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  • 251. Birkemose, Jan
    Nogle medier vil overlevead blockerne2016In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 56-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Det er en alvorlig trussel mod nordiske netmedier, at op mod hver fjerde bruger filtrererannoncerne væk og dermed underminerer mediernes økonomi. Allerede nu eksperimenterermange medier med forskellige initiativer for at få brugerne til at betale ellerse annoncerne. For at kompensere for de tabte annonceindtægter, vil mange medierintroducere native annoncering. Og takket være ad blockerne vokser en ny annoncefripublicisme frem, hvor brugerne, og deres ønsker og behov, kommer i centrum, somaldrig tidligere. De medier, der ikke formår at omstille sig til de nye forhold, får sværtved at overleve.

  • 252. Birkjær, Michael
    Skyggen af lykken2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    De nordiske befolkninger er lykkeligere end andre i verden, men der findes også mennesker i Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge og Sverige, som giver udtryk for mistrivsel eller sågar for at være ulykkelige, når de beskriver deres liv. Denne rapport undersøger, hvem der ikke er lykkelige i Norden, samt hvilke livsomstændigheder der ligger bag.

  • 253. Birkjær, Michael
    et al.
    Kaats, Micah
    Er sociale medier faktisk en trussel for unges trivsel2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Vi gør opmærksom på, at den danske version af rapporten beklageligvis indeholder fejl noget af talmaterialet og graferne. Den er derfor trukket tilbage. Vi henviser til den engelske version, som er korrekt: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-5651

    Denne rapport undersøger sammenhængen i Norden mellem unges trivsel og deres forbrug af sociale medier. Er unges stigende brug af sociale medier og skærmtid et problem for deres personlige trivsel og deres deltagelse i de ikke-digitale fællesskaber i samfundet? Hovedkonklusionen er at vi ikke kan dømme forbruget af sociale medier som noget entydigt positivt eller negativt for unges trivsel, uden at vi forholder os til en række helt specifikke betingelser, som nuancerer billedet væsentligt. Vi må forholde os til hvem som bruger de sociale medier, hvilke sociale medier de bruger og hvor lang tid de bruger. Vi må også forholde os til hvordan sociale medier bruges. Når vi tager højde for de ovennævnte betingelser, finder vi en række betydelige effekter fra unges forbrug af sociale medier, som man kan læse mere om i rapporten.

  • 254. Bisgaard, Tanja
    et al.
    Høgenhaven, Casper
    Creating new concepts, products and services with user driven innovation2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    User driven innovation is emerging as one of the successful ways of creating breakthrough innovations for companies and organisations. Based on our research we have been able to identify four generic methods of working with user driven innovation: user test, user exploration, user innovation and user participation. Even though these methods might vary slightly from one company to the other, they have some basic features which are common. When working with users, companies might chose to include the users either directly or indirectly in the innovation process, depending on what type of knowledge the company wants to obtain from the user. Users’ ability to communicate and express their problems and needs varies greatly and will also influence the user driven innovation method chosen by a company.

  • 255. Bjarnadóttir, Hólmfrídur
    et al.
    Bradley, Karin
    Ny kurs för Norden - planering och hållbar utveckling2003Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en översikt över hur fysisk och rumslig planering i de nordiska länderna kan bidra till en hållbar utveckling och även att visa hur planering kan stödja åtgärder i den nordiska hållbarhetsstrategin från år 2000. I rapporten återfinns exempel på planering för hållbar utveckling från nationell, regional och kommunal nivå i de fem nordiska länderna samt en sammanställning av återkommande angreppssätt. Avslutningsvis tecknas förslag på områden för fortsatt nordisk samverkan inom planering för en hållbar utveckling.

  • 256. Bjarnadóttir, Hólmfríður
    et al.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes.

  • 257. Bjerke, Paul
    et al.
    Kjos Fonn, Birgitte
    A Hidden Theoryin Financial Crisis Journalism?: The Case of Norway2015In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 113-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses press coverage of the dramatic finance crisis and the ensuingEuropean debt crisis in Europe, in three decisive periods. The authors conduct quantitativeand qualitative content analyses of two major mainstream Norwegian newspapers, Aftenpostenand Dagbladet, employing concepts and methods from framing theory, to analysecoverage in the framework of two contesting schools in economics.The study finds traces of discussions of finance brokers’ ethics and some discussions ofgovernmental regulations that made the 2008 crisis possible, but few indications of a basicdiscussion of the system as such. The authors conclude that the crisis was framed more asa superficial, short-term problem (as per a mainstream, neoliberal theory of economics)than as a deeper and long-term system problem (as a more critical ‘political economics’theory would have held).

  • 258.
    Bjerkeli Grøvda, Lillian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Evaluering av bruken av egenjournal i helsestasjon: et empowermentprosjekt2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Research has shown that insufficient communication skills and lacking continuity has led to poor quality of the children's health services. In some cases this has caused incorrect diagnosis and treatment and insufficient information to the parents. The Norwegian Board of Health appointed a working group that created a parent-held child health record. The group proposed the record to betried out in a selected population and evaluated before introducing it for the whole country.

    Aim: Tostudy parents use of the PHCHR, and to evaluate participation in decisionmaking and communication with the professionals. We also wanted to determine the PHCHR’s influence on health care utilisation, knowledge about child health and self-care.

    Setting: Maternal child health centres in ten municipalities in the North-west of Norway between October 2001 and January2003.

    Method: A sample of 309 children born between Jan 8. 2000 (00.08.01) and Oct 1. 2001 (01.10.01) was recruited successively at routine health surveillance visits and randomised into an intervention ora control group. First-born children were excluded. We used self-completed questionnaires, which had standardised, specific and closed questions. Both groups answered part one before and after the intervention, and the intervention group also answered part two after the intervention. It was 289(94%) parents who answered the questionnaires before the intervention, and 260 (84%) after. Public health nurses introduced both the PHCHR and the questionnaires. The nurses were interviewed to validate the interpretation of the results.

    Results: 3/4 of the parents used the PHCHR when visiting the maternal child health centres, 3/4 reported that the record had been helpful to them and 3/4 had entered information in the PHCHR themselves. Half of the parents claimed that the PHCHR led to better view of the child's health and development, and that they got more involved in decisions. The PHCHR was less used visiting other health professionals. The use of PHCHR did not influence the utilisation of health care services, parents’ knowledge of child's health, or the parents' satisfaction of information and communication with professionals.

    Conclusions: The PHCHR was well acceptedand frequentlyused in this randomised controlled trial, but the survey does not support the positive results using PHCHR shown in earlier descriptive follow up studies. Still, the public health nurses taking part in the study believe that an earlier introduction of the parent-held child record – at the first home visit, and more training would alter the results. Further studies are needed before one is to decide what to do about PHCHR in health promotion in children

  • 259. Björk, Olle
    et al.
    Palm, Viveka
    Steinbach, Nancy
    Lone, Øyvind
    Kolshus, Kristine
    Pedersen, Ole Gravgård
    Krarup, Signe
    Kolttola, Leo
    Lindblom, Annika
    Making the environment count: - Nordic accounts and indicators for analysing and integrating environment and economy2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, the Nordic Ministers for the Environment decided to strenghten the measurement of green estimates of welfare and socio-economic developments. The report Making the Environment Count is describing how statistics on the environment and the economy thorugh the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts can be used to enable cross-sectorial analysis. The report proposes indicators that can be compiled annually in a Nordic context through existing statistics linking economic statistics to environmental statistics.

