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  • 201. Olsen, Lise Smed
    et al.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Perjo, Liisa
    Green Growth and Innovation in Nordic Regions: Case studies2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper is published as part of the project Regional Strategies for Green Growth and Innovation. This working paper builds on the paper Scoping Green Growth and Innovation in Nordic Regions. One of the main conclusions of this study was that there is a distinct urban-rural dichotomy in the regional preconditions for green growth and innovation. Urban regions are noted for population growth, comparatively low unemployment and high GDP per capita. Because knowledge and innovation institutions, as well as economic production, are largely concentrated in these areas, they are also the recipients of the majority of R&D funding in the Nordic context. Many green production activities are located in rural areas whereas a vast majority of resource consumption takes place in urban settings. The urban-rural dimension as a territorial context frames the conditions of green growth and eco-innovation to some extent, and has been the point of departure in the selection of case studies. The case studies concern the region of Skåne in southern Sweden with a focus on the activities in cleantech, and the region of South Savo in Eastern Finland and its activities in bioenergy.

  • 202. Olsen, Lise Smed
    et al.
    Maguire, Karen
    Jönsson, Monika
    Innovation Across Borders2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News examines the possibilities and advantages of cross-border innovation policies.

  • 203.
    Penje, Oskar
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Stjernberg, Mats
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Total population change 2008 - 2017 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: Statistical unit 1,000x1,000 meters2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The map shows population change 2008-2017 at a statistical grid level of 1,000 x 1,000 meters. In this map, the data is localised through the grid cell midpoints to create visual homogeneity across national borders. The map is part of the report ‘Population change dynamics in Nordic municipalities - grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level’, which is the main output from the Thematic Group for Sustainable Cities and Urban Development -project ‘Small and medium-sized cities in the Nordic and Arctic regions’.

    The report seeks to form a more nuanced understanding of the population developments occurring in the Nordics that may be less apparent, or not evident at all, at more general territorial levels. The intention of the study is to shed light on the following questions: What types of population dynamics occurred in the Nordic countries at the municipal and grid levels during 2008–2017? To what degree do changes at the local level correspond to more general population development at the municipal level? What types of changes can be seen within municipalities, especially in small and medium-sized cities? Findings from the project demonstrate that population data at the grid level are well-suited for identifying demographic change processes and trends occurring within regions and municipalities.

    While this study concentrates on changes in population size over time, it is evident that gridded statistics offer further potential for uncovering trends that are concealed at more general levels of analysis. To fully realise the potential of grid level data at the Nordic level, further harmonisation of data processing and availability is required.

    The map was produced through the project Small and Medium-sized Cities in the Nordic Countries and has also been published in Nordregio Report 2019:1: Population Change Dynamics in Nordic Municipalities – Grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level which can be found here: http://doi.org/10.30689/R2019:1.1403-2503 

  • 204.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2016: People and Cities2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    At Nordregio Forum 2015 ”Nordic City Regions in a Global Environment” all the international speakers emphasized unique qualities of Nordic cities’ in terms of human scale and sustainable solutions from a social and environmental perspective. The world’s leading expert on the so-called mega-projects, Professor Bent Flyvbjerg of Oxford University, stated that instead of investing in costly prestige projects we should continue to put people first in Nordic urban planning.

    This final issue of Nordregio News in 2016 looks closer at some projects and concepts where people are part of the planning process. Involving citizens early in the planning processes opens up for new ideas and approaches and including art when discussing architecture and urban planning might be the way forward when planning and building sustainable cities.

  • 205.
    Perjo, Liisa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Redeveloping brownfields in the Central Baltic region2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high demand for redeveloping brownfield areas to make European cities grow in a more sustainable manner. As brownfield areas are often located within the urban structure, redeveloping them reduces the need to use green areas for new developments, and creates more compact cities. Remediating contaminated land in former industrial sites or harbour areas will also reduce environmental risks. This policy brief gives an overview of challenges for brownfield redevelopment in the Central Baltic region and is published as part of the Central Baltic INTERREG Baltic Urban Lab project.There is a high demand for redeveloping brownfield areas to make European cities grow in a more sustainable manner. As brownfield areas are often located within the urban structure, redeveloping them reduces the need to use green areas for new developments, and creates more compact cities. Remediating contaminated land in former industrial sites or harbour areas will also reduce environmental risks. This policy brief gives an overview of challenges for brownfield redevelopment in the Central Baltic region and is published as part of the Central Baltic INTERREG Baltic Urban Lab project.

