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  • 151.
    Langlais, Richard
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Dymén, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Addressing social sustainability through everyday life: Experience from a pilot study in four Nordic city-regions2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing globalization, climate change and shifting demographics are creating a new context for discussion of development and its spatial distribution. This is a new challenge for planners and politicians, who are expected to develop and approve plans encompassing the existing built environment, new settlements and urban infrastructure, at the same time as the context rapidly shifts. This forces a re-assessment of how growth and development are envisioned in planning interventions. Some policymakers support a major shift towards green growth, based on radical improvements in energy systems, as the new paradigm leading to sustainability. Green growth has been embraced in order to mobilize green investments and to mitigate the current economic and environmental crises. It is often criticized, however, for neglecting the effects on the everyday lives of the individuals who reside in the city-regions where green growth is envisioned. Nordic cities are not only growing, but becoming more culturally and socioeconomically diverse. In that context, the quest for green growth raises profound professional, technical, theoretical and ethical questions for planners and politicians, including implications arising from increased socio-cultural diversity and associated perspectives.

    The objective of the pilot study presented here is (1) to consider whether, and if so, how, knowledge about everyday life practices of different groups of women and men are present and integrated into Nordic cityregion planning; and (2) to test the usefulness, for researchers and planners, of assessing city-region planning through the eyes of everyday life theory. The research included several interviews, a workshop, and text analysis of documents concerning city-region policy and the processes of sustainable urban and regional planning. Local perspectives were scrutinized through the lens of gender, then extended to consider intersectionality. Intersectionality is a theoretical tool that attempts to foster understanding of a multiplicity of social contexts, including the different discourses of power and their implications for individuals and how they relate to their social, economic and ecological situations. Preliminary findings indicate that although the theory of everyday life is not a highly visible and literal component of Nordic city-region planning, the four city-regions all, to varying degrees, express its philosophical inclinations. Awareness of everyday life conditions and perspectives, and consequent fundamental objectives, present particular challenges to planners, who are responding with a number of innovative practical approaches.

  • 152. Leeson, George W.
    The Changing Face of the Population of Europe2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographical Distribution, Urbanization, Depopulation and International Migration.

  • 153. Lehto, Esko
    Coping Strategies and Regional Policies - Social Capital in the Nordic Peripheries : Country report Finland2002Report (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Leino, Johanna
    et al.
    Development Director at the Baltic Institute of Finland.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Moodie, John
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Smart Specialisation in the Baltic Sea Region: Good practices from the Bio-, Circular- and Digital Innovation project BSR Stars S32019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief summarizes the key activities and learnings of the BSR Stars S3 - Smart Specialisation through Cross-sectoral Bio-, Circular- andDigital Ecosystems project 2016-2019. The project focused on how to engage business and research actors in the implementation of smart specialisation. This information is essential for public and private sector actors looking for new ways to improve regional innovation capacity and form inter-regional value chains within shared focus areas in the Baltic Sea Region.

  • 155. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Coping Strategies and Regional Policies - Social Capital in the Nordic Peripheries : Country report Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
  • 156. Lindberg, Gunnar
    Jordbrukets betydelse i samhällsekonomin - kalkyler avseende 2008 : - Regional input-output analys med disaggregerade beräkningar för svenska län2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This working paper describes the process of calculating regional input-output multipliers and presents results for Sweden as well as all Swedish counties for the latest available Swedish IO table for 2008, which was published in October 2011. Based on information about the agricultural production lines and regional employment, the Swedish IO table for 2008 has been mechanically regionalised to county level and multipliers for production, employment and income is presented in extensive tables. Some analytical observations are provided for the agricultural sectors.

  • 157. Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Bachtler, John
    Turkia, Riikka-Maria
    Copus, Andrew
    Damsgaard, Ole
    What Future for EU Structural Fund Programmes?2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News takes a closer look at aspects of the new programming period for the EU Structural Funds as well as the current progress in the Nordic countries towards new programmes for 2014 and onwards.

  • 158. Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Copus, Andrew
    Hedström, Moa
    Perjo, Liisa
    CAP Rural Development Policy in the Nordic Countries : What can we learn about implementation and coherence?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is intended as an input to the preparations for the new Cohesion Policy and CAP Rural Development programming period, which is scheduled to begin in January 2014. First we compare and reflect upon experiences of RDPs in Nordic EU member states and in Scotland. The final chapters focus upon the concept of coherence, first in relation to current programmes, and then considering the implications of the draft regulations of the CAP. This report has been written as preparation for a workshop, to be held at Nordregio in Stockholm on May 7th 2012. The workshop is intended as an opportunity to discuss issues raised by the ongoing preparations for the new EU policy programming period, beginning in 2014. More specifically the focus will be upon the process of compiling Partnership Contracts, within the context of the Common Strategic Framework. The draft legislation, which is currently the subject of scrutiny by the European Council and Parliament, requires a greater degree of coordination (known as 'coherence') between Regional and Rural Development policies, and this implies a higher level of interaction and mutual understanding between the two policy communities.