  • 260. Björkhagen, Martin
    From Communal War to Peaceful Coexistence:: The Influence of Adat Culture in North Maluku, Indonesia2017In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 4, p. 6-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how adat culture influenced peace-building and reconciliation efforts in North Maluku Province (NMP), Indonesia. This province was plagued by communal conflict from 1999 to 2000 following the fall of President Suharto’s regime. Nonetheless, NMP stands out as a rare success story for its comparatively quick consolidation of peace and its bottom–up efforts to reconcile the community, which was divided along ethno-religious lines. In-depth interviews were conducted with local elite and expert actors, and the Reality Check Approach (RCA) was used to explore the emic perspective of villagers at the grassroots level. An important key to the successful peace-building was that both the elite actors in regency government and most people at the grassroots level were united in their efforts to use a reinvigorated adat culture to reconcile the communities. In addition, minority groups and migrants were largely included and standard top-down attempts at reconciliation were absent, as most international organisations also promoted the local initiatives. The level of reconciliation does not, however, extend further than peaceful coexistence, partly because issues of culpability remain taboo in NMP. To achieve thorough reconciliation, the former conflicting parties would need to assume responsibility for wrongdoing and follow it up with forgiveness.

  • 261. Björklund, Hanna
    et al.
    Damsgaard, Ole
    Knudsen, Jon P.
    Nordiske prioriteringer og satsninger i Østersjøregionen2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Denne rapporten er skrevet som et underlag til arbeidet med fjerde generasjons interregprogram som vil løpe av stabelen fra 2007 av. Nordisk ministerråd ved NERP har ønsket innspill til dette arbeidet for Østersjøregionen. Rapporten tar utgangspunkt i allerede etablerte samarbeidsmønstre i regionen og gir en kortfattet gjennomgang av hovedtendenser og utviklingstrekk i dette arbeidet. Generelt har det vært en tendens til å bevege seg fra et bistands- til et samarbeidsperspektiv i de årene østersjøsamarbeidet har eksistert. Det har også skjedd en tematisk utvikling ved at allment demokratiarbeid og generell erfaringsutveksling er tonet ned til fordel for et bredere samarbeid innenfor en rekke sektorer. De enkelte landenes interesser og temaønsker gjennomgås. Det er betydelige nyanser landene i mellom, men dette bør ikke fremstå som noe hinder for å kunne utvikle relativt entydige prioriteringer rundt et knippe oppgaver for videre arbeid.

  • 262.
    Björklund, Margereth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    LIVING WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCER: AHEALTH PROMOTION PERSPECTIVE: A Qualitative Study2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: In society there is a growing awareness that a vital factor for patientswith chronic diseases, such as head and neck cancer (HNC), is how well they are able tofunction in their everyday lives – a common, but often overlooked, public health issue. Theoverall aim of this thesis is to reach a deeper understanding of living with HNC and toidentify the experiences that patients felt promoted their health and well-being. It alsoexplores the patients’ experiences of contact and care from health professionals and whetherthese encounters could increase their feelings of health and well-being; salutogenic approach.

    Methods: This thesis engages a qualitative data design. On three occasions, 35 purposivelyselected patients were interviewed (31 from Sweden and one from Denmark, Finland, Island,and Norway). The first study was conducted in the Nordic counties (I), and the remainingstudies were conducted in Sweden (II, III, IV). Interviews were performed on a single basis(I, II, III) and then repeated (IV). The individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews usedopen-ended questions (n=53). Three different forms of analyses were used: critical incidenttechnique (I), thematic content analysis (II), latent content analysis (III), and interpretativedescriptive analysis (paper IV).

    Findings: Living with head and neck cancer was expressed as living in captivity, in the sensethat patients’ sometimes life-threatening symptoms were constant reminders of the disease.The patients experienced a threat against identity and existence. Patients struggled to findpower and control over everyday life, and if successful this appeared to offer them better health and well-being along with spiritual growth. The general understanding was that these patients had strong beliefs in the future despite living on a virtual rollercoaster. The patients went through a process of interplay of internal and external enabling that helped them acquire strength and feelings of better health and well-being. Consequently, they found power and control from inner strength and other health resources, e.g. social networks, nature, hobbies,activity, and health professionals. However, the findings also revealed the opposite; that somepatients were more vulnerable and felt powerless and faced everyday life with emotional andexistential loneliness. They were dependent on next of kin and health professionals. Having good interpersonal relationships and emotional support 24 hours a day from next of kin were crucial, as were health promoting contacts and care from health professionals. This healthpromoting contact and care built on working relationships with competent healthprofessionals that were available, engaged, respectful, validating, and, above all experiencedin the treatment phase. But many patients experienced not health promoting contact and care –and a sense of not being respected, or even believed. Added were the patients’ experiences ofinadequate coordination between phases of their lengthy illness trajectory. They felt lost andabandoned by health services, especially before and after treatment.

    Conclusions: Inner strength, good relationships with next of kin, nature, hobbies, andactivities could create strength and a sense of better health and well-being. Patientsexperienced a mutual working relationship during dialoguing and sensed co-operation andequality in encounters with competent health professionals. This could lead to enhancedpower and control i.e. empowerment in a patient’s everyday life. The findings highlightpsychosocial rehabilitation in a patient-centred organisation when health professionals supportpatients’ inner strength and health resources, and also offer long-term support to next of kin.Finally, this research suggests that if health professionals could gain a deeper understandingof the psychosocial, existential, social, and economic questions on patients’ minds, they couldbetter sense how patients feel and would be better equipped not only to offer greater support,but to raise their voices to improve health policy and health care for these patients.

  • 263.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Fridlund, B
    Centre for Health Promotion Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour and health promotion activities: a critical incident analysis.1999In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 204-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with head and neck cancer report several disease- and health-related problems before, during and a long time after completed treatment. Nurses have an important role in educating/supporting these patients about/through the disease and treatment so that they can attain well-being. This study describes the cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour in terms of critical incidents after nurses had given them care to promote health. The study had a qualitative, descriptive design and the method used was the critical incident technique. Twenty-one informants from the Nordic countries diagnosed with head and neck cancer were strategically selected. It was explained to the informants what a critical incident implies before the interviews took place; this was defined as a major event of great importance, an incident, which the informants still remember, due to its great importance for the outcome of their health and well-being. The nurses' behaviour was examined, and critical incidents were involved in 208 cases-150 positive and 58 negative ones-the number of incidents varying between three and 20 per informant. The nurses' health promotion activities or lack of such activities based on the patients' disease, treatment and symptoms, consisted of informing and instructing the patients as well as enabling their participation. Personal consideration and the nurses' cognisance, knowledge, competence, solicitude, demeanour and statements of understanding were found to be important. Continuous health promotion nursing interventions were of considerable value for the majority of this group of cancer patients. Oncology nurses could reconfirm and update the care of head and neck cancer patients by including health promotion activities in individual care plans. By more frequent use of health promotion models, such as the empowerment model, the nurses could identify and focus on those individuals who needed to alter their life-style as well as tailor their approach towards these patient by setting goals for well-being and a healthy life-style.

