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  • 101.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sanchez Gassen, Nora
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The Nordic Population 2040: – Analysis of past and future demographic trends2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is one output of the 2017 to 2020 NordicThematic Group for Sustainable Rural Development. The purpose of this project is to provide policy makers at the national, regional, and municipallevels an idea of what the size, composition, andgeographic distribution of the rural populations inthe Nordic countries might look like in 2040. It doesthis by compiling the population projections doneby the national statistical offices of the Nordiccountries to examine the size, regional concentration, age distribution, and other characteristics ofthe rural populations in the Nordic countries in thefuture. The future size of the both the urban andrural populations are examined to provide contextfor the expected population trends in rural areas.A separate policy brief is available which summarizes the key findings.

  • 102.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sanchez Gaussen, Nora
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The impact of migration on projected population trends in Denmark, Finland,Iceland, Norway and Sweden: 2015–20802016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible policy option for countries concerned about declining or aging populations is replacement migration – allowing or even encouraging international migration in order to counteract decline and aging of native populations. In the past two decades, net international migration into the Nordic region has been a much larger contributor to population growth than natural increase. This policy brief explores the likely demographic contribution of migration to population growth in the Nordic countries in the future and the extent that it could compensate for population decline or aging.

    The population of a country grows or declines as a result of thecombination of two trends. One is natural increase, the difference between the number of births and deaths. A number of European countries have been experiencing ‘negative naturalincrease’ (i.e. more deaths than births) because women havehad fertility rates well below two children per woman and olderage structures. In recent decades, the Nordic countries have had positive natural increase as a result of having relatively higher fertility rates of just below two children per woman and relatively younger age structures.

  • 103.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sánchez Gassen, Nora
    THE NORDIC POPULATION IN 2040: Executive Summary2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is one output of the 2017 to 2020 Nordic Thematic Group for Sustainable Rural Development. The purpose of this project is to provide policy makers at the national, regional, and municipal levels an idea of what the size, composition, and geographic distribution of the rural populations in the Nordic countries might look like in 2040. It does this by compiling the population projections done by the national statistical offices of the Nordic countries to examine the size, regional concentration, age distribution, and other characteristics of the rural populations in the Nordic countries in the future. The future size of the both the urban and rural populations are examined to provide context for the expected population trends in rural areas.

  • 104. Hellström, Elsie
    et al.
    Johansson, Björn
    Lesjø, Trond
    Olsen, Hans-Petter
    Schöldberg, Per
    Snekkestad, Jarle
    Tangen, Odd
    Fungerande partnerskap för regional utveckling 2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter från tre regioner i Sverige och Norge.

  • 105. Henning, Roger
    Regional Governance in the Nordic Capital Areas2001Report (Other academic)
  • 106. Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programs2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic experiences in relation to the implementation of the EU directive 2001/42/EC.

  • 107. Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    et al.
    Clement, Keth
    Bradley, Karin
    Hansen, Malin
    Tools for Sustainable Regional Development: Experiences and Prospects2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume reports the results of the study Progressing Sustainable Regional Development: Appraising institutional innovation and tools appropriate for Nordic practice. The focus here is on the role of certain tools in promoting sustainable development in the context of regional development policy and regional development programming work. While the national level in all of the Nordic countries remains in focus, special case studies were also undertaken on the regional level in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. They also look at the innovative tools and measures developed and implemented in Canada with the aim of promoting sustainable development in the regional development context.

  • 108. Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    et al.
    Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Implementing Sustainable Development in the Regional Development Context : A Nordic Overview2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume reports on the results of the first phase of the study entitled Regional Development Programming Processes and Regional Partnerships in the Nordic Countries and their Potential to Contribute to Sustainable Development. The ambition in respect of the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden on the policy-level is to promote and implement sustainable development in regional development and growth programming, and this is the target of the study detailed here, with a specific focus on partnership as a useful approach in the attempt to achieve this integration.

  • 109. Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    et al.
    Theodorsdottir, Asdis Hlökk
    Planning for Sustainable Development - the practice and potential of Environmental Assessment2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings from the 5th Nordic Environmental Assessment Conference Reykjavik, Iceland, 25 – 26 August 2003. The focus of the 5th Nordic conference on Environmental Assessment, held during the period, 24-26 August 2003 in Reykjavik, Iceland was 'Planning for sustainable development – the practice and potential of Environmental Assessment'. The primary aims of the conference were to describe, analyze and discuss the role of Environmental Assessment with respect to planning and the political goal of sustainable development. The conference aimed to highlight experience thus far, as well as providing a forum for the showcasing of emerging issues with regard to the assessment of policies plans and programmes through SEA and the assessment of projects in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Furthermore, the theoretical bases and assumptions of environmental assessment were also expected to be explored, in particular with regard to the existing theories of planning and policy analysis and to recent developments in the field of planning theories with relevance to the impact assessment field.