  • 159. Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Hanell, Tomas
    Godal, Odd
    Nordregio News 2 2014: Monitoring Territorial Dynamics2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we take a tour of territorial monitoring – looking at conceptual, practical and applied aspects of producing and using such knowledge.

  • 160.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H.G.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kristensen, Iryna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Developing a greener economy in Nordic regions: interventions to overcome the challenges2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study specifically examines the main challenges that impede green growth in Nordic countries, and identifies potential ways of overcoming these challenges and driving the green growth agenda forward. The methodology of the research comprised a survey, sent out to all 74 NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 3) regions in the Nordic countries, and interviews with key national experts, focusing on challenges and government interventions related to the implementation of green growth initiatives. The results highlighted differences between Nordic regions in their work on green growth. In addition, we conducted a policy review of existing Nordic national-level bioeconomy and cleantech strategies, identifying their main focuses, explicit (or implicit) mentions of challenges to developing green growth and government interventions necessary to promote it. Based on the survey, interviews and our national policy review, we identified several such challenges and government interventions in Nordic regions.

  • 161. Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Weber, Ryan
    Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    Jónsdóttir, Salvör
    Green Economy in Policy and Practice2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue we examine the possibilities of Green Economy and Green Growth, both from a practical and a policy perspective.

  • 162. Lindh, Magnus
    et al.
    Lödén, Hans
    Miles, Lee
    Räftegård, Curt
    Stegmann McCallion, Malin
    Fusing Regions? Sustainable Regional Action in the Context of European Integration2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of regional development policies – Needs and demands in the Nordic countries. It is commonly argued that European integration has and will continue to present challenges for Nordic regional policy-makers located both inside and outside the Member States of the European Union. More and more Nordic regional actors have concluded that the European Union represents a political and not just a financial resource worthy of greater attention, and many continue to refine how they can get the 'best out of the European Union'. This Report is a detailed 'bottom-up micro-study' of three Nordic regions, and is distinctive in arguing that – by using innovative Regional Action and Fusion approaches – a clearer understanding of the functional activities of regional actors can be gained. The Report, bringing together an international team of researchers, investigates the types and forms of functional activity undertaken by regional actors when handling European Union questions. It also examines the attitudes and future ambitions of regional actors and aims to help them to understand more clearly what they do now, and reflect upon how they might improve in the future. The Fusing Regions? research reveals notable variations in activity among our three regions, combined with evidence in all three cases of a strong desire among regional actors to continue to further harness the benefits of European integration partly as a means to 'bypass' the nation state and to develop closer relations between their respective region and the European Union.

  • 163. Lindqvist, Maria
    Regional Development in the Nordic Countries2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The twelfth volume in the series "Regional Development in the Nordic Countries" is now published. The reports have regularly supplied practitioners with comprehensive analysis of the Nordic regional development scene. This is a summary report, using results from more than twenty recent or ongoing research and analysis projects. After a period of strong economic growth all five Nordic countries were hit by the global recession in the autumn of 2008. This, of course, has constituted an important challenge to all countries, but to Iceland in particular. The report presents the recent development of human resources, economic growth and labour markets at national and regional level in the Nordic countries and gives a state-of-the art introduction to the current situation. Even if the Nordic countries are perceived as relatively homogenous, important differences continue to exist between regions. This has contributed to an increased focus in regional policy on growth strategies based on regional challenges and potentials. The report also includes more in depth analysis related to the core areas of research at Nordregio, for example on variations in migration patterns and the development of Nordic energy policy.

  • 164. Lindqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Midtkandal, Inger
    Sörvik, Jens
    Harmaakorpi, Vesa
    Tura, Tomi
    Smart Specialisation for All Regions?2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News we take a closer look at what Smart Specialisation entails, and consider it from a Nordic perspective.