  • 206. Persson, Lars Olof
    Economic Renewal and Demographic Change2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of local labour market performance in the Nordic countries. Regional imbalances caused by and effecting demographic change are unevenly spread across the Nordic countries. A common emergent problem here is that of a future labour shortage, something which has already been experienced in certain sectors and in particular regions, and something that is forecast on a much broader scale in future. Moreover, the common characteristics of an ageing labour force, such as increasing rates of sickness leave, have important side effects, from a social and economic perspective, on the communities they blight. The differences in fertility rates between in particular Sweden, Finland and Denmark on the one hand, and Iceland and Norway on the other are complexly interrelated to differing economic performance levels and to national institutional structures. The sustainability, in economic and social terms, of several labour markets is thus increasingly challenged as population decline continues.

  • 207. Persson, Lars Olof
    et al.
    Ceccato, Vania A.
    DORA - Dynamics of rural areas: National Report - Sweden2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 208. Pettersson, Katarina
    Kvinnors företagande inom lantgårdsbaserad turism - Genus i förändring på svenska landsbygder?2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Landsbygden genomgår för närvarande en omvandling från produktionslandskap till konsumtions- och upplevelselandskap. Turismnäringen är också den näring som växer mest internationellt sett. Omsättningen i turismnäringen i Sverige har ökat med över 80 procent sedan år 2000. Detta är en potential som landsbygden och dess företagare kan kapitalisera på.

  • 209. Pettersson, Katarina
    Men and Male as the Norm? : A Gender Perspective on Innovation Policies in Denmark, Finland and Sweden2007Book (Other academic)
  • 210. Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Svensson, Marita
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Gender Equality for Regional Growth2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News we focus on the discussions of how gender equality and economic development are related.

  • 211.
    Purkarthofer, Eva
    Aalto University.
    When soft planning and hard planning meet:: Conceptualising the encounter of European, national and sub-national planning2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 61, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite continuous research efforts, the role of the European Union regarding spatial planning remains unclear. This article proposes to employ the concepts of soft spaces and soft planning to better comprehend how European spatial planning finds its way into the national planning systems. The EU contributes to the creation of soft spaces, differing from administrative entities, while at the same time, it acts as a driver of soft planning, focusing– both for strategic and legal reasons – on coordination, cooperation and mutual learning, rather than ‘hard’, regulatory planning. The article claims further that instead of depicting the connections between the EU and its member states, research should pay increased attention to the encounter of European and domestic planning within a country. The scales, actors and instruments that deal with EU inputs within a country might prove to be crucial factors that ultimately determine the impact of EU policies on spatial planning. To illustrate the encounter of European and domestic planning in the light of soft and hard planning, the article introduces a conceptual framework and thereby provides an outline for further empirical research.

     

  • 212. Pursiainen, Christer
    Russia between integration and protectionism : International road transport, ports, and the forestry sector2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In very general terms, this report deals with the prospect of Russia becoming more closely integrated into Europe and into the world economy more generally. In a more restricted sense, it tries to illustrate some of the central issues of this theme by briefly reviewing three sectors of economic activity in Russia, namely international road transport, ports, and forestry. The report focuses in particular on Russian strategies, policies and decision-making in these fields, having Northwest Russia (and its borders with the EU Member States Finland and the Baltic States) as a particular point of territorial reference. In the conclusions, the focus is placed squarely on the implications of this analysis for the whole European Union (EU), Member States and EU-based companies. It is argued here that while Russia's declared goal is to enhance integration, at the same time its policies are clearly characterized by state-regulated protectionism. In order to understand or explain Russia's rather ambiguous behaviour along this integration vs. protectionism axis, two basic approaches are presented: geopolitics and geoeconomics.

  • 213. Pursiainen, Christer
    Towards a Baltic Sea Region Strategy in Critical Infrastructure Protection2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 214. Pursiainen, Christer
    et al.
    Francke, Per
    Early Warning and Civil Protection : When does it work and why does it fail? 2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about early warning in the context of civil protection. The concept of civil protection refers to the protection of people, the environment and property in the event of man-made, technological and natural risks or emergencies. Early warning is an essential element of any functioning civil protection system. The study defends a wide understanding of the concept, consisting of five 'phases' of an 'early warning system'. Early warning starts with risk assessment, followed by prevention, which in a way should prove that the early warning system works. The third phase is that of monitoring the risks in order to detect possible signals with respect to a potential forthcoming or occurring emergency. The fourth phase is the dissemination of warnings. Finally, early warning includes also response, in the sense that response can be more or less timely. The main puzzle discussed in this study is that when does early warning work in relation to civil protection and, more significantly perhaps, when does it fail, and for what reasons. While providing a general framework for analyzing these questions, the book also includes some detailed case studies in fields such as climate change related floods and spatial planning, sudden sea water rise, electricity blackouts, and maritime safety in cross-border context.