  • 110. Hovgaard, Gestur
    Coping Strategies and Regional Policies - Social Capital in the Nordic Peripheries : Country report Faroe Islands2002Report (Other academic)
  • 111. Hovgaard, Gestur
    et al.
    Eythorsson, Gretar Thor
    Fellman, Katarina
    Future Challenges to Small Municipalities 2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cases of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Åland Islands. This report is a comparative study of the leadership responses to the structural challenges facing the municipalities of one small Nordic country, Iceland, and two small self-governing areas, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands, as they are perceived by a representative number of political and administrative leaders in each. The conclusions arrived at will be relevant to anyone preoccupied with the future of small and peripheral communities across Norden.

  • 112. Hukkinen, Janne
    et al.
    Hansen, Klaus Georg
    Langlais, Richard
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Jeppson, Steen
    Levänen, Jarkko
    Sørensen, Freia Lund
    Schmitt, Peter
    Lange Scherbenske, Stefanie
    Knowledge-based tools for sustainable governance of energy and climate adaptation in the Nordic periphery2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the impacts of climate change are felt most dramatically in Northern latitudes, local policy makers and practitioners in Nordic peripheries should respond quickly to climate change. This report tackles the question pragmatically, by way of loosely related cases that are of vital importance to local communities and livelihoods. The report focuses on the following cases: the management of transitions to sustainable energy systems in West Norden, the planning of an aluminium smelter in Greenland, climate policy in Swedish municipalities, and the implications of climate policy for reindeer management in Lapland. On the basis of the studies, the report summarizes a set of knowledge-based tools to assist policy makers and practitioners in their planning for sustainable adaptation to changes in energy provision and climate conditions. Knowledge-based tools are practical indicators or checklists. They provide critical signals of a significant turn of events in the policy process that the policy maker or practitioner in the field ought to be able to distinguish in her daily work. In the report, the indicators and checklists are presented in a generalizable form that practitioners and policy makers in peripheral regions beyond Norden should also find helpful.

  • 113.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Adapting to, or mitigating demographic change? National policies addressing demographic challenges in the Nordic countries2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries continue to experience the impact of the long term demographic trend of migration from rural areas and smaller communities to larger towns and cities. In addition, the share of the Nordic population aged over 65 is increasing. Ageing population is especially pronounced in areas outside the largest city-regions. Depopulation and having relatively fewer people in working age is expected to have a severe impact on many Nordic municipalities causing additional problems with the future provision of welfare services. In addition, these municipalities face challenges when it comes to accessing the labour force especially in the welfare sector. Moreover, while population decrease imposes particular challenges to rural and peripheral areas, the large city-regions in the Nordic countries are experiencing significant population growth, bringing an altogether different set of challenges.

  • 114. Hörnström, Lisa
    EGTS - Europeiska grupperingar för territoriellt samarbete2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) is a new EU legal instrument established in 2006 to enhance and facilitate cross-border cooperation throughout the EU. Partners in an EGTC can be local or regional authorities or organisations as well as national authorities. The EGTC instrument differs from previous regulations of cross-border cooperation as it makes it possible to create a legal entity across national borders that can own property and have employees. The Nordic working group on globalisation and cross-border cooperation has published a paper which gives a background on the instrument and describes existing EGTCs. Most importantly, the paper discusses the possibilities to establish EGTCs for cross-border co-operation in the Nordic Countries. The paper is only published in Swedish.

  • 115. Hörnström, Lisa
    Krishantering, sårbara regioner och framtidens regionalpolitik2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Which policy responses that can and will be used to tackle consequences of economic crisis is a constantly debated and highly relevant topic. Seen from a territorial perspective economic crisis tend to have the most severe consequences on regions with a small labour-market, strong dependence on one or a few branches and limited access to surrounding labour-markets due to long distances and poor communications. More robust regions better prepared to handle economic crisis are those with a diversified labour-market and also a good access to surrounding labour-markets. The Nordic Working Group on Third Generation Regional policy arranged a seminar at Nordregio on January 26th 2011 where public officials from both national and regional levels in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden participated. The first part of the seminar consisted of a discussion of the overall consequences of the economic crisis in the Nordic countries and what policy tools were used nationally to respond to the crisis. The second part of the seminar consisted of presentations from three Nordic regions that have found ways of tackling the economic crisis in an efficient way. The report contains a summary of the presentations and discussions from the seminar as well as a part where conclusions from the discussions are drawn to serve as an input to formation of future regional policy in the Nordic countries.