  • 165. Lindqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Arbo, Peter
    Lehto, Veera
    Hintsala, Henna
    Strategies for Interaction and the Role of Higher Education Institutions in Regional Development in the Nordic Countries – Case Studies2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents eight case studies on Nordic higher education institutions (HEI) and their role in regional development. The working paper is part of a project initiated in late 2009 and funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers. Focus of the study is on the various roles of higher education institutions (HEI) in regional development. The results are presented in a synthesis report Strategies for Interaction and the Role of Higher Education Institution in Regional Development in the Nordic Countries. In this working paper, eight case studies of Nordic HEIs are presented. Focus has been on strategies and activities for external collaboration. The case studies have been selected to represent interesting examples of the role of HEIs in regional development. The following case studies were selected to include HEIs of different types and from different regions in terms of size and population density so as to offer a better understanding of the role of HEIs in different regional contexts: Aalborg University, the North Jutland region (Denmark) University of Iceland, Iceland and municipality of Hornafjördur (Iceland) Nordland University (former Bodö University College), Nordland County (Norway) University of Tromsö, the region of Northern Norway (Norway) Karlstad University, Värmland Country (Sweden) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm County (Sweden) HAMK University of Applied Science, region of Häme (Finland) University of Lappeenranta, region of Lappeenranta (Finland) Examples of HEI collaboration in regional development The case studies do not claim to be representative and the examples of regional collaborations are selected to illustrate a variation of activities rather than to identify best practice. Some of examples of interesting activities are the following: Problem-based learning and students projects in collaboration with businesses Demand driven education, vocational training and lifelong learning Matching supply and demand of competences Research collaborations projects Commercialisation and innovation support structures Participation in regional partnerships and dialogues Development and implementation of regional strategies Cluster development

  • 166. Lindqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    Strategies for Interaction and the Role of Higher Education Institutions in Regional Development in the Nordic Countries2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This synthesis report summarizes the results of a research project for the Nordic Council of Ministers on the role of higher education institutions (HEI) in regional development. The report includes a brief comparison of Nordic policies supporting HEI collaboration, a quantitative pilot study on student mobility in Sweden and eight cases studies on strategies and activities for external collaboration in Nordic HEI. Focus of the study is on the various roles of higher education institutions (HEI) in regional development. Important issues concern different strategies and incentives for university collaboration with external parties. This report is supplemented with a case study report. The roles and strategies of HEI in regional development The roles of HEIs in regional development are discussed in terms of general economic impact, the traditional roles (of education and research), the third role (of collaboration with the surrounding society) and the broader role as an engaged university. Apart from the direct effects of the various roles, it is argued that HEIs also have an indirect effect on regional image and attractiveness. For HEIs to support regional development, three mechanisms have been identified integrating regional development into university strategies, taking active part in regional partnerships and developing internal cultures, attitudes and incentives. Policy implications From a policy perspective, various regional and national initiatives to support increased HEI participation in regional development are identified The formation of regional partnerships Stimulating cluster development through multi-sector policy initiatives Creating an attractive region for students, staff and business Clarifying the expectations of different types of HEIs Developing a Nordic system for HEI quality assessment and ranking.

  • 167. Lindqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Perjo, Liisa
    Claessen, Haukur
    Implementing the Concept of Smart Specialisation in the Nordic Countries: An Exploratory Desk Study2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of the latest economic crises, the concept of "Smart specialisation" was presented to increase the efficiency in European investments in research, innovation and entrepreneurship. As the concept is relatively new, the level of implementation at national and regional level in the Nordic countries is rather limited. Still, many of the elements associated with strategies for "Smart specialisation" have already been implemented in the Nordic countries. This paper explores the impact and early implementation of the new concept "Smart specialisation" in regional policy in the Nordic Countries. The study was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group on Third Generation Regional Policy, initiated by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The review is mainly based on a previous literature review and desk research, with a limited number of supplementing interviews, and does not claim to give a complete overview. Since the development of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) is expected to be an ex-ante condition in the new Structural Funds 2014-2020 program period, the concept has reached a high level of attention in a short time span among EU member states. The objective of "Smart specialization" is to ensure an effective use of public funds. Based on an understanding of regional strengths, regions are expected to concentrate resources to a few key priorities rather than spreading investments thinly across areas and business sectors. This requires a well-developed regional governance process, based on broad stakeholder involvement, as well as collaboration between actors at various levels as well as linkages between policy areas, sectors and disciplines. The review indicates that the level of implementation at national and regional level in the Nordic countries is rather limited, even if the interest has increased, particularly among actors responsible for implementation of the new Cohesion Policy in the Nordic EU-member states. However, while Finland seems to have come closest to implement the concept, Swedish authorities are more inclined to talk about smart growth. In Denmark, there seems to be some skepticism at the national as well as regional level and the non-member states, Iceland and Norway, have only started to approach the concept. Even if the concept as such is new, many of the elements of strategies for "Smart specialisation" have already been implemented in the Nordic countries. This indicates that there is a strong potential for Nordic regions, building on existing strategies and policy delivery instruments. Still, there are some aspects which may further strengthen regional development processes in the future: Regional capacity for analysis of economic potential in relation to other regions, within or outside the country Incentives for increased involvement of small and medium-sized companies (SMEs), entrepreneurs and representatives of the general public (quadruple helix) Improved dialogues between different levels Increased participation of SMEs in global value chains and EU research programmes, such as Horizon 2020

  • 168. Lähteenmäki- Smith, Kaisa
    Learning through Evaluation: the Nordic Experience2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the contributions to the volume represent only a limited glimpse into the evaluation activity in which Nordregio is currently involved, they touch upon many more generic questions of relevance to evaluative research in general. These include, for instance, what can be learned from evaluation activity beyond the limited project or programme duration, how to strike a balance between theory and practice, as well as between the interests of the commissioners of evaluation and the researchers and evaluators involved in delivering them. The anthology also touches upon the question of what lessons can be drawn across sectors, organizations and territorial contexts when it comes to evaluation (European influences on national and local contexts, but also influences across policy sectors, e.g. innovation and regional development). Hopefully the volume will provide food for thought and perhaps even inspiration for evaluators and policy makers alike.