  • 264.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Health promoting contacts as encountered by individuals with head and neck cance2009In: Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness, ISSN 1752-9816, E-ISSN 1752-9824, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 261-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  To describe the characteristics of health promoting contacts with health professionals as encountered by individuals with head and neck cancer.

    Background.  Head and neck cancer has a profound and chronic impact on the individual’s everyday life, e.g. physical problems that hinder speaking, breathing, eating and drinking. Furthermore, fear and uncertainty can lead to long-term psychological and psychosocial problems. The National Institute of Public Health in Sweden advocates that all care contacts should improve the quality of the individual’s health.

    Design.  A qualitative descriptive and explorative design was used. Eight participants were interviewed in the year 2005 and a qualitative thematic content analysis of the data was performed.

    Findings.  Health promoting contacts were defined as contacts where health care professionals contribute positively to the well-being of individual patients. Characteristics include being available, engaged, respectful and validating. Three themes were identified: being believed in one’s illness story; having a working relationship with health professionals and receiving individualised, tailored care.

    Conclusions.  Health promoting contacts were experienced mainly during the treatment phase, when patients had daily contact with specific, qualified health professionals. Although the interview questions focused on health promoting contacts, nearly half of the contacts were experienced as not health promoting. Feelings of abandonment were particularly manifested before and after treatment. The starting point for achieving health promoting contact lies in understanding the patient’s lifeworld in relation to health, illness and suffering and focusing on the individual’s personal strengths and health resources.

    Relevance to clinical practice.  The findings highlighted the importance of ensuring that patient interests and concerns are core considerations in health care. The participants viewed continuing individualised, tailored care and access to ear, nose and throat healthcare professionals as highly important.

  • 265.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Health promotion and empowerment from the perspective of individuals living with head and neck cancer.2008In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to shed light on health promotion from the perspective of individuals living with head and neck cancer. Eight informants were interviewed and latent content analysis was used. Individuals living with head and neck cancer experienced many problems that had a negative impact on their health. One overarching main theme was demonstrated; the ability to regain control and empower oneself. Three themes emerged: (1) Being enabled by dialogue with one's inner self, including three sub-themes: transformed and improved self-esteem, recognising and embracing existentiality, and increased self-determination. (2) Being enabled by means of contact with a social network, including two sub-themes: emotional support and practical support. (3) Being enabled by means of contact with and a passion for the environment, including two sub-themes: nature, hobbies and activities. Empowerment, the goal of health promotion, was understood as an ongoing process, and the ability to promote health varied and was dependent on internal and external enabling of acting and doing. The interpretation of this ongoing process demonstrates interplay assisted by a dialogue with one's inner self, contact with a social network and a passion for the environment. Altogether, these findings may inspire nurses and other health care professionals to support the individual's empowerment process and pose non-pathology-oriented questions such as "what improves your health?" or "what makes you feel good?"

  • 266.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Living with head and neck cancer:: a profile of captivity2010In: Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness, ISSN 1752-9816, E-ISSN 1752-9824, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  To illuminate what it means to live with head and neck cancer.

    Background.  Patients could experience head and neck cancer as more emotionally traumatic than other cancers because of visible disfigurement and its life-threatening impact on vital functions. This long-term illness often leads to lifestyle changes such as to physical function, work and everyday tasks, interpersonal relationships and social functioning.

    Design.  This study used a qualitative and explorative longitudinal and prospective design with semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with six participants with newly diagnosed or newly recurrent head and neck cancer. The analysis was descriptive and interpretive.

    Findings.  The participants were living ‘in captivity’ in the sense that their symptoms were constant reminders of the disease. Our findings also revealed existential loneliness and spiritual growth, as interpreted within six themes: altered sense of affiliation; hostage of health care; locked up in a broken body, but with a free spirit; confined in a rogue body, forced dependency on others, and caught up in a permanent illness trajectory.

    Conclusions.  Living with head and neck cancer involves emotional and existential vulnerability. The participants and their next of kin experienced insufficient support from health services and inadequate coordination between phases of their lengthy illness trajectory. These findings call for changes in oncological rehabilitation and management. Patient care must take a holistic view of everyone involved, centring on the individual and the promotion of health. A care coordinator could navigate between the individual patient needs and appropriate health services, hopefully with results that lessen the individual’s emotional and existential confinement.

  • 267. Björnsdóttir, Rannveig
    Feed for Atlantic cod2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Today the cost of feed is 50-60% of the total production of farmed cod. A 10% reduction in feed cost will therefore give a minimum of 5% reduction in production cost. The biggest single variable cost in cod farming, the high cost of feed, is the main obstacle in making cod farming economically feasible.

  • 268. Björnsdóttir, Rannveig
    et al.
    Ögmundarson, Ólafur
    Árnason, Jón
    Ressem, Helge
    Jónsson, Arnar
    Gunnar Kolbeinshaven, Arne
    Steinarsson, Agnar
    Overrein, Ingrid
    Jóhannsson, Ragnar
    BASECOD - Stable and safe production of high quality cod larvae and juveniles2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Stable supplies of high quality cod larvae and juveniles are urgently needed for the development of successful cod farming industries in countries around the North Atlantic. The project is a collaboration between key actors from the cod farming industry and the research sector in Iceland, Norway and the Faroe Islands, with involvement of additional key actors and stakeholders within the Nordic countries and Canada

  • 269. Bjønness, Kathrine
    et al.
    Jónsson, Kári
    Danielsson, Helena
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Sander Poulsen, Tomas
    Forsberg, Tommi
    Keller, Nicole
    Stefani, Martina
    Skyrudsmoen, Lene
    F-gas methodologies and measurements in the Nordic Countries2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This project report is a part of the NMR KOL project Nordic Policy Cluster for F-gases with the purpose of comparing the Nordic countries’ methodologies and regulations related to the use of F-gases.Fluorinated gases (F-gases, including HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) are a range of potent greenhouse gases that are used in a number of different applications and products for refrigeration, foams, aerosols, and technical installations.The report contains a survey and an overview of F-gas methodologies used for UNFCCC reporting, as well as an account of emissions and regulations in the Nordic countries.The objective with the analysis was to provide an overview of differences and similarities within the Nordic countries in relation to F-gases. The analysis shall enable harmonization of data collection, emission factors, choice of methods, and regulatory instruments.