  • 116.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Local development initiatives2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic trends in the Nordic countries are characterised by urbanisation, mobility and ageing population. Many municipalities and societies – especially those that are distant from large cities – are deeply affected by these changes, and they are facing serious challenges when it comes to issues such as ensuring a population of skilled people and access to both public and private services. The Nordic countries share these challenges, and therefore there is great interest in learning from one another in the Nordic region when it comes to how to meet the challenges.

  • 117. Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Hansen, Klaus Georg
    Roto, Johanna
    Att möta demografiska förändringar : En handbok för inspiration till handling i nordiska kommuner och regioner - 2012.2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The final version of the demographic handbook has now been published in Swedish. The handbook aims at providing a new tool for regional and local policy-makers to find inspiration when preparing strategies and projects to respond to the demographic changes in the Nordic countries. The demographic handbook is indexing more than 150 Nordic projects that are responding to the demographic changes in the Nordic countries. The handbook is divided into four parts. Each part represents one index. In Part 1, the index key is geography. Four maps provide an opportunity to create a demographic profile on municipal and regional level in all the Nordic countries. The four maps presented in Part 1 in the handbook are also developed as interactive maps. On the web page there is also a fifth map where the examples of Nordic projects presented in part 2 and 3 of the handbook are presented. In Part 2 of the handbook, the index key is the themes in the projects. Ten themes are identified, such as health, education, and regional and local development. In Part 3, the index key is the methods in the projects. Seven methods are identified, such as cooperation, prognosis, and attractiveness. This is the final edition of the demographic handbook, published in June 2012. The handbook has been discussed at four Nordic workshops gathering regional and local policymakers and revised according to comments at these workshops. The handbook is published in Swedish and Finnish.

  • 118. Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Hansen, Klaus Georg
    Roto, Johanna
    Väestönmuutosten kohtaaminen : Käsikirja Pohjoismaiden kunta- ja alueviranomaisille - 2012.2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    The final version of the demographic handbook has now been published in Finnish. The handbook aims at providing a new tool for regional and local policy-makers to find inspiration when preparing strategies and projects to respond to the demographic changes in the Nordic countries. The demographic handbook is indexing more than 150 Nordic projects that are responding to the demographic changes in the Nordic countries. The handbook is divided into four parts. Each part represents one index. In Part 1, the index key is geography. Four maps provide an opportunity to create a demographic profile on municipal and regional level in all the Nordic countries. The four maps presented in Part 1 in the handbook are also developed as interactive maps. The web address for the interactive demographic handbook maps is www.nordregio.se/handbook. On the web page there is also a fifth map where the examples of Nordic projects presented in part 2 and 3 of the handbook are presented. In Part 2 of the handbook, the index key is the themes in the projects. Ten themes are identified, such as health, education, and regional and local development. In Part 3, the index key is the methods in the projects. Seven methods are identified, such as cooperation, prognosis, and attractiveness. In the handbook and the interactive web maps the examples are only described shortly – a more extensive description and contact information can be found in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 contains technical notes on maps and graphs in part 1 of the handbook. This is the final edition of the demographic handbook, published in June 2012. The handbook has been discussed at four Nordic workshops gathering regional and local policymakers and revised according to comments at these workshops. The handbook is published in Swedish and Finnish.

  • 119. Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Van Well, Lisa
    Added Value of Cross-Border and Transnational Cooperation in Nordic Regions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transnational and cross-border cooperation play a central role in EU Cohesion Policy. The European Territorial Objective, one of three overall objectives of EU Cohesion Policy, and the programmes initiated to reach this objective have had an important impact on cooperation and networking across borders in the Nordic countries. In the new EU programming period 2014-2020, there will be a greater demand for thematic concentration within the cross-border and transnational programmes. The European Commission calls for a closer coordination between the five different EU funds. Each of the CSF Funds shall support a limited number of thematic objectives in order to contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Nordregio has been commissioned by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy (EK-R), to develop a method which could facilitate the selection of themes and ensure territorial added value in the coming programming areas involving the Nordic countries. The process of concentrating resources, while at the same time coordinating actions with a number of strategies and other funding programmes, makes the added value of the impact of cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes even more vital than ever. Thus through this assignment guidelines will be set up that programme areas can use to concentrate their resources and priorities within the ETC Objective.

  • 120.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordic ways of dealing with depopulation and ageing in rural and peripheral areas2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 121. Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Roto, Johanna
    Korkka, Antti
    Sahlander, Camilla
    Nordic Population Ageing – Challenge and Opportunity?2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News maps the demographic situation and challenges in the Nordic countries, especially regarding ageing population. It also examines different methods and policy responses to tackle the situation.