  • 215.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 1 2017: Innovation and governance2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News focuses on innovation and governance. What are the key issues in innovation policies and how should they be considered in governance? We view this from different perspectives, with a common focus on the interests of people, their institutions and the knowledge they bring to the table.

  • 216.
    Randall, Linda
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Governing the digital transition in Nordic Regions: The human element2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This in-depth study, Governing the digital transition in Nordic regions: The human element, conducted by Nordregio on behalf of the Nordic thematic group for innovative and resilient regions 2017–2020, explored digitalisation in Nordic regions by studying how local and regional authorities are implementing national and regional digital strategies. Further, it sought to identify the different types of actors (public sectors, companies and civil society) and actor constellations that are key in the digital transformation of Nordic regions. The study explored how the Nordic regions were dealing with the challenges and opportunities related to digitalisation and aimed to identify the strongest potential for knowledge sharing and collaboration at different levels. Five regional Nordic case studies were chosen for in-depth analysis: Southern Denmark (Vejle), Tampere Region, Reykjavík, Finnmark (Vardø) and Skåne Region (Helsingborg).

  • 217.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sustainable Regions - Sustainable Local Communities2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of experience in dealing with ongoing changes in resource-based regions and communities in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Regions of the Nordic countries and Canada.

  • 218. Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    Eðvarðsson, Ingi Rúnar
    The Potential Labour Supply in the Nordic Countries2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coming decades the Nordic workforce and the population will become older although this process of ageing will be unevenly distributed across the Nordic regions. This study estimates the size of the potential regional labour supply up to 2030. The similarities and differences evidenced between the Nordic countries are analysed with a number of under-utilised or misused labour potentials identified. Policies tasked with mobilising the working age population, primarily to maximise the number of persons in work across the Nordic countries, are also reviewed. The study ends with some policy recommendations designed to improve the situation of marginal groups in the Nordic labour markets.

  • 219. Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    Kahila, Petri
    The Regional Welfare Burden in the Nordic Countries2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing does not have a negative impact on economic growth and welfare per se. Institutional adjustment is possible since ageing is a slow process. At the national level the Nordic populations will continue to grow, while regional population imbalances will be accentuated. To large extent ageing and the troublesome issue of welfare service provision is a regional challenge. Furthermore, labour market institutions in particular will be placed under great stress and adjustments to a new population structure will be needed. Few, if any, long-term policies have been launched to deal will the upcoming challenges of ageing. Short-term policies have, however, been launched, e.g. raising the retirement age, enabling older persons to work longer, changes in labour market legislation to favour older workers and promote labour immigration. As is to be expected, the issue of how to build the post-industrial and ageing society, and to organise its welfare remains highly ideological.

  • 220. Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Roto, Johanna
    Francke, Per
    Östberg, Sara
    The Demographic Challenge to the Nordic Countries2008Report (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 3 2014: Poverty and Social Exclusion2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Finding durable solutions to poverty and social exclusion arguably requires multi-sectoral and multi-level governance approaches to foster territorial cohesion and address socioeconomic disparities in the continent’s metropolitan regions. In this issue of Nordregio News, we explore the issues of poverty and social exclusion in an urban European context, consider how these issues are dealt with in a suburban municipality in the Stockholm Region and learn about a distinct approach to raise awareness among policy-makers. 

