulated national FBDGs.Reports with a focus on the impact of food consumption on health thatare relevant for Nordic countries include the extensive and systematic reviews(SRs) of the World Cancer Research Foundation/American Instituteof Cancer Research WCRF/AICR (4, 5), the Norwegian comprehensivereview of dietary guidelines for health (6), Danish reports on the consumptionof fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and milk (7–9), a report on meatconsumption from the Nordic council of Ministers (10), and the new DanishDietary Guidelines (11). In addition, several systematic reviews (SRs) wereundertaken to provide information on the health impact of food groupsand food patterns in preparation for the 5th edition of the NNR (12–15).

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  • 26.
    Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 5: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium as salt, potassium, iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum and fluoride2014Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of calcium in the body at maturity is approximately 1,200 g and 1,400 g in adult women and men, respectively. Over 99% is found in teeth and bones, and the remainder is present as an easily exchangeable pool in the blood, extracellular fluid, and in all cells in the body. This free calcium plays vital roles in signal transduction both within and between cells, neuromuscular transmission, glandular secretion, and in a large number of enzymatic reactions. The concentration of calcium in plasma is kept constant within narrow limits (2.1–2.6 mmol/L). About half of this is in an ionised form and the other half is bound to albumin. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) are the most important hormones in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. They contribute to the maintenance of a constant calcium concentration in the plasma by regulating the influx and efflux of calcium in the intestine, bones, and kidneys. Maintenance of a constant concentration of ionised calcium is of vital importance, and calcium homeostasis is probably the most tightly regulated homeostatic mechanism in the body.In bones, calcium is almost exclusively in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). Adult bone tissue undergoes continuous remodelling through resorption by osteoclasts and formation of new bone by osteoblasts. The rate of exchange of calcium between bone and the exchangeable pool has been estimated to be about 700 mg/d. Bone formation exceedsbone resorption in children, and the rate of remodelling is higher in childrenthan in adults and it is higher in trabecular bones than in cortical bones.

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  • 27.
    Preventing Food Waste: - better use of resources2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” is the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. A number of projects have been launched as part of the prime ministers’ green growth initiative that deals with the circular economy.

    How to reduce food waste in the Nordic Region is one of the areas covered in the projects. The projects have mapped current shortcomings, proposed models for future solutions, and formulated policy recommendations for Nordic collaboration. The results are expected to make a significant contribution to Nordic co-operation in the coming years and have attracted considerable international interest.

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