  • 122.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Schwenke Fors, Bjarge
    Scott, James
    Cross-border co-operation: - still an undeveloped potential? Nordregio News Issue 1 20152015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we focus on cross-border co-operation and its impact on regional development in Nordicand European border regions. We have studied how crossborder co-operation is structured and managed, and whether its full potential for sustainable growth has been realized. Theadded value of cross-border  co-operation can be defined and measured in various ways, including improvement of crossborder infrastructure and increasing flows of tourists.

  • 123. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Van Well, Lisa
    Eskelinen, Heikki
    Fritsch, Matti
    Hirvonen, Timo
    Foss, Olaf
    Juvkam, Dag
    Groth, Niels Boje
    Polycentricity and beyond in Nordic Regional Governance2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of regional development policies – Needs and demands in the Nordic countries. Different regions have different preconditions for polycentric or monocentric development. Eitherspatial structure can be rational as a consequence of e.g. location and territorial capacity. However the concepts and policy applications have been questioned as to their feasibility in all types of countries and regions. Particularly in the Nordic countries, where many regions are marked by low population density and peripheral location, working towards a polycentric growth strategy may not have the same effects as in the central Europe, for instance. Debates on polycentricity in regional policy and governance have proceeded along different lines in the Nordic countries, but the outcomes are still comparable in several respects. Thus this report omprises four country studies (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) in which we examine whether and how the concept of polycentricity has played a role in the debates on regional evelopment policy and governance reforms in these countries. The analysis provides a review of how polycentricity is interpreted against the contours of regional development policy and the regional/municipal reform processes in each country and in light of the particular settlement patterns of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  • 124.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Smed Olsen, Lise
    Reindeer husbandry in Sápmi: How can we support a prosperous future for reindeer herding through research?2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises and categorises those studies that have focused on socio-economic aspects of reindeer husbandry. The Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural and Food Research (NKJ) has commissioned Nordregio to provide an overview of research completed within the last 10 years in the field of reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries. Based on the literature overview and consultations with the experts and researchers, the report then provides a platform for proposals for further research that may be carried out within the NKJ framework.

  • 125.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kristensen, Iryna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Green transition in Nordic regions: State of play, practices and needs2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting green transition and building greener economies is currently high on the policy agenda in the Nordic countries. But how can we make it happen in practice? To answer this question, Nordregio went directly to those working with green growth at the regional level. We asked them about the main challenges that impede green growth in Nordic regions, and sought their ideas about potential ways to overcome these challenges and drive the green transition forward. These responses were then combined with the findings from a national policy review to inform a detailed analysis of the state of play, practices and needs of Nordic regions with respect to promoting green growth. This policy brief presents the findings of this analysis along with recommendations designed to support regional policy makers in their work towards a greener economy.

  • 126.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Local and regional approaches to demographic change2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a follow-up to the Handbook on Demographic Challenges in the Nordic countries, the Nordregio Working Paper Local and Regional Approaches to Demographic Change looks closer at examples of how to meet demographic challenges at local and regional levels.

  • 127.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H.G.
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, AnnaNordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.Lindberg, GunnarTeräs, JukkaNordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.Smed Olsen, LiseNordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.Mikkola, NelliNordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The potential of industrial symbiosis as a key driver of green growth in Nordic regions2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that there are differences in approaches to industrial symbiosis in the Nordic countries. In Finland and Denmark, there is generally a strong top-down approach to industrial symbiosis, accompaniedby a clear vision and comprehensive strategies for a CE/industrial symbiosis at the national and regional levels. Industrial symbiosis exchanges have been actively facilitated by municipal and regional actors and networks in combination with key private companies. In Iceland, Sweden and Norway, industrial symbiosis initiatives are often characterized by a bottom-up approach, where private companies and business parks are driving the development, while industrial symbiosis is largely missing from the national-level policy agenda. In the Icelandic and Swedish regional case studies, there are no local policy instruments that directly support industrial symbiosis or a CE, and industrial symbiosis activities are not explicitly a part of regional and municipal development strategies. In order to utilize the full dynamic and regional potential of industrial symbiosis in these regions, there is a need to develop coherent policies and support schemes for industrial symbiosis activities to fill this gap. According to the study, a key motivation for companies to engage in industrial symbiosis activities has been the desire to increase profitability and competitiveness. Business opportunities are the major driving force behind the development of industrial symbiosis. Among the main hindrances to industrial symbiosis development identified in the regional case studies has been companies’ lack of time and resources to implement new business models such as industrial symbiosis, as well as a lack of industrial symbiosis expertise in the region and low awareness about the opportunities provided by industrial symbiosis. In this regard, the presence of a cluster, network or other co-ordinating body that can facilitate collaboration helps to organize exchanges across companies. Disseminating information about industrial symbiosis solutions has played an important role in the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian cases. Overall, the regional cases showed similarities and differences with regard to the organization of industrial symbiosis networks, the type of support instruments in place to stimulate industrial symbiosis activities, adoption of the term industrial symbiosis and the potential for economic growth. Regarding the potential for new businesses and jobs to arise from industrial symbiosis activities in Nordic regions, exact numbers or quantitative estimates are difficult to obtain. It can be stated, however, that there is significant future potential to expand industrial symbiosis activities and develop new industrial symbiosis-related businesses in Nordic regions.