  • 270. Bjørn Larsen, Peter
    et al.
    Ahlqvist, Toni
    Friðriksson, Karl
    Applying converging technologies for innovation in Nordic regions2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The report investigates how policy makers can place technological convergence at the top of the agenda in (regional) innovation policies to enable more companies and research institutions to begin to address opportunities for innovation and growth generated through technological convergence. The study draws on a literature review and interviews with experts, companies, mediating organisations, and regional authorities. In addition, we have conducted a survey in the Nordic countries.

  • 271.
    Bjørnerud, Anne Merete
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Fysisk aktivitet på resept.: Tre års oppfølging av aktivitetsnivå og helserelatert livskvalitet.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Frisklivssentralen, or physical activity on prescription, is an intervention used by Norwegian municipalities for preventive health services. This approach helps individuals change lifestyle habits and increase physical activity. Research documenting thelong-termeffects of participation in Frisklivssentralen is sparse.

    Objective:This study aimed to evaluate whether Frisklivssentralen achieves its goal of permanently changing individuals’ activity level and health-related quality of life, as measured three years after participation.

    Method: Three years after the Frisklivssentralen intervention (04.2010–03.2011) concluded, 33 former participants answered a questionnaire exploring their current level of physical activity, adherence to physical activity, factors affecting such adherence, health-related quality of life, and experiences from participation at Frisklivssentralen. We compared their answers to data collected at baseline and the 3-month follow up. We used descriptive statistics to assess the range and is tribution of participants and their answers. Non-parametric tests explored changes over time and compared subgroups.

    Results: Our results revealed that the positive change in activity level achieved from baseline to 3-month follow upp ersisted three years later(P=0.001). From baseline to three years, 39.4% of participants increased their activitylevel. Interestingly, participants in the current study who reported no increase in activity were more activeat baseline. After three years, the median activity level for the total sample was> 4 hours per week. Regardless of changes in activitylevels from baseline to three years, participants reported positive changes in health-related quality of life (P≤0.001).

    Conclusion: Frisklivssentralen increases physical activity levels and health-related quality of life. Participants who initially were less active (i.e., 1–2 hours/week) increased their activity level to > 4 hours per week and maintained it for 3 years. Respondents improved their health-related quality of liferegardless of changes in activitylevel

  • 272.
    Bladini, Moa
    NIKK.
    Hat och hot på nätet: en kartläggning av den rättsliga regleringen i Norden från ett jämställdhetsperspektiv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur näthat ska stoppas är en aktuell fråga i alla nordiska länder. Men att komma åt förövarna är inte helt enkelt. Ett av problemen är att lagstiftningen på området inte är uppdaterad. Därför har Nordisk information för kunskap om kön (NIKK), på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet, kartlagt den rättsliga regleringen av hat och hot på nätet.

    Rapporten visar att såväl kvinnor som män är utsatta för kränkningar på nätet – i ungefär lika stor utsträckning. Män och kvinnor drabbas dock på olika sätt. När män – särskilt i offentligheten – utsätts för näthat är det oftare fråga om kränkningar med anspelning på yrkesskicklighet och kompetens eller hot om våld. Kvinnor utsätts istället för kränkningar med betydligt större inslag av sexism, sexuella hot och trakasserier som snarare kopplar an till person än profession.

    I hela Norden råder det en osäkerhet kring hur bestämmelserna som omfattar hatbrott ska tillämpas och var gränsen mot yttrandefriheten går, vilket leder till att bestämmelserna inte används i den utsträckning som i teorin är möjligt. Det innebär att det praktiska skyddet är litet för samtliga grupper, och i dagsläget obefintligt för dem som utsätts på grund av kön. Det bör sättas i relation till den forskning som visar att näthat mot kvinnor i stor utsträckning kan kopplas till kön.

  • 273.
    Blas, Erik
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), The World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    1990 - 2000: A Decade of Health Sector Reformin Developing Countries: Why, and What Did We Learn?2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The overall aim of the work is to contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics between health sector reform policies and practices as well as the factors that determine and shape the thinking about global public health; and to try out a framework for understanding the inter-linkages and interactions between the determinants for and the elements of health sector reforms and their implementation.

    Methods: The object of study was a contemporary phenomenon, consisting of a diverse array of interventions in many different directions and fields within a complex political, social and economic environment. It is difficult to attribute the effects of the reforms to any single intervention or to establish exact boundaries between the phenomenon and the context. Therefore, a multi-stage case study research strategy, based on the work of R.K.Yin, was chosen. The study involved two major sub-units of analysis, i.e., the macro and the micro level. Each of these involved several sub-units of analysis. The analysis of the micro level further comprised a cross-case analysis of 10 individual case studies conducted in six developing countries.

    Results: Clear linkages were found between the greater societal processes and the shape and results of reforms during the decade. The reforms had not been completed in any of the countries studied, but appeared to be stuck with undesired effects, lacking energy to move forward. Contributing to this was the diminishing role of the state, which bordered abdication from public health in most of the countries, leaving the drive to the market and individual demands and interests. The net effect could well be a reversal of some of the public health achievements of the past - however, it was also found that reverting to dedicated disease control programmes would not be the answer, as these were found unsustainable and undermining the health systems.

    Conclusion: There is a divide between libertarian and utilitarian values on the one side and communitarian and egalitarian values on the other. Thus, it is not just about public health practitioners not being good enough to implement, it is more so about what we want to achieve and what it acceptable respectively not acceptable and reaching compromises. This place the societal processes at centre-stage for public health. However, it is also about implementation, it is about how public health policy-makers and reformers can effectively dialogue and facilitate achieving consensus and translate the societal 'wants' and 'want nots' into managerial bites. Implementation becomes a process of constant adjustment and readjustment oscillating between political and technocratic levels

  • 274.
    Blas, Erik
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), The World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    The proof of the reform is in the implementation.2004In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 19 Suppl 1, p. S3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000, TDR funded a series of studies to examine the opportunities and threats of health sector reform to the control of tropical diseases. This article is a cross-case analysis of ten of those studies, exploring the similarities in patterns across the countries covered: Colombia, China, Nigeria, the Philippines, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. The implementation experiences across countries were strikingly similar despite very different socio-economic and epidemiological situations. The reform implementation was neither complete nor clean and had in all the countries found some sort of least-energy equilibrium where the processes had stopped at a sub-optimal stage needing considerable renewed 'change-energy' to achieve its objectives. The role of the state had, in several cases, been reduced to a situation where it neither pursued the interest of the public nor protected the individual against harm caused by the behaviours of others. Whether one should follow a dedicated disease control programme or a systems approach is not a relevant question. Effective disease control cannot be implemented without strong and functioning health systems and health system performance cannot be improved without considering which purpose the system is to serve.