  • 169. Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Pohjoismainen aluehallinto ja sen uudistuspaineet2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    How do the Nordic countries approach the regional policy challenges currently facing them? And how are their governance structures and national policy responses influenced by the challenges arising from the economic, political and social restructuring brought about by internationalisation? This report, commissioned by the Finnish Association of Local and Regional Authorities, seeks to offer responses to these questions in light of the on-going policy debates in Finland. The main focus of this report is on Swedish and Norwegian regional policy, though other Nordic countries are also discussed in cases where their experiences are of relevance to the Finnish case. Short summaries in both English and Swedish are also included.

  • 170. Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Regimes of regional development and growth across Nordic regions2002Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Borderless practices in the making?

  • 171. Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    et al.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Collective learning through transnational co-operation – the case of Interreg IIIB2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises some of the experiences of the Interreg IIIB programme as well as some of the lessons learned, with a particular focus on the 'collective learning' aspect that this may have entailed in relation to spatial policy processes, concepts and goals, e.g. ESDP and polycentricity. Based on our analysis, we claim that the epistemic community that has gradually formed around the Interreg Community Initiative constitutes the resource upon which the integration of spatial policy objectives and territorial policy instruments should be based, as Interreg type cooperation enables the spatial development issues to nurture the regional development dynamics. The study also suggests that Interreg projects provide the framework for increased regional consciousness and learning across Europe on the issue of spatial development, as illustrated by the example of polycentric development. In that sense, Interreg projects enable practitioners to improve their knowledge of spatial policy issues outside their own national frameworks.

  • 172. Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    et al.
    Persson, Lars Olof
    Restructuring the State – Regional Impacts: A Comparative Nordic Perspective2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Comparative Nordic Perspective. Across all Nordic countries there is now an intensive debate on changing responsibilities and the division of labour between the state and the regions. The underlying problems in each country are very much the same, but the solutions suggested, implemented and experienced are sometimes different, perhaps not so much in concept as in details. The report contains the results of a project that has been pursued within the context of illuminating comparisons between the five Nordic countries in terms of: • What approaches characterize the current restructuring of state activities and what is their impact on various types of regions? • What conclusions can be drawn concerning a set of alternative future trajectories for the institutional framework of state intervention at the regional level?

  • 173. Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    et al.
    Steineke, Jon Moxnes
    eTampere: Building an electronic pathway to the future?2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of eTampere.

  • 174. Mariussen, Åge
    From Regional Development Coalitions to Commercial Innovations2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a comparative study of the Nordic innovation systems as they pertain to the business sector. Important national varieties in styles and modes of innovation are described and analysed. These differences are then related to different geographical, historical and political preconditions to deepen the understanding of why national innovation systems differ. The project takes as a point of departure that the identification of best case policies cannot be done simply by comparing numbers in terms of indicators of innovation. An understanding of indicators depends on an analysis of the processes of innovation, which has produced them. Processes are determined by systems. The report accordingly studies regional innovation systems (RIS) within their national system contexts (NIS). Through the analysis of the NIS and RIS statistics, certain patterns tends to emerge, which makes it possible to improve the analytical understanding on the importance of national systems. Outcomes of the project has been used in several Nordic and international conferences and presentations. It hasbeen used as an analytical basis of the White Book on Innovation commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report will be relevant to anyone occupied with innovation and business policies.

  • 175. Mariussen, Åge
    Milieux and innovation in the northern periphery2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Norwegian/northern benchmarking.