  • 128.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Youth perspectives on their future in the Nordic Arctic2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions of how to retain and attract young populations are central issues for regional policy development in the Nordic Arctic. Nordregio and the Nordic working group on sustainable regional development in the Arctic have carried out an analysis to uncover young people's own perspectives of their future possibilities in Arctic communities. This policy brief summarises the main findings of a number of qualitative case studies about young people living in remote locations. The aim is to voice the ambitions and future expectations of the young generation.

  • 129.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 2 2016: Community involvement in the Nordic Arctic2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News focuses on the Nordic Arctic. The area shares a number of common features, such as low population density, low accessibility, low economic diversity and abundant natural resources. It is also an area of increasing international attention, due to the effects of climate change and expectations about future exploitation of raw materials and the opening of new sea routes.

  • 130.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Heleniak, Timothy
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Wang, Shinan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ramage, Justine
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Roto, Johanna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Atlas of population, society and economy in the Arctic2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Atlas of Population, Society and Economy in the Arctic is to provide an in-depth overview of the changes that are affecting populations in the circumpolar North. Continuous environmental, economic and social changes are currently underway in the Arctic regions. Global warming, for example, is challenging traditional livelihoods, accessibility and economic activities. The atlas presents a collection of standardised indicators that illustrate the state of the Arctic regions focusing on demography, society, economy, production, accessibility and infrastructure as well as physical conditions and resources in the Arctic. As part of Nunataryuk’s research, this working paper examines the environmental challenges related to permafrost by combining geographical data with demographic data in order to describe coastal and inland settlements. Permafrost thaw is a challenge for many Arctic communities, as it has an impact on infrastructure, economy and the health of Arctic populations.

  • 131. Kahila, Petri
    et al.
    Kainulainen, Sakari
    Lange Scherbenske, Stefanie
    Møller, Jørgen
    Quality of Life and Urban-Rural Interaction2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News discusses the concept of quality of life from an urban-rural perspective.

  • 132. Kahila, Petri
    et al.
    Roto, Johanna
    Perjo, Liisa
    Lange Scherbenske, Stefanie
    Cross-border labour mobility in the Central Baltic region2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report studies cross-border labour mobility in the Central Baltic region together with the policies and measures related to that. It provides background information on the current migration flows between Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Sweden as well as information on the national labour markets and current labour demand in each of the countries. This report is the final report of the INTERREG IVA project "CentralBaltic JobFerry". Based on statistical data and stakeholder interviews conducted in the Latvia, Estonia, South West Finland and Östergötland/Sweden, the report notes that countries in the Central Baltic region are facing labour shortage in the health care, social services, ICT and construction sectors. There is an increased need for specialised and skilled labour force in those sectors. The EU has identified cross-border labour mobility as a way to increase the matching of labour demand and supply. However the actual intra-EU cross-border labour mobility remains low. The report identifies the main obstacles to labour mobility based on stakeholder interviews and policy reviews. Lack of language skills, lack of cooperation between relevant labour market actors and authorities, lack of easily available information as well as problems with the portability of pension rights and social benefits are the main factors that impede the mobility of workers in the Central Baltic region. To tackle these issues, increased cooperation is needed both within countries and regions and across borders. The CentralBaltic JobFerry project has published a separate policy brief presenting several policy recommendations targeted at regional, national and EU level actors. The policy brief can be downloaded at http://cbjobferry.eu/publications/.

  • 133. Karlsdottìr, Anna
    et al.
    Rispling, Linus
    Norlén, Gustaf
    Randall, Linda
    Gassen, Nora Sánchez
    Heleniak, Timothy
    Peurell, Erik
    Rehn-Mendoza, Nina
    Lagercrantz, Helena
    State of the Nordic Region 2018: Immigration and integration edition2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    State of the Nordic Region 2018 Migration and Integration presents a series of facts and figures showing the current state of integration within core socioeconomic sectors, including demography, the labour force, health, and foreign background in state funded culture in the Nordic Region. The report is produced by Nordregio, an international research center for regional development and planning established by the Nordic Council of Ministers, on behalf of Nordic Welfare Centre and the programme Nordic co-operation on integration of refugees and migrants, along with Nordic Agency for Cultural Policy Analysis. The report is partly based on State of the Nordic Region 2018, which is a unique compilation of statistics and maps, giving a detailed view of the Nordic countries at both national and regional level.