  • 222. Reardon, Mitchell
    Tolerance, Amenities and Economic Systems2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how regional development of the knowledge economy can be stimulated. Development of knowledge economies at the regional level is viewed as an important area for continued economic growth and has been designated to be of great significance as part of the EU's Lisbon Strategy. The growing importance of the knowledge economy as a driver of regional stimulus in Europe because of the high value-added nature of its products has been further intensified by the continued restructuring of global economics. This suggests that the role of the knowledge economy will be central to European development in the coming years. Given the enduring nature of economic development and the wide variety of other factors at play, the effects of implementing specific strategies are often difficult to measure over a short period of time. To mitigate this shortcoming, a review of the theoretical critiques and real world examples, including cases from Sweden, the Netherlands and the United States, can help provide policy makers with the information necessary to make properly informed decisions. Through a review of the most pertinent contemporary theories - the Creative Class, Skilled Cities and Local Production Systems theories - the risks and rewards of various strategies regarding the development of regional knowledge economies are surveyed. Examples from Europe and North America are employed to provide a more detailed understanding of the central themes of development. Through this study, it is clear that each of the theories recognizes the complex nature of the development process and that no theory is entirely correct or incorrect. Further, each recognizes the importance of tailoring policies to meet the specific needs of distinct regions and the fallacy of viewing economic development as a linear process. In the context of this review, it is apparent that a combination of theories, in concert with local factors, usually offers a region the greatest opportunity for success.

  • 223.
    Refsgaard, Karen
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioenergy and rural development in Europe: Policy recommendations from the TRIBORN project: Policy recommendations from the TRIBORN research and stakeholder consultations, 2014-172017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Local renewable energy initiatives assume a prominent role in Europe’s developing distributed energy networks in the proposed EU Renewable Energy Directive for the 2020-30 period (RED2030).The IEA, OECD, the EU Commission and national governments are increasingly aware of this role and of the importance of reducing the barriers to their - of ten innovative - development. The OECD(2012) has stressed the need to ensure positive outcomes for local people in the expansion of renewable energy, and the importance of bioenergy in this regard.

  • 224.
    Ringholm, Toril
    et al.
    Norway Inland University of Applied Sciences.
    Nyseth, Torill
    University of Tromsø.
    Gro, Sandkjær Hanssen
    NIBRHiOA.
    Participation according to the law?: The research-based knowledge on citizen participation in Norwegian municipal planning2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 67, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 225. Roto, Johanna
    Demographic trends in the Nordic local labour markets2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents a part of the work in 'Nordic regions and the demographic challenge' initiative by the Nordic working group for the exchange of experience and knowledge developments (urban policies). One issue that has gained political recognition in recent years is the consequences for, and challenges faced by, regions marked by significant demographic change. In order to highlight the various territorial development patterns currently prevalent in the Nordic Countries, and the differences that occur across similar types of regions, this paper outlines the various possibilities for analytic comparisons at two levels. Firstly, local labour markets can be used to highlight the key development trends in functional areas of various sizes. Secondly the 'Nordic urban typology' can be used as a spatial analytical tool to map regional development trends while distinguishing between different urban types of Nordic labour markets in a comparable manner. In addition to introducing new material this report also includes follow-up analyses to a 2006 study, 'The role of urban areas in regional development – a European and Nordic perspective" with the intent of tracking the changes to the functional local labour markets that have occurred in the interim.

  • 226. Roto, Johanna
    et al.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Addressing the issue of demographic vulnerability2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic handbook for the Nordic countries – and how the B7 islands could make use of it. The new demographic handbook for the Nordic countries, produced by Nordregio, emphasises the emergence of three key demographic trends across the Nordic countries. Migration is the main driver of demographic development with the population being increasingly concentrated to larger cities and regional centres the population is also ageing, although this varies both in its extent and in the actual rate of increase, while in addition, the gender balance continues to vary significantly across the territory. Individually and collectively these trends will have a crucial impact on practically all policy fields. The purpose of this policy brief is to provide regional and local policymakers with useful information for decision-making and planning to handle the demographic challenges.

  • 227. Ruotsalainen, Arto
    Review of National Strategies for Sustainable Development in the Baltic Sea Region2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to draw on the pool of international experience in respect of strategic approaches to sustainable development (SD) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR)1. It will recognise that each country's approach to developing NSSD will be different, and designed to suit the individual set of national economic, institutional, socio-cultural and ecological conditions. The aim is to outline, in a comparable manner, the key elements of sustainable development in each country by describing the challenges posed by the environment and the need for development,as well as a set of national sustainable development objectives, the responsible actors and implementation instruments for SD and the arrangements put in place for monitoring and review of the NSSDs.