  • 176. Mariussen, Åge
    Nordic ICT Spaces : A policy-oriented overview of regional ICT2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Working Paper was initiated and financed by the Committee of Senior Official for Regional Policy at the Nordic Council of Ministers. The paper provides a policyoriented overview of the literature reflecting the regional aspects of the development of new information and communication technologies (ICT). It includes the outcome of: • A literature survey of current knowledge on regional ICT development,made by Trond Einar Pedersen, Step Group, Oslo.• A statistical analysis of Nordic ICT agglomerations based on 1999 employment statistics (NACE 4) at the municipal level, by Åge Mariussen and Jörg Neubauer. The synthesis of these separate elements was made by Åge Mariussen, who was also responsible for the project as a whole.Stockholm, June 2004

  • 177. Mariussen, Åge
    et al.
    Aalbu, Hallgeir
    Brandt, Mats
    Regional Organisations in the North2000Report (Other academic)
  • 178. Mariussen, Åge
    et al.
    Gjertsen, Arild
    Røiselan, Asbjørn
    Sanderson, Håkan
    Persson, Lars Olof
    Evaluering av regionale utviklingsprogram i Norge2000Book (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Medeiros, Eduardo
    Universidade de Lisboa.
    Territorial Cohesion: An EU Concept2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 60, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the concept of Territorial Cohesion, which has been gaining increasing interest within academia and the EU policy circles. In particular, this article examines its relevance and main dimensions, and also suggests a comprehensive definition based on those dimensions. Additionally, this paper proposes a methodology which can be used to measure Territorial Cohesion in a given territory. Furthermore, the article also highlights the importance of the territorial dimension as a key topic in the EU political agenda and, at the same time, gives a contribution to answer several questions for debate expressed in the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion.

  • 180.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    GREEN GROWTH IN NORDIC REGIONS: 50 ways to make it happen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition to a greener economy there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution. Accordingly, Green Growth in Nordic Regions explores green growth through a wide lens, showcasing 50 examples of green growth in a broad range of contexts, both urban and rural. Together, these examples highlight the key characteristics of Nordic green growth and are designed to be a source of inspiration for both practitioners and policy-makers. 

  • 181.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rinne, Tuulia
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Alakerttula, Johanna
    Council of Tampere Region.
    Ruokonen, Henrika
    Council of Tampere Region.
    Leino, Johanna
    Baltic Institute of Finland.
    Developing and Managing Innovation Ecosystems in the Circular Economy: Outline of a Digital Monitoring Tool2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation ecosystems are vitally important for facilitating sustainable regional economic growth and stakeholder cooperation, particularly within the circular economy. This policy brief examines the new digital monitoring tool developed by the Council of Tampere to compile relevant data on ongoing circular economy initiatives and actions, including information on essential actors, material flows and current stakeholder collaborations. This policy brief outlines the main aims and features of the digital monitoring tool and makes recommendations for how to support the development and management of effective innovation ecosystems, such as the importance of fostering a culture of open data sharing amongst key regional innovation actors.

  • 182.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Salenius, Viktor
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Leino, Johanna
    The Baltic Institute of Finland.
    Industrial Symbiosis in the Baltic Sea Region: Current Practices and Guidelines for New Initiatives2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) is vitally important in facilitating the move towards a circular economy by helping industries and businesses cooperate in the exchange of natural resources and production infrastructures. Strong public and private sector leadership and firm links between industry and research institutes are essential for the formulation of effective IS initiatives. 

    This policy brief examines three good practice examples of IS from the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) and outlines practical guidelines for public authorities and business development organisations on how to develop and implement IS ecosystems. This research is based on the activities and experiences of a project, BSR Stars S3, which was financed by the EU Interreg Baltic Sea Region and focused on BSR cooperation within the bio- and circular economy.

  • 183.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Building Effective Transnational Partnerships: The Case of Smart Lighting2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief examines the requirements for building effective transnational partnerships in different policy fields, based on the lessons learned from the recent Lighting Metropolis project – a cross-border innovation venture between Denmark and Sweden that sought to develop smart lighting solutions in urban environments. The brief begins with an overview of this new technology area, before outlining the main opportunities and challenges in the implementation of smart lighting throughout Europe. This is followed by a review of the key findings from Lighting Metropolis, with a focus on assessing the experiences of transnational co-operation identified during the project. Finally, the concluding section outlines a number of recommendations for enhancing transnational collaboration. The policy brief has been prepared by Nordregio as part of the BSR Stars S3 project. It is based on a literature review and interviews conducted with partners involved in Lighting Metropolis.

  • 184.
    Moodie, John
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rinne, Tuulia
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Inclusive Digitalization in the Baltic Sea Region: An Instrument for Growth and Development in Declining Rural Areas?2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief examines whether inclusive digitalization is an important instrument for promoting regional growth and development in struggling rural areas in the Baltic Sea region. The brief highlights the potential benefits that digitalization can bring and the challenges faced in implementing an effective digital agenda in rural areas. The brief also provides key recommendations identifying possible initiatives and policies that may help local businesses achieve successful digital transformation. These recommendations are based on learnings and best practices from digitalization initiatives conducted in rural areas around the Baltic Sea region.