  • 275.
    Blas, Erik
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), The World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    Limbambala, M
    The challenge of hospitals in health sector reform: the case of Zambia.2001In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 16 Suppl 2, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zambia underwent a period of health sector reform from 1993 to 1998. The reform attracted substantial support from the World Bank and bilateral donors. While significant achievements were made with respect to decentralization, increased accountability and donor collaboration, the reform stalled in 1998 without having achieved its objectives, largely because of the handling of hospital reform and the civil servants in the health sector. This study was an attempt to analyze this experience with the hospital issue. Service and infrastructure information was collected from all 88 hospitals in the country. Further, information was collected about the social, economic, and political context of the reform. The results show that an historical legacy from the colonial and post-colonial eras has left the country with an expensive and skewed hospital structure that is rapidly deteriorating and very difficult to reform. The referral system is not functioning: higher-level hospitals provide a higher level of care to their immediate catchment populations than is available to the population in general. The reality is thus far from the vision of equity of access to cost-effective quality care. Zambian doctors have either left the country or are concentrated at the highest referral levels in two provinces, leaving the lower levels and most of the country in the hands of expatriate doctors. There are no resources in the government or the private systems to maintain the current hospital infrastructure and things will likely deteriorate unless radical decisions are taken and implemented. The study further shows that the question of hospital reform is a political high-risk zone. If the problems are to be dealt with, the Zambian planners must, together with the politicians, work to create a broad national consensus for understanding the situation, its urgency, and the limited options for forward action.

  • 276.
    Blas, Erik
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), The World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    Limbambala, M
    User-payment, decentralization and health service utilization in Zambia.2001In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 16 Suppl 2, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was undertaken to assess the impact of health sector reform from 1993 to 1997 in Zambia in respect of health care service utilization and the shift of caseload from hospitals to health centres. Four key indicators were chosen: general attendance, measles vaccinations, general admissions, and deliveries. Complete sets of district data were analyzed, covering 4.5 million people out of the total population in 1997 of 9.7 million. The results show, on the one hand, a dramatic decrease of about one-third in general attendance for both hospitals and health centres over a 2-year period, followed by a period with a continued but slower decrease. On the other hand, the results also show increases at health centres in measles vaccinations (up 40%), in admissions (up 25%) and in deliveries (up 60%). The study further documents a shift of caseload from hospitals to health centres for some key services. The health centre share increased from 72.2% to 79.8% for measles vaccinations, from 23.9% to 31.0% for general admissions, and from 22.9% to 32.4% for deliveries. However, the intended overall shift in outpatient caseload from hospitals to health centres did not materialize. The main lessons are: utilization patterns can be influenced by policies such as user-payment and decentralization; user payment in poor populations leads to dramatic declines in utilization of services; and decentralization with local control of resources could be an alternative to the traditional vertical disease programme approach for priority interventions.

  • 277.
    Blidberg, Eva
    et al.
    The Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation.
    Bekken, Anne Lise
    Oslofjord Outdoor Recreation Council.
    Bäckström, Aija
    Keep the Archipelago Tidy.
    Haaksi, Hanna
    Keep the Archipelago Tidy.
    Hansen, Liv-Marit
    Oslofjord Outdoor Recreation Council.
    Skogen, Mali Hole
    Keep Norway Beautiful.
    Frandsen, Bjarke Lembrecht
    Keep Denmark Tidy.
    Thernström, Tomas
    The Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation.
    Ångström, Jessica
    The Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation.
    Marine Littering and Sources in Nordic Waters2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine litter is a global environmental problem that endangers wildlife and has great socio-economic and aesthetic impacts. To identify sources of marine litter is an important key in order to propose cost-effective measures. Pick analyses of beach litter have therefore been conducted in order to categorise litter items from a product perspective. The results confirm that plastic are the most common litter material found on beaches in the Nordic countries. Short life items and packaging are dominating, which is strongly linked to individual consumers. It is further concluded that the plastics and packaging industry has an important role to play to decrease the amount of marine litter.

  • 278. Blidberg, Eva
    et al.
    Leander, Elin
    Plug the marine litter tap: A pilot study on potential marine litter sources in urban areas2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine litter is a growing environmental problem where especially plastic material is accumulated in the seas where it will fragment to smaller pieces. The purpose of the presented pilot study is to raise awareness amongst officials at municipalities and authorities about the need to reduce the presence of litter in the marine environment and to give ideas/suggestions on how this can be done. The project has therefore developed a “Plug the Marine Litter Tap”-approach, which together with local knowledge and experience, can be used to identify sources of marine debris by using existing statistics. Södertälje is used as a pilot area where we give examples on indicators for marine litter in the urban environment and proposed measures for each indicator. We hope that this will encourage municipalities to reflect on how preventive measures against marine litter can be incorporated in local waste management plans and become part of their regular routine.

  • 279.
    Blix, Ellen
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    INNKOMST-CTG. En vurdering av testens prediktive verdier, reliabilitet og effekt: Betydning for jordmødre i deres daglige arbeid2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Blix, Ellen
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Ohlund, Lennart S
    Norwegian midwives' perception of the labour admission test.2007In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore what information and knowledge the labour admission test is perceived to provide and what meaning the test carries in the daily work of practising midwives.

    DESIGN: In-depth interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed using the grounded theory technique.

    SETTING: Four different labour wards in Norway.

    PARTICIPANTS: A theoretical sample of 12 practising midwives.

    FINDINGS: The core category "experiencing contradictions" was identified during the analyses, indicating that the midwives found conflicting interests within themselves, or between themselves and others when using the labour admission test. They experienced contradictions between professional identity and the increasing use of technology, between feeling safe and feeling unsafe and between having power and being powerless.

    KEY CONCLUSIONS: The labour admission traces could be difficult to interpret, especially for newly qualified midwives. Some midwives thought that a labour admission trace could protect them in case of litigation. The hierarchy of power in the labour ward influences the use and interpretation of the labour admission test. Some midwives felt their professional identity threatened and that midwives in general are losing their traditional skills because of the increasing use of obstetric technology.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings of the present study should be taken into consideration when changing practice to not routinely perform the labour admission test. There is also a need for further research on what effect the increasing use of obstetric technology has on traditional midwifery skills.

  • 281. Blix, Ellen
    et al.
    Oian, Pål
    Interobserver agreements in assessing 549 labor admission tests after a standardized training program.2005In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 84, no 11, p. 1087-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The labor admission test is a short cardiotocography (CTG) performed upon admission to the maternity ward. The aim of the present study is to examine interobserver agreements when the labor admission tests were assessed by midwives and obstetricians who had received training in interpreting CTG.

    METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine high- and low-risk women who delivered at Hammer-fest Hospital were included. The tests were assessed by three midwives and three obstetricians who had completed a standardized training program. The traces were assessed as normal, intermediary, or abnormal. Weighted kappa (kappaw), proportion of agreement (Pa), and predictive values were calculated.

    RESULTS: Between the pairs of observers, kappaw varied between 0.57 and 0.75; Pa for a normal test between 0.78 and 0.88, and Pa for an intermediary/abnormal test between 0.56 and 0.69. At a cutoff intermediary test, mean sensitivity was 0.43 (range=0.39 -- 0.48), specificity 0.75 (range=0.69 - 0.81, positive predictive value 0.13 (range=0.12 -- 0.15), negative predictive value 0.94 (range=0.94 -- 0.94), likelihood ratio (LR) for a positive test result 1.73 (range=1.53--1.99), and LR for a negative test result 0.76 (range=0.75--0.77).