  • 228. Sandberg, Audun
    Institutional Challenges for Common Property Resources in the Nordic Countries2001Book (Other academic)
  • 229. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Dubois, Alexandre
    Roto, Johanna
    Sterling, José
    Schürmann, Carsten
    Exploring the Baltic Sea Region : On territorial capital and spatial integration2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The findings contained in this report and developed within the East-West Window project, financed under the umbrella of the BSR INTERREG IIIB-Neighbourhood programme (TACIS strand), provide valuable insights into the search for evidence-based information on the Baltic Sea Region's territorial capital and its potentials for spatial integration, which can be meaningful for the current elaboration of two transnational strategic policy papers for the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), namely, the Long Term Perspective (LTP) for the BSR, on the one hand, and the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, on the other. The first is tasked with identifying the most important challenges currently hampering spatial integration within the region and between the region and its surroundings as well as with pinpointing the most important elements for a spatial strategy or vision with a time horizon up to the year 2030. The intention here is to approve the Long Term Perspective (LTP) at the VASAB Ministerial Conference in September 2009. The second policy paper with DG Regio in the lead has as its aim to coordinate the efforts of various actors in the Baltic Sea Region so that by working together they promote a more balanced development of the region. The Strategy will be presented to the European Council in June 2009 and will feature as one of the main priorities of the Swedish EU Presidency during the second half of 2009. The ongoing EU level debate, launched by the European Commission's Green Paper (October 2008) on Territorial Cohesion is also connected to this process. The goal of this debate is to come to a better and shared understanding of territorial cohesion and its implications for policy-making and territorial cooperation. The current report contains multifaceted analytical findings regarding the BSR's territorial capital. Issues such as population development, labour market dynamics (specifically in small and medium-sized cities and towns), he international functions of metropolitan areas, transport networks, mobility, accessibility, ICT and finally, energy production and distribution are explored. The report concludes with an extended discussion of current strategic issues in respect of spatial planning, policy-making and programming with a view to further contributing to territorial cohesion and spatial integration in the BSR.

  • 230. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Harbo, Lisbeth Greve
    Lehto, Veera
    An actor-oriented survey of territorial governance systems in the Nordic capital regions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide an introductory overview of territorial governance systems in the Nordic capital regions. In doing so, it focuses on the categorisation of various actors that constitute these governance systems. This is achieved through the gathering of information on their principal tasks, scope of action and institutional character. This survey was initially developed within the Nordic Working Group for exchange of experience and knowledge development (Urban policies) and while in progress, the theme was followed up by a seminar on 'Metropolitan Governance in the Nordic Capital Regions' held in Helsinki on the 11th of November 2010. At this seminar, representatives from all 5 Nordic metropolitan regions illuminated governance structures within a particular case study from each Nordic capital region. The lessons and experiences gained from these insights have also been included in this paper.

  • 231. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Smas, Lukas
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Challenging Urban Geographies2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News we challenge existing urban geographies.

  • 232. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Kahila, Petri
    Östberg, Sara
    Stenström, Julia
    Polycentrisk stadsutveckling ur ett europeiskt och nordiskt perspektiv2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om städernas och stadsregionernas roll har under åren diskuterats i europeisk, nordisk och nationell utvecklingspolitik. På europeisk nivå introducerade dokumentet European Development Perspective (ESDP) 1999 några idéer om polycentrisk stadsutveckling som strategi för en mer balanserad utveckling i Europa. Dessa idéer följdes senare upp i den europeiska utvecklingspolitiken, bl a i Interreg IIIB-programmen, och ingår nu i "the Territorial Agenda for the EU 2007–2010" som ska diskuteras i början av 2007 under det tyska ordförandeskapet. Den föreliggande arbetsrapporten har tagits fram på EK-R:s initiativ och är avsedd som ett bidrag till denna diskussion. I arbetsrapporten behandlas nyckelbegrepp kring polycentrisk utveckling, det nordiska stadssystemet betraktas i förhållande till Europa, och ett antal fallstudier presenteras innehållande direkta eller indirekta element från europeisk utvecklingspolitik. Bakom arbetsrapporten står flera av Nordregios forskare: Peter Schmitt skrev den teoretiska bakgrunden. Fallstudierna har tagits fram av Petri Kahila, Sara Östberg, Julia Stenström med underlag av material som Malin Hansen och Arto Ruotsalainen samlat in. För textbearbetningen svarar Åsa Pettersson.

  • 233. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Sustainable Urban Growth through Densification and Regional Governance: The Stockholm Case2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This Nordregio Policy Brief is designed to provide policymakers working in growing cities and regions with policy options to accommodate population growth without vast urban sprawl. Even in Stockholm, Europe's green capital in 2010, there are possibilities for policy improvements in shaping the urban form while accommodating population growth.