    This policy brief is a part of BSR Stars S3 (Smart specialization in bio-, circular and digital economy in the Baltic Sea Region) project which seeks to enhance growth opportunities in the Baltic Sea Region, focusing on the bio-/circular and digital economy fields. Read more: www.bsr-stars.eu/bsr-stars-s3

  • 185.
    Mäenpää, Antti
    et al.
    University of Vaasa.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    In Search of Domains in Smart Specialisation: Case Study of Three Nordic Regions2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 68, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has promoted regional smart specialisation strategies for some years, and several studies on this topic have focused on key concepts such as the entrepreneurial discovery process and good implementation practices. However, the definition and the role of the domain in regional smart specialisation settings is largely missing, despite it being an important outcome of a successful entrepreneurial discovery process. This article aims to fill this research gap by establishing what a domain entails as a theoretical concept, its role in the entrepreneurial discovery process and how it has featured in regional smart specialisation strategies. Our study analyses and compares three smart specialisation strategies in the Nordic regions of Lapland (Finland), Värmland (Sweden) and Nordland (Norway), focusing on the understanding and adaptation of the domain concept. The results indicate that the regions have managed to establish domains, even though the concept itself has not been adopted in the regions because of insufficient clarification of the term.

  • 186. Nenseth, Vibeke
    et al.
    Strand, Arvid
    Enviromental and Regional Governance - Squeezed or Sustainable? : Change and variation among the professionals at central and regional level the last decade in Scandinavia2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of regional development policies – Needs and demands in the Nordic countries. Regional governance in the Nordic context are in transition – and in tension between central and local politics, between coordinative and sectorial tasks, between conventional and innovative management. The regional policy level is strongly focused, both celebrated as well as highly contested. Thus some special conditions for policy change should be provided: Either that the melting pot of new initiatives and solutions regionally shapes a policy-making particularly innovative and flourishing, or quite contrary, that the all too contradictory situation implies cemented solutions, implementation deficits or futility. This project addresses the changes and differences in Nordic regional governance the last decade. We will investigate policy shifts particularly at the regional level – and search for someprojects and innovations within a sustainable regional development framework. We will focus on the broad sustainability field, both of conceptual and substantial reasons. Sustainable policy-making is a highly innovative policy field when it comes to new conceptualisation, new framing and problem definitions. The question is, however – after more than two decades since the Brundtland report – whether the 'sustainable turn' in regional policies is – still – mostly a rhetorical ploy. At the same time, the tasks and responsibilities at the regional level have a substantial importance for sustainable development, e.g. comprehensive and spatial regional planning environmental policy, transport policy, facilitating measures towards business development and peripheral areas. Still, it has just few years ago been concluded that '...there is a distinct lack of awareness amongst Nordic regional policymakers and researchers of the existence of SRD [sustainable regional development] theory and practice" (Clement &ampHansen 2001). Addressing policy shifts in the sustainability field at the regional level is vital for tracingpotential new directions in regional governance for a sustainable development. At the same time, focusing environmental and planning professionals at the central and regional level, means studying the main "implementors" of the sustainable and regional, i.e. a litmus test of how the policies are implemented. Thus the project should be of high policy relevance. The objectives of the project have been to investigate policy shifts as reflected in the policy orientations among the professionals in particularly sustainable policy fields, in planning, environmental and transport, at regional and central level, in the Scandinavian countries the last decade. Ten years ago, the interaction patterns and policy orientations among the public officials in these agencies were investigated (in addition, the agricultural sector and also Finland) This project has replicated the survey, which has provided a unique possibility fordocumenting policy shifts, with a time-series of diachrone data on important policy change within the environmental and environmentally-relevant fields. The survey was replicated – with some limitations and supplements. We have examined and looked for changes in policy orientations and strategies, and supplemented the earlier questionnaire with requests for the professionals' view on particularly innovative governance practices, developments or regional hotspots in the Scandinavian countries.

  • 187. Neubauer, Jörg
    ESPON for Nordic Regions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ESPON for Nordic Regions: Breaking down selected results from the ESPON programme for the use in a Nordic regional context. Stockholm 2007. Over the past decade EU regional policies have become ever more central to the formulation of regional policies in the Nordic countries. This is so even for regional development policy in Norway and Iceland, as both countries are party to the EEA agreement, which addresses a variety of issues tied to the processes of Europeanization and globalization that shape the development context of their regions. Strong influences on regional policy can also be derived from the re-launched Lisbon Agenda, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF). As such, the demand for comparable territorial data placing Nordic regional structures and development trends in a wider European context has increased significantly among Nordic regional policy makers. With the emergence of the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON), established within the context of the EU Structural Funds under the Community Initiative INTERREG III, the body of knowledge concerning European territorial structures, development trends and perspectives, as well as policy impacts has thus increased substantially. After the completion of phase one of ESPON (2002-2006), the programme is now embarking upon its second period of development (2007-2013). This report has been commissioned and financed by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy (EK-R) in order to further capitalise on the results of ESPON 2006 for Nordic regions and to examine Nordic needs in the upcoming ESPON 2013 programme. This includes the extraction of ESPON content relevant within a Nordic regional development context and a territorial breakdown of selected quantitative results to better fit the Nordic regional decision making level.