    CONCLUSIONS: Midwives and obstetricians who had completed the training program achieved good levels of agreements in assessing labor admission tests. The agreements in normal tests were better than those in intermediary/abnormal tests. Obstetric staff should be aware that there are disagreements in assessing labor admission tests; especially in tests assessed as intermediary/abnormal.

  • 282.
    Blix, Ellen
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Reiner, Liv M
    Klovning, Atle
    Oian, Pal
    Prognostic value of the labour admission test and its effectiveness compared with auscultation only: a systematic review.2005In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 1595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the labour admission test in preventing adverse outcomes, compared with auscultation only, and to assess the test's prognostic value in predicting adverse outcomes.

    DESIGN: Systematic review.

    SETTING: Labour wards in hospitals.

    POPULATION: Pregnant women in labour. Three randomised controlled trials including 11,259 women and 11 observational studies including 5831 women.

    METHODS: Literature searches in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, SweMed, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists from identified studies and contact with experts.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obstetric interventions (augmentation of labour, continuous electronic fetal monitoring, epidural analgesia, fetal blood sampling and operative deliveries) and neonatal outcomes (perinatal mortality, Apgar score, seizures, resuscitation and admission to neonatal unit).

    RESULTS: Meta-analyses of the controlled trials found that women randomised to the labour admission test were more likely to have minor obstetric interventions like epidural analgesia [relative risk (RR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.4], continuous electronic fetal monitoring (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and fetal blood sampling (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) compared with women randomised to auscultation on admission. There were no significant differences in any of the other outcomes. From the observational studies, prognostic value for various outcomes was found to be generally poor. Likelihood ratio (LR) for a positive test was above 10 in 2 of 28 single outcomes and between 5 and 10 in six outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence supporting that the labour admission test is beneficial in low risk women.

  • 283.
    Blix, Ellen
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sviggum, Oddvar
    Koss, Karen Sofie
    Øian, Pål
    Inter-observer variation in assessment of 845 labour admission tests: comparison between midwives and obstetricians in the clinical setting and two experts.2003In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-observer agreement in assessment of the labour admission test between midwives and obstetricians in the clinical setting and two experts in the non-clinical setting, the inter-observer agreement between two experts in the non-clinical setting and to what degree fetal distress in labour could be predicted by the two experts.

    DESIGN: Observational study.

    SETTING: The maternity unit of Hammerfest Hospital, Norway.

    POPULATION: Eight hundred and forty-five high and low risk women.

    METHOD: The labour admission test was first assessed by the midwife or obstetrician in the clinical setting, and was later assessed by two experts. The traces were assessed as normal, equivocal or ominous. Weighted kappa (kappaw), proportion of agreement (Pa) and predictive values were calculated.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weighted kappa, proportion of agreement, sensitivity, positive predictive value and likelihood ratios.

    RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement between Expert 1 and Expert 2: kappaw 0.38 (CI 0.31-0.46), Pa for reactive labour admission test 0.86 (CI 0.83-0.88) and Pa for equivocal/ominous test 0.33 (CI 0.26-0.40). Agreement between Expert 1 and midwives/obstetricians: kappaw 0.25 (CI 0.15-0.36), Pa for reactive labour admission test 0.89 (CI 0.87-0.91) and Pa for equivocal/ominous labour admission test 0.18 (CI 0.11-0.25). Agreement between Expert 2 and midwives/obstetricians: kappaw 0.28 (CI 0.20-0.37), Pa for reactive labour admission test 0.85 (CI 0.82-0.88) and Pa for equivocal/ominous test 0.20 (CI 0.14-0.26). Totally 5.9% of the newborns had fetal distress. At cutoff equivocal test, sensitivity was 0.22 and 0.31 in the two observers. Positive predictive values were 0.13 and 0.11. Likelihood ratio for a positive test was 2.30 and 1.92 and likelihood ratio for a negative test 0.86 and 0.83.

    CONCLUSION: A labour admission test is still routine practice in most obstetric units in the Western world when there is little evidence on its benefits. The results from this study may provide some reconsideration for such practice, and for more research.

  • 284.
    Blix, Ellen
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Øian, Pål
    Labor admission test: an assessment of the test's value as screening for fetal distress in labor.2001In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 80, no 8, p. 738-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To determine if the labor admission test (LAT) can predict fetal distress in a population of laboring women, and in subgroups of low- or high-risk women, who delivered within six hours or between six and 24 hours after LAT.

    METHODS: The data charts of all women who delivered at Hammerfest Hospital in 1996, 1997 and 1998 were retrospectively read. If the woman was admitted to the hospital because of onset of labor, was in the first stage of labor and delivered within 24 hours after admission, she was included. In the study period, 1639 gave birth and 932 were included in the study. A descriptive analysis of the population and assessment of LAT's sensitivity, positive predictive value, specificity and negative predictive value at different cut-off values was done.

    RESULTS: In the study population 5.8% had fetal distress, and 5.3% had an operative delivery because of fetal distress. LAT's sensitivity in the whole population was 0.15 and positive predictive value was 0.16. Specificity was 0.95 and positive predictive value was 0.95. In the subgroups of low- and high-risk women, who delivered within six hours or between six and 24 hours after LAT, sensitivity varied between 0 and 0.36, and positive predictive value varied between 0 and 0.27. Specificity varied between 0.92 and 0.96, and negative predictive value varied between 0.89 and 0.97.

    CONCLUSIONS: According to these results, LAT cannot be recommended as a screening test for fetal distress in labor in low-risk women. Sensitivity is too low, and there are too many false-positive tests. It is unclear if LAT has benefits among high-risk women.

  • 285.
    Bloch, Bente
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    ”Hygiejne på tværs”: tværsektorielt samarbejde omkring patient/borger med behov for infektionshygiejnisk bistand – hvordan løses opgaven?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, patient care in hospitals is highly specialised and undertaken at high speed. Many patients receive complex treatment and care, which often continues in the primary-care sector after the patient is discharged. Structural reform of the health care sector requires infection control measures in intersectoral health agreements.

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate and analyse intersectoral collaboration and gain better understanding of collaboration across health sectors in relation to the treatment and care of patients requiring treatment and care for infection control.

    Method: This is a qualitative, multiple-case study, wherein semi-structured interviews form the basis of the empirical knowledge. The theory underpinning the study is the perspective on intersectoral collaboration, examples of models of collaboration, and the strengths and weaknesses of collaboration.

    Results: The findings showed that the motivational factors for intersectoral collaboration include focus on organisational structure and organisation, collaboration through networks, awareness of the importance of clear communication, and focus on the relationship between professional competencies and infection hygiene. Structured collaboration with the establishment of an actual infection control organisation resulted in access to expert knowledge, security among personnel, and motivation to work with infection control as an area of focus.

    Conclusion: Patient transference of nosocomial infections from one health sector to another likely can be prevented by increasing workers’ knowledge of infection control in all sectors, and by formalised collaboration across health sectors to establish an intersectoral, infection control organization.