  • 234. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic ‘intercity connectivities’ in a multi-scalar perspective2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Established notions and perceptions of the national, Nordic and even European and Global urban systems need to be challenged in order to formulate relevant future urban policies. This is one of the main conclusions of this study on the Nordic capital regions' national and international intercity connectivity.. Inspired by the work of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) and the POLYNET-study (cf. Hall/Pain 2006) on exploring connectivity values for cities through intra-firm office networks, a 'modified Nordic-based bottom-up study' was designed and carried. The working paper illustrates and discusses the results of this quantitative study, which was conducted between January 2010 and December 2011. The Working Group for the exchange of experience and knowledge development (Urban Policies) has functioned as a kind of 'sounding board' throughout this process and has commented on the preliminary findings.

  • 235. Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Stead, Dominic
    Dymén, Christian
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Sustainable Urban Planning Revisited2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordregio News sheds light on the debate on sustainability in urban planning. What has happened during the past two decades and what is going on today?

  • 236.
    Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Volgmann, Kati
    Münter, Angelika
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Unpacking polycentricity at the city-regional scale: Insights from Dusseldorf and Stockholm2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 59, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The normative concept of polycentricity has become a promising tool to pursue spatial policy goals such as spatial equity and justice, sustainable and balanced development, and, more recently territorial cohesion, at various scales across Europe. As earlier research has shown, a number of cityregions use the concept for their planning and development work. In pursuit of polycentric development, they call for a robust terminology, solid analysis and methods. As a result, literature analysing polycentricity at the city- or mega-regional scale has grown significantly and it appears that some consensus has been achieved in regards to the main facets and dimensions. Recognizing that the potentials to comprehend city-regional dynamics by focussing on the extent to which polycentric urban patterns evolve has not yet been fully utilised, this paper intends to contribute to a more comprehensive view on polycentricity at the city-regional scale. In doing so, we study the (potentially) emerging urban patterns of two cases, the Dusseldorf and Stockholm city-regions, employing different theoretical starting points and analytical approaches. With this in mind, we aim to unpack the concept of polycentricity at the city-regional scale and to offer academics, as well as planning professionals and policy-makers, further insights into qualifying, analysing and understanding the complexity of the topic at hand. Likewise, we argue that sound strategies to promote and mobilise different facets of polycentric development should be carefully reflected and related to the theoretical, methodological and even normative starting point of any attempt to comprehending polycentricity.

  • 237. Schulman, Michaela
    Stadspolitik och urbanforskning i Norden2000Report (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördis Rut
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Wøien, Mari
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Meckl, Markus
    Enhanced Labour Market Opportunities for Immigrant Women: – case studies from arctic cities2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is the outcome of a comparative study focusing on immigrant women’s access to the labour market in small and medium-sized cities in the Arctic region. The study is funded by the Nordic Gender Equality Fund, which supports projects aimed at knowledge sharing and problem solving with regards to gender equality across the Nordic countries. The research was carried out by the University of Akureyri, Nordregio and the University of Lapland. The project was to investigate policies and applied practices in three small and medium-sized cities in the Nordic countries: Akureyri in Iceland, Luleå in Sweden and Rovaniemi in Finland. The objective was to identify and share best practices for improving labour market integration among immigrant women. The project also sought to examine how private and public actors may improve the opportunities in the labour market for immigrant women, as well as to give these women a voice through in-depth interviews about their labour market integration experiences in the abovementioned Nordic Arctic cities. The case studies figuring in this publication are to be taken as a first explorative enquiry into the varied local circumstances regarding labour marketintegration and practices. The case studies andthe desktop research form the basis for this publication. The University of Akureyri conducted the case study in Akureyri, Nordregio in Luleå and the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi. The interviews for the case studies were carried out between September and December 2017. Subsequently, the material from each case study was analysed with desktop material, articles and documents ondifferent language and labour market measures. It is important to keep in mind that this area of research is highly dynamic, and the different initiatives in place are subject to change due to e.g.political change.

  • 239.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Planning Nordic City Regions: Challenges and Opportunities2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary challenges for the development of sustainable urban regions in the Nordic countries relate to how physical planning can contribute to green growth and city-regional competitiveness. More specifically, three types of challenges have been identified. The first relates to urban form and issues involving urban qualities and densification processes, accommodating rapid population growth, localisation and the mixing of urban functions. The second relates to social inclusion and segregation, the everyday life perspective and diversified lifestyles and mobility. Finally, while planning at the city-regional scale is increasingly seen as a way to meet these challenges, such a perspective also calls into question the traditional ways in which Nordic cities and regions are planned; the third type of challenge is therefore the fact that there is a recognised need for new and innovative forms of planning and governance.