  • 188. Neubauer, Jörg
    et al.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Hanell, Tomas
    Lähteenmäki-Smith, Kaisa
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Roto, Johanna
    Steineke, Jon Moxnes
    Regional Development in the Nordic Countries 20072007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal differences within the Nordic countries flit around the extremes of the pendulum. On the one hand, the capital and other metropolitan areas of the Nordic countries are amongst the fastest growing on the whole continent. On the other hand peripheral areas are, when placed in their national contexts, lagging behind and in dire need of active support. This is the traditional picture of the Nordic dichotomy. In the first years after the turn of the millennium small indications suggest that the overly excessive concentration to a few metropolitan areas has partially and at least currently reached the end of its path. Regardless whether these new patterns are a mere breather in the time line of peripheral decline or if they will prove to be more permanent trends, it is currently nonetheless one of the most important tasks for policy makers to try to strike a balance between the development trends in different parts of the Nordic countries. The task is further challenged by the shifting focus of the new EU Structural Funds 2007-2013 programming period away from the Nordic countries. The 2007 handbook in the series 'Regional Development in the Nordic Countries' provides a comprehensive picture of the current state of play of regional development challenges and the policies and tools utilised to tackle the problems now and in the years to come. This also includes an overview on the processes of administrative structural reforms of government in the Nordic countries. In addition Nordic relevant aspects of EU regional policy support and possibilities of territorial co-operation for the period 2007-2013 are covered. The report comes with 29 detailed maps, an A3 poster pin-up and numerous graphical illustrations, all of which featuring EU27 standards and the new Danish territorial divisions. In the statistical annex, comparable demographic and economic key indicators are given for all 1 366 Nordic municipalities and their corresponding regions, including each of the autonomous territories. All graphical material is ready-to-hand available for download at the Maps &amp Figures section of this website and can be used free of charge.

  • 189.
    Nicolaisen, Morten Skou
    et al.
    City of Aarhus.
    Olesen, Mette
    Nordjyllands Trafikselskab.
    Olesen, Kristian
    Aalborg University.
    Vision vs. Evaluation – Case Studies of Light Rail Planning in Denmark2017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 65, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light rail transit (LRT) is a popular public transport mode used to upgrade the public transport system and support urban development strategies. Despite the seemingly poorer socio-economic return of LRT in cost benefit analyses (CBA) compared to bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, LRT solutions are often chosen over BRT. Several studies show that the decisions to build such systems have not primarily been based on the socio-economic feasibility of the systems. Rather, they are often justified in terms of the branding value and positive image for public transportation, as well as the perceived ability to reduce road congestion and stimulate urban development. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT), the paper analyses how LRT systems have been applied in a Danish context and the role that the CBA has played in this process. The results show that conventional socio-economic factors in CBA, such as travel time savings, play a relatively minor role compared tothe larger urban transformation visions that LRT projects are embedded in.

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 1 2016: Industrial Symbiosis2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a theme issue of Nordregio News, offering you an overview of industrial symbiosis in the Nordic countries. By browsing through this issue you will get a picture of what it is, why has it become a hot topic, what motivates the industries to get involved and what interesting results we have found through our case studies.

  • 191.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 2 2017: 20 years of regional development2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years have passed since Nordregio was established by the Nordic Council of Ministers. It has been quite a ride for a small but ambitious research institution. In this jubilee issue you will get a glance of our current topics, including urbanization, a shrinking and aging population in remote areas and increasing refugee immigration. We will also provide you with some retrospective view on regional development and some optimistic projections of the future for the Nordic Region. 

  • 192.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 3 2017: Maritime Spatial Planning in the Baltic Sea Region and Beyond2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Region is one of Nordregio’s four main geographical focal areas. Our background has previously been on terrestrial spatial planning primarily, but Nordregio is now also increasingly involved in research and projects on maritime spatial planning. In this Nordregio News issue, you will learn more about the outcome of the Baltic SCOPE project, dealing with transboundary Maritime Spatial Planning. Also, you will find case examples on how maritime spatial planning is implemented in different parts of Europe, as well as the information about two upcoming projects - BONUS BASMATI focusing on Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning for sustainable ecosystem services and PanBaltic SCOPE. Finally, we include a youth perspective, asking how we can make the Baltic Sea a better environment for future generations?

  • 193.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2015: Overview issue of current projects2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This is a special issue of Nordregio News, offering you an overview of current research areas and projects that we are involved in here at Nordregio. With the new layout and content structure, we wish to make the magazine more readable and easier to navigate.