  • 286. Bloch, Carter
    Measuring Public Innovation in the Nordic Countries (MEPIN)2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the rate and degree of innovation in the public sector, as well as its incentives, processes and impact. Developing a measurement framework for collecting internationally comparable data on innovation in the public sector.

  • 287. Bloch, Carter
    Service Innovation in the Nordic Countries - Key Factors for Policy Design (ServINNo)2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing recognition in recent years of the importance of innovation and growth in service sectors. Despite this acknowledgement, our understanding of innovation and, importantly, the design of innovation policy measures, are still primarily based on the analysis of manufacturing firms. There is thus a need for more knowledge about the particularity of innovation activities in services.

  • 288. Blom, Cécile
    et al.
    Hanssen, Linda
    Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated substances in articles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFAS) make up a large group of substances that have been used for decades. There has been increasing focus on this group of substances as some of them have shown to be extremely persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. There is however, a large number of these compounds in use and for many of them there is little knowledge about the health and environmental properties. This project is a follow up of a NORAP project from 2012 where the main conclusion was the limited knowledge of which perfluorinated substances are used, and in what amounts. Our aim for this study was thus to gather more information on the use and the incidence of these substances in some every-day products

  • 289.
    Blomberg, Carina
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Att förebygga osteoporos i en svensk kommun: En beskrivning av ett tioårigt befolkningsinriktat interventionsarbete ”Vadstena en benhård kommun2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoporosis and fractures due to osteoporosis are an increasing global health problem. The aim ofthe ten-years Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP) was to evaluate if it was possible toreduce osteoporosis and osteoporotic-related fractures with a community-based prevention programA representative sample aged 20-79 years (Vadstena population of 7800) was invited to participatein the study comprising four measurements including questionnaire and bone mineral densitymeasurement. At baseline 70% participated, at first follow-up 69%, second follow-up 70% and at thethird follow-up 65 %.The aim with this MPH- essay is to describe the intervention from a diary and to present thepopulations experience of the VOPP.We met approximately 5000 persons (65%) of the citizens directly with our intervention. Theparticipators who received individual feedback letters on their answers in the questionnaire and theresults from the bone measurement gave us the best response.The group that participated once or more had the best knowledge about osteoporosis (p< 0.001)and were to an high extent familiar with the project (p<0.001). Even the single participating grouphad god knowledge about the project (75 %). Both groups stated that they wanted to change lifestyle(65 % vs. 64 %) showing a successful general intervention.Osteoporosis is a disease that is present for a long period without signs, before resulting in theclinical sign, fractures. Therefore results of a preventive program towards a whole population isexpected to be found not until after several years. Now eighteen years later a follow up is planned inorder to measure the incidence of osteoporotic fractures and the knowledge about osteoporosis in thepopulation.

  • 290.
    Blomfeldt, Anita
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Impacts of infectious diseases on poverty: What do we know and what way forward?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Combating infectious diseases and poverty are hot topics on the world development agenda. The vicious cycle of ill health and poverty is reinforced by a “medical poverty trap” relating to households being impoverished due to escalating illness-related out-of-pocket costs, especially in combination with loss of income due to incapacity to work. Evidence-based knowledge on the impacts of ill health on household welfare is essential to design adequate interventions and evaluate their efficiency. This thesis presents the findings of a critical review of studies assessing the impacts of infectious diseases on households’ ability to utilize their resources and generate income in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. The review revealed a dearth of relevant studies (merely 15), poor methodological quality in short-term geographically limited surveys, and large diversity in study design obstructing comparison of results and extraction of general conclusions. Major research obstacles are discussed and recommendations for coordination, standardization and scaling up of data collection that allows adequate impact assessment are suggested. Experimental intervention studies are recommended to improve quality and efficiency of interventions and guide prioritizing processes prior to large scale implementations to avoid waste of time and resources. The linkages between infectious diseases and poverty are complex and multifaceted and thus imply multi- and interdisciplinary research approaches. Collaboration between various disciplines like health sciences, economics, geography and sociology give opportunities of linking data in innovative ways to provide new insights and perspectives that have the potential to analyse the impacts of infectious diseases on poverty in a more comprehensive manner. Methodological standardisation and consensus will enable us to accumulate comparable results and scale up research and thereby contribute to foundation of efficient interventions to accomplish sustainable improvements in health and significant reductions in poverty.

  • 291. Blomqvist, Lovisa
    Nordsyn Slutrapport 2015: Nordiskt marknadskontrollsamarbete kring ekodesign och energimärkning2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nordsyn är ett nordiskt samarbete kring marknadskontroll/tillsyn av ekodesign och energimärkning. Inom Nordsyn har ett samarbete kring informationsutbyte, implementering och testresultat byggts upp, samt viktiga studier genomförts och informationsmaterial tagits fram. Nordsyns Effektprojekt visar att marknadskontrollen är mycket kostnadseffektiv, särskilt när länder samarbetar. Resultat från studier och informationsmaterial från Nordsyn kan med fördel användas även av övriga EU/EES-länder för att förbättra marknadskontrollen. Denna slutrapport presenterar kortfattat Nordsyn 2013-2015. Mer information, delrapporter och informationsmaterial finns på www.norden.org/nordsyn/pub

  • 292. Blæsbjerg, Mette
    et al.
    Pawlak, Janet
    Kirk Sørensen, Thomas
    Vestergaard, Ole
    Marine spatial planning in the Nordic region: Principles, Perspectives and Opportunities - Outcomes from the Nordic Forum on MPAs in Marine Spatial Planning 2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demands on resources in the marine area are compromising the future viability of the marine environment and in recent years the need to pursue new approaches for a sustainable use of our seas has become clear. Marine spatial planning is widely considered a promising tool for the management and protection of the marine environment, offering an integrated, ecosystem-based approach to managing the multiple and potentially conflicting uses of the sea. The "Nordic Forum on MPAs in Marine Spatial Planning" was established in 2006 with support from the Nordic Council of Ministers to synthesize and disseminate knowledge from Nordic MSP activities. The Nordic Forum also co-hosted the Nordic Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning, which brought together more than 100 researchers, managers, and NGO and industry representatives. This report presents experiences and views gained regarding key concepts of marine spatial planning in the Nordic region and beyond, the application of mapping and tools, and prospects and conflicts in relation to important maritime sectors, nature conservation and other interests.

  • 293.
    Bock, Catharina
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Svenska komplementär- och alternativmedicinska terapeuters praktikmönster och samarbete med legitimerad sjukvårdspersonal2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe the practice patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners and their collaboration with traditional medical professionals in Sweden. Historically, the medical profession has dominated medical practice in an environment of different healing professions. This domination placed CAM professionals outside the established medical system. Consequently, information about CAM is inadequate. Since today’s patients increasingly seek consultations with CAM practitioners, the need for a better understanding of these professions has grown.

          To investigate the practice patterns and sociodemographic characteristics of CAM practitioners, we developed a literature-based questionnaire and sent it to 102 CAM practitioners. Among the 63 practitioners (62%) who replied, only 59 matched our research criteria for participating in further telephone interviews that allowed them to state their opinions on collaborating with conventional medical professionals.