  • 134.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Cuadrado, Alex
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Young people not thriving in rural areas2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Despite relatively high standards of living, several indicators show that large groups of young people in the Nordic countries are not thriving. In addition, regional variations in the situation of young people across the Nordic countries are striking. Some attempts have been made to map the unhappiness among young people in the Nordic region. But so far, none have focused on regional variations within national boundaries or have taken the comparative Nordic perspective you will find in this policy brief. 

  • 135.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Cuadrado, Alex
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Gaini, Firouz
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ormstrup Vestergård, Louise
    Enabling vulnerable youth in rural areas not in education, employment or training2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concludes work within the Nordic ThematicGroup on Sustainable Rural Regional Developmentas part of the Nordic Co-operation Programmeon Regional Development 2017–2021. Theworking title of the project is “A rural perspectiveon spatial disparities of education and employmentoutcomes”. Part of the curiosity that drovethis project was to understand better the situationof vulnerable and marginalized youth in ruralareas of Norden, which arose from the Nordic ArcticWorking Group 2013–2017 where we identifiedsome local and regional processes with seriousmismatch problems relating to youth educationand validity in the local and regional labour market.Placing YOUTH IN FOCUS is a response to theNordic Council of Minister’s cross-sectional strategyon Children and Youth 2016–2022 as well asthe Nordic Co-operation Programme for RegionalDevelopment and Planning 2017–2021. It stressesthe importance of promoting social sustainabilityin relation to regional development. The Icelandicchair in 2019 has young people as one of three mainpriorities. It relates to SDG4, the fourth UN sustainabledevelopment goal, in that young people shouldhave a key role in achieving the goal, they should beencouraged to actively participate in society andshould have access to important decisions shapingthe future (Norræna ráðherranefndin, 2018). Furthermore,the project also relates strongly to bothEuropean, Nordic and in some cases national policyemphasis on inclusive labour markets for youthwith reduced functional capacities.

  • 136.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Greve Harbo, Lisbeth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordic Arctic Strategies in Overview2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, all Nordic countries have drawn up strategies for their Artic regions, with several countries even revising these Arctic strategies within this short period of time. It shows that the Arctic region has become a matter of higher political interest; not only at national level, where the focus has shifted from seeing the individual Arctic regions as general development areas to regions with geographic specificities that deserve particular attention at this point in time. The interest does not only lie in the Nordic countries but they are reflecting on other actors’ increased interest in the Arctic region; such as strategies drawn up by other circumpolar countries as well as the reason EU attention towards the Arctic regions. What are the goals and priorities in the Nordic national Arctic strategies?

  • 137.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordic Arctic Youth Future Perspectives2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions of how to retain and attract young populations are central issues for regional policy development in the Nordic Arctic. Nordregio and the Nordic working group on sustainable regional development in the Arctic have carried out an analysis to uncover young people's own perspectives of their future possibilities in Arctic communities.

    A group of scholars from Iceland, Norway, Faroe Islands, Greenland, Sweden and Finland were asked to contribute to a study of Arctic Youth Future Perspectives in the rural areas of the Nordic Arctic regions. The study is part of a Foresight analysis about future visions for arctic communities in the Nordic Countries.

  • 138.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Smeds, Lise
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Greve Harbo, Lisbeth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Future Regional Development Policy for the Nordic Arctic: Foresight Analysis 2013–20162017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concludes a three-year foresight process on the topic of future sustainable regional development in the Nordic Arctic (2013–2016), based on the mandate given by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy to the Nordic Working Group for Sustainable Regional Development in the Arctic. The mandate has been “to provide input to the further development of the NCM Arctic Co-operation Programme by collecting, reviewing and analysing existing information, assessing different preconditions for future development in the area and developing future scenarios. This will contribute to the political debate and give a more holistic overview of the scientific knowledge in the field.” The Nordic Working Group decided to implement this task by conducting a foresight analysis. To guide the work of the three-year project, three overarching questions were defined for the foresight analysis. 1. What social and resource conditions can be expected to have a decisive influence on regional development in the Arctic over the next 10, 20 and 30 years? 2. How will the management of these conditions affect the living standards and future prospects for the regions? 3. What are the implications of the identified challenges and opportunities for future planning and regional policy? Previous foresight analyses have been carried out for the North Calotte region as part of the broader geographical area of the Northern Sparsely Populated Areas (Gløersen et al. 2009) and for the West Nordic countries (Gløersen, 2012). However, this is the first foresight analysis that covers the Nordic Arctic region as a whole. It has been essential for this study to adopt a bottom-up perspective in the process with participation from citizens of local communities across the Nordic Arctic in the initial vision phase. As part of the process, specific attention has also been paid to youth participation and local and regional business development potential. As a supple- 1. Introduction ment to the foresight analysis, Working Papers have been produced on the topics of youth perspectives on future development (Karlsdóttir and Jungsberg, 2015) and challenges and opportunities for sustainable business development (Olsen et al. 2016).