  • 240.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Urban Contractual Policies in Northern Europe2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper is based on two separately commissioned projects that Nordregio carried out during 2015–2016. The first project was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions set up under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy (EK-R). This project relates to Chapters 2 to 5 of the present working paper, which describe the policy details and inner workings of urban contractualism in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The second project was commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation. The objective was to review the experiences in France and England with different forms of contractualism. This relates to Chapters 6 to 8, which incorporate additional comparisons and critique of urban policies in France and, especially, the UK. The projects were a collaborative undertaking, with a number of national experts at Nordregio involved. Lukas Smas was the overall co-ordinator and editor. Liisa Perjo was responsible for Finland, Christian Fredricsson contributed the Norwegian part and Christian Dymén (now at Trivector) was responsible for Sweden. Julien Grunfelder was responsible for France while Timothy Andersson (currently a PhD Student at Tallinn University) wrote the UK section alongside contributions to the introduction and conclusion.

  • 241. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Damsgaard, Ole
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Perjo, Liisa
    Integrating Urban Planning and Regional Development : - Nordic and European Examples 2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Harmonizing and integrating regional growth policies and physical urban planning, between and across different administrative levels and political fields is an important challenge for current and future spatial planning in Sweden. In this working paper we analyze how different Nordic and European regions and countries have worked with these issues, and discuss policy potentials for improving the Swedish spatial urban and regional planning system. The Swedish government has recurrently expressed that the regional development strategies should contribute to harmonizing and integrating plans and strategies at different governmental levels and between different administrative sectors. On behalf of Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning Nordregio has carried out a comparative study of how different strategically selected regions in Nordic and European countries has engaged with integrative planning and policy issues. The regions and countries include: Central Denmark Region Southwest Finland Telemark County in Norway Region Hannover in Germany Randstad in the Netherlands Greater Birmingham in England In the study both the formal planning framework and conditions in the various countries, as well as the practical work within the regions has been analyzed. Focus of the analysis has been three dimensions of integration sectorial collaboration, territorial coordination and synchronization of processes. The different international experiences form the basis for formulating policy potentials for enhancement of Swedish planning routines and practices. The identified policy potentials are also based on a workshop with Swedish regional and national representatives during which problems of integrating regional growth strategies and urban physical planning were discussed. There are policy potentials for harmonizing and integrating growth policies and physical planning at all governmental levels from the national to the local within the current planning and policy framework. National spatial visions which integrate regional policies and municipal plans as well as other sectors is one possibility, another is more national statements which emphasis the national governments priorities. Synchronizing the regional and municipal planning processes and setting up regional forums for collaboration are two interesting possibilities for harmonization and integration at the regional and local level. This could be done within the current framework but could also be developed into new formal regulations that require structural changes. It is important to recognize that changing practices takes time but also the spatial planning (samhällsplanering) is an integrative activity in itself.

  • 242. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Claessen, Haukur
    Demographic changes, housing policies and urban planning: Examples of situations and strategies in Nordic municipalities2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic changes, such as urbanisation, ageing populations, and international migration, have significant effects on local development. This study examines the relationship between demographic changes and housing, focusing on different local demographic situations and related housing and planning strategies in the Nordic states. Nordic metropoles (Stavanger and Aalborg), regional centres with universities (Växjö and Sønderborg), medium-sized towns (Ålesund and Örnsköldsvik), and rural areas (Pargas) have different local demographic challenges and potentials. In all types of studied municipalities, an ageing population is typically seen as the most important challenge for the future, especially if younger people are moving out and fertility rates are low—but there are exceptions. How this challenge is met differs somewhat across the different municipalities examined here, but there seems to be a preference for attracting younger people rather than accommodating elderly populations, and a focus on development strategies rather than adaptive tactics. Depending on size and resources, most of the municipalities have ambitious statistical prognoses and strategic policies to integrate demographic changes and housing, but it is not entirely clear if such prognoses depend upon future housing developments or vice versa. How housing strategies are implemented differs between the municipalities, with some being very active through land politics and other forms of interventions, while others perceive their role as limited. However, it is evident that urban densification is a general spatial development strategy in Nordic municipalities, but balanced geographical development is often emphasized as well.