    In 2015, we have put substantial resources into research commissioned and funded by the four Nordic working groups  under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy: Demography and welfare; Sustainable regional development in the Arctic; Green growth - innovation and entrepreneurship; and Sustainable urban regions. We are pleased to say that many regional case studies, Foresight analysis and policy overviews were conducted during the year, in addition to the development and launch of the interactive web-mapping tool, NordMap. The Nordic Demography Programme was finalised and three large-scale EU-funded projects started: REGINA, Baltic SCOPE and Baltic Urban Lab.  More information on some of these projects will be found in this issue.

  • 194.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2017: Connecting the urban and the rural2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Today, with increasing digitalization, the importance of physical distance is diminishing. The size of functional regions, i.e. the geographical areas in which many people both live and have their daily work and social life, is expanding beyond administrative borders. The last issue of Nordregio News this year focuses on the connections between the urban and the rural areas which is also the major topic of Nordregio Forum that was held in Oslo at the end of November, 2017. What opportunities are offered by better linkages between the urban and the rural areas? Or, is it utopian to believe that rural areas can develop and prosper in parallel with ongoing urbanization? Finally, what could the rest of the world learn from the Nordic approach to sustainable small and medium-sized cities? 

  • 195. Nilsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Smas, Lukas
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Mehlbye, Peter
    ESPON - Looking Towards the Third Period2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News we take a look at the past, present and future of the European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion - ESPON.

  • 196.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Slätmo, Elin
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE - strategic land use for well-being, business and biodiversity2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are known for their green cities, full of accessible green and blue spaces and surrounded by agricultural land, vast forests and lakes. These green and blue non-built up environments have the potential to offer a wide variety of supporting, regulating, provisioning ecosystem services and preserving cultural heritage. More precisely, Green Infrastructure is a multifunctional network that facilitates the adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, promotes human health and wellbeing, and enhances biodiversity. Strategic planning of land and water areas is necessary to ensure a coherent Green Infrastructure beyond the urban/rural divides. How do we achieve that?

  • 197. Nyseth, Torill
    et al.
    Granås, Brynhild
    Place Reinvention in the North2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamics and Governance Perspectives.

  • 198.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Aaltonen, Johanna
    Brahea Centre at the University of Turku.
    Rusanen, Maija
    Union of the Baltic Cities Sustainable Cities Commission.
    Making the most of brownfield sites in the Baltic Sea Region: Baltic Urban Lab has identified new ways to improve planning processes through public-private-people partnerships – the 4P approach2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Brownfield regeneration involves the redevelopment of underutilised areas of a city. This contributes to limiting urban sprawl and promotes investment to restore land that has been contaminated by industrial activity. As such, it is an important path towards more integrated, resilient and sustainable urban development. The European Environment Agency (EEA) estimates that there are three million urban brownfield sites with potential for future regeneration in Europe. In the Baltic Urban Lab project, partners around the Central Baltic Region have identified planning challenges in brownfield regeneration and developed solutions to tackle them through early and broad stakeholder involvement.

  • 199.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kellecioglu, Ilhan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Developing brownfields via public-private-people partnerships: Lessons learned from Baltic Urban Lab2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report overviews lessons learned during the Baltic Urban Lab project, One of Nordregio’s tasks in Baltic Urban Lab has been to observe and analyse the methods for stakeholder involvement and participation that the cities tested during the project period. The main approach has been to observe what can be done to involve private actors, local inhabitants and other public departments in the planning process, as well as to understand what can be gained by applying a 4P-approach to the planning of brownfield areas around the Baltic Sea. 

  • 200.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tunström, Moa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Stege, trappa eller kub – hur analysera dialoger i stadsplanering?2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    This policy brief has been produced within the project The Impact of Participation: mapping and developing the scope, forms and impacts of the communicative turn in urban planning (TIPTOP) (Medborgardeltagandets effekter: en kartläggning och utveckling av den kommunikativa planeringens omfattning, former och resultat) and is therefore written in Swedish.

    Projektet Medborgardeltagandets effekter: en kartläggning och utveckling av den kommunikativa planeringens omfattning, former och resultat undersöker inbjudet medborgardeltagande i stadsplaneringsprocesser i tolv svenska kommuner mellan år 2000 och 2015. Deltagare i projektet är Förvaltningshögskolan Göteborgs universitet, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Nordregio samt kommunerna Stockholm, Nacka, Botkyrka, Upplands Väsby, Göteborg, Alingsås, Tjörn, Lerum, Malmö, Helsingborg, Lund och Landskrona. Associerade partners är: Trafikverket, Mistra Urban Futures, Boverket och SKL. Projektet finansieras av FORMAS, Mistra Urban Futures och Trafikverket. Projektet avslutas under 2019.

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