  • 139.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ström Hildestrand, Åsa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fler flyktingar fortare i arbete: Åtgärder för snabbare etablering på arbetsmarknaden2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna policy brief sammanfattar den kunskapsöversiktsom Nordregio tagit fram hösten 2017 på detta tema, för publicering i december 2017: Policies and measures to speed up labour market integration of refugees inthe Nordic region - A knowledge Overview, baserad på aktuell forskning och utvärderingar från samtliganordiska länder utom Island p.g.a. landets relativtsett begränsade flyktingmottagande. Läs mer på www.integrationnorden.org

  • 140.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ström Hildestrand, Åsa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Cuadrado, Alex
    Policies and measures for speeding up labour market integration of refugees in the Nordic region: A knowledge overview2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It takes on average five to ten years for a refugee to find work in the Nordic countries. As social inclusion is closely linked to successful labour market integration, and as during this period the refugee represents a cost to society, the question of how to ensure access to the labour market has been a prominent issue on the political agenda. Since the countries show both differences and similarities in their migration policies and practical solutions, the question is how we can learn from each other.

    In 2016 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a co-operation programme designed to support the national efforts on integrationof refugees and immigrants. The Nordic Welfare Centre has the overall responsibility for the main project “Nordic collaboration on integration of refugees and migrants” in close collaboration with Nordregio.

    The aim of the project is to serve as an idea bank on the integration area, to map out existing knowledge and research, and to expand our common knowledge base on integration. This report was produced by Nordregio on behalf of the Nordic Welfare Centre and is the result of a comparative study of policies and measures in place in the countries for achieving more efficient labour market integration of refugees.

    Read more at www.integrationnorden.org

  • 141. Karlsson, Agneta
    Sub-National Insular Jurisdictions as Configurations of Jurisdictional Powers and Economic Capacity : A Study of Åland, The Faroe Islands and Greenland2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of three Nordic sub-national insular jurisdictions (SNIJs) – Åland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The study focuses on the relationships between the jurisdictional powers of these autonomous islands and their economic capacity relationships that reveal intriguing interdependencies that go beyond simple causal explanations. The aims of the study are a) to explore the characteristics of the relationships between jurisdictional powers and economic capacity and the ways they function in the specific insular setting b) to present the findings in such a way that the structure of each SNIJ concerning their political and economic capacity becomes clear c) to uncover, through comparative analyses, the unique as well as the common characteristics, and the strengths and weaknesses of these configurations.

  • 142. Karlsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Lindström, Bjarne
    Van Well, Lisa
    Mot den tredje generationens regionpolitik : Lärdomar från Nordens autonomier och perifera ö-regioner2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Norden sägs nu vara på väg i riktning mot vad som skulle kunna kallas den tredje generationens regionala utvecklingspolitik. Utgångspunkten för policyförnyelsen är en starkare betoning av den individuella regionen och dess speciella förutsättningar och tillväxtpotential. Likriktade statliga lösningar där samma politik bedrivs på enahanda sätt i samtliga regioner ifrågasätts. Detta gäller även modellen för de regionala aktörernas deltagande och ansvar i politiken. Man är idag mera öppen för att - inom samma land - öppna upp för olika grader av eget policyansvar på den regionala nivån i syfte att bättre anpassa insatserna till den enskilda regionens önskemål, förutsättningar och förmåga.I denna rapport är fokus satt på den regionala nivåns ansvar och roll inom ramen för den idag aktuella tillväxt- och innovationspolitiken i Norden. Syftet är att stärka kunskapsunderlaget för den pågående nordiska diskussionen kring vilken typ av regionala institutioner, och därmed också regionalt ansvar, som ger de bästa förutsättningarna för en framgångsrik utvecklingspolitik. Rapporten handlar därmed ytterst om vilken typ av institutionella miljöer som ger mest utrymme för de innovativa sociala och ekonomiska processer vilka är avgörande för den långsiktiga utvecklingskraften i alla samhällen - på nationell såväl som regional och lokal nivå. Rapporten baseras på resultaten från ett forskningsprojekt som på ett systematiskt sätt jämfört Nordens tre autonomier - Färöarna, Grönland och Åland samt Bornholm som kontrollstudie - med avseende på kopplingarna mellan deras grad av politiskt självbestämmande och deras ekonomiska utvecklingskapacitet. Projektets mål har varit att nyttja de lärdomar och slutsatser som kan dras från de i konstitutionellt avseende unika autonomierna för att kasta nytt ljus över förhållandet mellan policyansvar, innovationsförmåga och ekonomisk utveckling i de mer "normala" nordiska regionerna. En viktig slutsats från projektet är att en väl fungerande regional utvecklingspolitik så långt som möjligt bör anpassas till den berörda regionens produktionsförutsättningar. Flera andra lärdomar gällande utvecklingen av den framtida regionala politiken i Norden dras utgående från projektets fyra fallstudier.