  • 243.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ansträngande partnerskap: näringslivet i nordisk stadsplanering2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How urban planning contributes to economic growth and local development is a question high on the political agenda in the Nordic countries. This highlights, in turn, other key policy issues: how public planning can more efficiently contribute to private urban development, in particular the production of new housing, to accommodate rapid urbanisation and solve the housing crises. The various interactions between different public and private actors and their different rationales are at the heart of these problems, including the potential tensions between efficiency and legitimacy 

  • 244.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universitet.
    Wänström, Johan
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universite.
    Att skapa regioner och organisera för regional utveckling2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regionerna är viktiga pusselbitar i de nordiska ländernas välfärdsystem inte minst inom sjukvårdsområdet och för kollektivtrafiken. Men regionernas roll i samhällsplaneringen är mer oklar. Regioner är både aktörer och arenor för att skapa hållbar utveckling. Regionernas form och funktion är dock inte en oproblematisk fråga, som politiker, planerare och forskare försöker finna svar på. 

    Det experimenteras just nu mycket kringformell och informell regional organisering framför allt i de nordiska länderna. Syftet med denna text är att ge en kortfattad översiktöver problematiken och vad forskningen berättar omatt organisera regional utveckling och tillväxt, men också att lyfta fram några nordiska erfarenheter.

  • 245.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredriksson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Towards sustainable Nordic city-regions: A synthesis of the activities of the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 2013–2016, the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions (NWG4) and Nordregio have developed and shared knowledge about sustainable urban development, planning and green growth. Working in close collaboration with representatives from ministries and national authorities, policymakers and municipal and regional planners within larger Nordic city-regions, we have identified a number of common challenges and opportunities for sustainable urban development. City-regions are important arenas for addressing the many challenges associated with urban sustainability, inclusiveness and attractiveness. This synthesis highlights some of these key challenges, indicates where there is potential to develop more sustainable and co-ordinated planning and policy-making. It also provides insight into implementation, monitoring and evaluation of various plans and policies through different tools, models and concepts. In addition to outlining common challenges and opportunities for Nordic urban areas and governing city-regions, this report highlights some of the specific national concerns for cityregional planning in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It also provides an overview of municipal reforms and regional reforms in the Nordic region as well as an introduction to all the Nordic spatial planning systems. First comes a brief overview of the challenges addressed in this report. The different sections describe these in more depth and contextualising them with relation to the main findings from connected projects carried out by Nordregio. This is followed by national overviews of the spatial planning systems and regional reforms in all Nordic countries, as well as national concerns for city-regional planning. The report is concluded with a section about the NWG4 and a list of the related Nordregio publications.

  • 246. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Nordic capital regions in the global network economy2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    What positions and roles do our Nordic cities have in this world of flows, and how does the global network economy impact on Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, and Stockholm, and on Nordic urban policymaking more generally? World cities such as New York, London, Paris and Singapore are seen as central nodes in the global networks of capital, commodities, knowledge, people and cultural symbols. In this sense, they function as important hubs for the interaction of skilled labour and their 'tacit knowledge', as financial control centres and as major points of origin for the generation of different kinds of innovations (i.e. social, cultural, and technical). This Nordregio policy brief highlights how globalisation creates new challenges and opportunities for policymakers in the Nordic capital regions.

  • 247. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Weber, Ryan
    Berglund, Lars
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Jensen, Jesper Ole
    Serras, Joan
    Bosredon, Melanie
    Herranz, Ricardo
    Batty, Michael
    Planning Tools for Urban Sustainability2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we explore new technologies and new tools for sustainable urban planning.

  • 248.
    Smeds, Lise
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sustainable Business Development in the Nordic Arctic2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication has been produced as part of the project Foresight Analysis for Sustainable Regional Development in the Nordic Arctic, commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Sustainable Regional Development in the Arctic. The Working Paper contributes with insight into the key areas of private business activities in the Nordic Arctic of large-scale industries, the bioeconomy, tourism, and the field of creative industries in an Arctic context.

  • 249. Spiekermann, Klaus
    et al.
    Aalbu, Hallgeir
    Nordic Peripherality in Europe2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The northernmost parts of the Nordic countries are extremely peripheral in a European context. The lack of accessibility very often coincides with problems of population loss through out-migration. The question for the Nordic countries is how best to develop policies that can stimulate economic activities in these regions despite their geographical handicaps.

  • 250. Spiekermann, Klaus
    et al.
    Neubauer, Jörg
    European Accessibility and Peripherality: Concepts, Models and Indicators2002Report (Other academic)
234567 201 - 250 of 303
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