          Fifty-five percent of the telephone interviewees were women, 10% were licensed in other medical professions, and 69% worked in solo practices, seeing 24 patients per week on average. Furthermore, 79% felt collaboration would be positive, and 37% had already established regular contacts with medical doctors. CAM practitioners generally considered patients’ needs and desires to be an essential component of healthcare provision. They also elucidated the importance of treatment costs, respect for CAM professionals, licensing, competition, collaboration, and knowledge of a variety of professions.

     This study provides new information about the challenges faced by CAM profession in Sweden and reveals many obstacles to collaboration. Our results can assist in the development of a health care system that includes a variety of different professions.

  • 294.
    Bock Segaard, Signe
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NORDICOM.
    Perceptions of Social Media: A Joint Arena for Voters and Politicians?2015In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While observers have focused on the political use of social media when exploring theirdemocratic potential, we know little about users’ perceptions of these media. These perceptionscould well be important to understanding the political use of social media. Inexploring users’ perceptions, the article asks whether politicians and voters view socialmedia in a similar way, and to what extent they consider social media to be an apt arenafor political communication. Within a Norwegian context, which may prove useful as acritical case, and using the technological frames model, we find that although voters’ andpoliticians’ opinions are not that dissimilar overall, politicians are more likely to recognizethe political communicative role of social media. However, social media do indeed havethe potential to become arenas for political mobilization among groups that traditionallyare less visible in political arenas.

  • 295. Boje Groth, Niels
    et al.
    Winther, Lars
    Eskelinen, Heikki
    Lautanen, Timo
    Saukkonen, Pasi
    Foss, Olaf
    Gundersen, Frants
    Johansson, Mats
    Adolphson, Marcus
    Urban Patterns of Growth: The Geography of Suppliers of High-Tech Companies in the Nordic Countries2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Patterns of Growth was carried out for the preparation of the Nordic regional policy co-operation programme 2013-2016 and national regional policies in the Nordic countries. A key issue is the concentration of economic growth in the largest cities. This is favored by urbanization economies but also by the forming of specialized international networks of innovation and production established far beyond regional and national borders. Much research has focused upon these new global networks, leaving behind the question of the national spreading effects of the production that has not been outsourced. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to elucidate, via case studies, the extent to which the purchases of supplies and services from knowledge firms are located in proximity of the company or whether these purchases have spread to the remaining part of the country.

  • 296. Bolin, Ylva Sjögren
    et al.
    Lindeberg, Ingrid
    Undeclared allergens in food: Food control, analyses and risk assessment2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden collaborated during 2015 in a control project on allergen labeling. Products were also analysed for the allergens milk, egg, hazelnut, peanut and gluten. Correct labeling is the only aid for allergic consumers to avoid products which could pose a serious health risk. The widespread use of non-regulated precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) might decrease the amount of products available for allergic consumers. It can also pose a risk since the PAL might be ignored. On 10% of the controlled products, the allergenic ingredients were not correctly transcribed in the list of ingredients and EU regulations were thus not followed. Milk was the most frequently found undeclared allergen, especially in chocolate and bakery products, and therefore constitute a risk for allergic consumers. The results might give input to achieve EU legislation regarding PAL.

  • 297. Bolvig, Iben
    et al.
    Hardoy, Inés
    Kauhanen, Merja
    Lilja, Reija
    Røed, Marianne
    Smith, Nina
    The labour supply of low-skilled – incentives in the unemployment insurance systems: A comparative description based on Nordic countries2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The labour supply of low-skilled – incentives in the unemployment insurance systems. A comparative description based on Nordic countriesIn this report we describe and discuss the changing character of unemployment insurance (UI) systems in the Nordic countries in relation to the changing labour market situation of low skilled adults, from around 1990 and onwards. The focus is on how different characteristics of the national UI systems - and particularly the changes in these systems - may have affected the labour market position of low skilled by affecting their work incentives.This report has two main purposes: First, to construct a descriptive empirical basis for a discussion regarding the relationship between the design of the unemployment benefit system and the labour market performance of low-skilled compared to higher-skilled workers. The second purpose is to lay the foundation for a more systematic econometric analysis regarding the influence of the unemployment insurance systems on the labour market performance of low skilled - compared to high skilled workers in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

  • 298. Book Emilsson, Karin
    et al.
    D.J. Jenssen, Petter
    Flatlandsmo, Arnstein
    Greatorex, Jim
    Hellström, Daniel
    Magid, Jakob
    Malmén, Linda
    Palm, Ola
    Santala, Erkki
    Klosettvattensystem: Nordisk inventering och förslag till FoU2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att samla upp klosettvatten skiljt från BDT-vattnet (bad/disk/tvätt) kan huvuddelen av hushållsavloppsvattnets näringsämnen samlas upp, med ett minimum av föroreningar. Inom ramen för detta projekt har 20 klosettvattenanläggningar inventerats, främst genom intervjuer med personal som sköter driften av anläggningarna. Intervjuerna har kompletterats med uppgifter från skriftliga rapporter och utvärderingar av anläggningarna. Anläggningarna betjänar mellan ca 35 till 700 personer i permanentboenden och offentliga lokaler, framför allt skolor. De flesta anläggningarna finns i Sverige. Inventeringen visar att det finns många intressanta system för att samla upp klosettvatten, men att inget av dessa kan sägas vara färdigutvecklat i alla delar. Slående är att anläggningarna ofta har "kopierats", så att de fel och brister som finns vid en anläggning överförts till nästa anläggning. En orsak kan vara att det idag saknas verkliga drivkrafter för att effektivisera och utveckla systemen. De flesta anläggningarna drivs av kommuner. Bland de anläggningar som separerar urin och fekalier återförs urinen till åkermark från 8 av 10 anläggningar. De utsorterade fekalierna används aldrig på åkermark, vanligast är att de istället används på den egna fastighetens planteringar. Rapporten avslutas med förslag till fortsatt forskning och utveckling kring klosettvattensystem.

  • 299. Boqvist, Pär
    An Inventory of Upcoming Questions with an EU Connotation that are Suited to Cooperation Between the Countries around the Baltic Sea, and That May Be Favourably Influenced by such a Cooperation2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An inventory of upcoming questions with an EU connotation that are suited to cooperation between the countries around the Baltic Sea, and that may be favourably influenced by such a cooperation.

  • 300. Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Analysis of PFASs and TOF in products2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs) are a large group of substances used in industrial and consumer applications. There are thousands of PFASs on the global market, for many of which there is little information on their use. This study is a follow-up of a NORAP project from 2015 where different household products were analysed for PFASs. Here we further analysed these products for total organic fluorine (TOF) together with new analyses for individual PFASs and TOF in product types that are known to or suspected to contain PFASs. The analyses of new products showed that PFASs are widely used. The comparisons between analysed individual PFASs and TOF concentrations showed that for most samples the detected individual PFAS constituted only a very minor part of the TOF, illustrating large data gaps in our knowledge on which PFASs that are being used in these products.

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