  • 143. Karppi, Ilari
    Competitiveness in the Nordic Economies2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments and Structural Features.

  • 144. Karppi, Ilari
    et al.
    Kokkonen, Merja
    Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    SWOT-analysis as a basis for regional strategies2001Report (Other academic)
  • 145. Knudsen, Jon P.
    Future challenges and institutional preconditions for regional development policy2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary from the first phase of a Nordic research programme.

  • 146. Knudsen, Jon P.
    et al.
    Persson, Lars Olof
    Skålnes, Sigrid
    Steineke, Jon Moxnes
    Fylkeskommunenes rolle som regional utviklingsaktør og partnerskapenes funksjon i den sammenheng2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Rammene rundt fylkeskommunene er for tiden svært usikre. I sin nåværende form ble de etablert med virkning fra 1. januar 1976. Etter som tiden har gått, har fylkeskommunene fått enkelte funksjoner lagt til mens andre er falt vekk. Sykehusene er flyttet til statlige foretak, mens den tidligere bebudede overføring av miljø- og landbruksfunksjoner til fylkeskommunene aldri ble realisert. Fylkesplanens autoritet som regionalt koordinerende dokument er også svekket over tid. Til gjengjeld har fylkeskommunene altså fått en noe utvidet utviklerrolle. Det er viktig å betone at mange av informantene som er intervjuet for denne vurderingen gir uttrykk for stor tro på det arbeidet som gjøres for å fremme den regionale utviklingen, men at de mistror det institusjonelle rammeverket og støtten rundt oppgavene. Det eksisterer dermed en slags dobbeltbunnet tilnærming til selve vurderingsoppdraget, der dette på ett plan ikke forstås som et reelt bidrag til en avklaring om fylkeskommunenes fremtid, men der vurderingen likevel ses som en genuin anledning til å lufte tanker og synspunkter både på fylkeskommunenes stilling og utviklingsarbeidets art.

  • 147. Kokkonen, Merja
    The Common Potential in Northernmost Europe: Final report.2000Report (Other academic)
  • 148. Kokkonen, Merja
    et al.
    Mariussen, Åge
    Ex-Ante Evaluation of Interreg III B, North Sea Programme2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Final Report.

  • 149. Lange Scherbenske, Stefanie
    et al.
    Kahila, Petri
    Managing Quality of Life in the Context of Urban-Rural Interaction : – Approaches from the Baltic Sea Region2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the final report of the INTERREG IVB project NEW BRIDGES 'Strengthening the Quality of Life through the Improved Management of Urban Rural Interaction'. The report applies the concepts of quality of life and urban-rural interaction to regional development processes in the Baltic Sea Region. As thematic focus quality of life was operationalized through three key elements: residential preferences, mobility & accessibility and the provision of services. The report shows how these key elements were reflected and addressed within the geographic scope of seven city-regions. While tracing the project activities from challenges to pilot actions, the report provides an insight into the stakeholder involvement approaches including its evaluation. Finally the report puts forward potentials and challenges that occur when applying two complex concepts to regional development. In addition to this report, 'Planning Together for Better Quality of Life - Guide for Integrated Management of Urban Rural Interaction', which included policy recommendations to the EU, national and macro-regional levels, as well as the complimentary methodological package 'NEW BRIDGES Online Toolkit', was published and can be downloaded from www.urbanrural.net.

  • 150. Langlais, Richard
    et al.
    Francke, Per
    Nilsson, Johan
    Ernborg, Fredrik
    Turning Point on Climate Change?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergent Municipal Response in Sweden: Pilot Study. The pilot study indicates that the number of Swedish municipalities responding to the issue of climate change appears to be increasing. It also tells us, however, that only some of them are engaged in concrete action. Learning that, an important question arises, "Why are only some Swedish municipalities responding concretely, while the majority is not?" A companion question is, "Who, and what, have made the difference in that smaller group of municipalities?" The pilot study reported on here is a step in addressing those questions.

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