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  • 251.
    Schmitt, Peter
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Volgmann, Kati
    Münter, Angelika
    Reardon, Mitchell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Unpacking polycentricity at the city-regional scale: Insights from Dusseldorf and Stockholm2015In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 59, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The normative concept of polycentricity has become a promising tool to pursue spatial policy goals such as spatial equity and justice, sustainable and balanced development, and, more recently territorial cohesion, at various scales across Europe. As earlier research has shown, a number of cityregions use the concept for their planning and development work. In pursuit of polycentric development, they call for a robust terminology, solid analysis and methods. As a result, literature analysing polycentricity at the city- or mega-regional scale has grown significantly and it appears that some consensus has been achieved in regards to the main facets and dimensions. Recognizing that the potentials to comprehend city-regional dynamics by focussing on the extent to which polycentric urban patterns evolve has not yet been fully utilised, this paper intends to contribute to a more comprehensive view on polycentricity at the city-regional scale. In doing so, we study the (potentially) emerging urban patterns of two cases, the Dusseldorf and Stockholm city-regions, employing different theoretical starting points and analytical approaches. With this in mind, we aim to unpack the concept of polycentricity at the city-regional scale and to offer academics, as well as planning professionals and policy-makers, further insights into qualifying, analysing and understanding the complexity of the topic at hand. Likewise, we argue that sound strategies to promote and mobilise different facets of polycentric development should be carefully reflected and related to the theoretical, methodological and even normative starting point of any attempt to comprehending polycentricity.

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  • 252. Schulman, Michaela
    Stadspolitik och urbanforskning i Norden2000Report (Other academic)
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  • 253.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördis Rut
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Wøien, Mari
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Meckl, Markus
    Enhanced Labour Market Opportunities for Immigrant Women: – case studies from arctic cities2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is the outcome of a comparative study focusing on immigrant women’s access to the labour market in small and medium-sized cities in the Arctic region. The study is funded by the Nordic Gender Equality Fund, which supports projects aimed at knowledge sharing and problem solving with regards to gender equality across the Nordic countries. The research was carried out by the University of Akureyri, Nordregio and the University of Lapland. The project was to investigate policies and applied practices in three small and medium-sized cities in the Nordic countries: Akureyri in Iceland, Luleå in Sweden and Rovaniemi in Finland. The objective was to identify and share best practices for improving labour market integration among immigrant women. The project also sought to examine how private and public actors may improve the opportunities in the labour market for immigrant women, as well as to give these women a voice through in-depth interviews about their labour market integration experiences in the abovementioned Nordic Arctic cities. The case studies figuring in this publication are to be taken as a first explorative enquiry into the varied local circumstances regarding labour marketintegration and practices. The case studies andthe desktop research form the basis for this publication. The University of Akureyri conducted the case study in Akureyri, Nordregio in Luleå and the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi. The interviews for the case studies were carried out between September and December 2017. Subsequently, the material from each case study was analysed with desktop material, articles and documents ondifferent language and labour market measures. It is important to keep in mind that this area of research is highly dynamic, and the different initiatives in place are subject to change due to e.g.political change.

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  • 254. Slätmo, Elin
    et al.
    Ormstrup Vestergård, Louise
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Urban–rural flows from seasonal tourism and second homes: Planning challenges and strategies in the Nordics2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimations for the Nordic population is that half of the 27 million inhabitants have access to a holiday home, via ownership, family or friends. People use second homes during the summer or winter season and increasingly at weekends; therefore, our analyses find that a continuous counter-urbanisation process exists in the Nordic Region. We conclude that second homes and seasonal tourists are primarily considered a positive asset for job creation, planning of cultural activities and provision of services. At the same time, the central challenges are adapting the welfare system and services to these large flows of voluntary temporary inhabitants. This motivates us to recommend policymakers and decision-makers in the Nordic Region to discuss whether municipal income taxes should be shared between municipalities, based on the locations of the permanent home and the second home. The main rationale behind this recommendation is that the infrastructure and welfare system could then be better adapted to the actual number of people who spend time in each municipality and make use of the local welfare system.

    Errata to the map Second Homes in 2017 (p.13 in the report): The statement “In total, there are 67 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.” Should be “ In total, there are 65 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.”

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    Nordregio report 2019:13 urban rural flows
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  • 255. Slätmo, Elin
    et al.
    Penje, Oskar
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Agenda 2030 and SDGs at the local level—a brief start-up guide2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often placed at the top of global rankings on sustainable development. Well-established democratic systems are in place to fight poverty, promote economic growth and ensure gender equality, as well as to protect the environment and peace and justice.

    Much of the success of the Nordic Region stems from the local system of governance, under which many decisions are taken in local democratic forums. In the Nordic countries, municipalities are the most local form of official public authority with elected politicians. In many ways, municipalities and regions support the wellbeing of our everyday lives in the Nordic Region. They provide public services such as infrastructure, waste treatment and social services. Therefore, local and regional authorities are critical to the overall successful implementation of the sustainability ambitions established at other government levels. A change towards sustainable development will not occur without the commitment of the local and regional governments.In October 2019, the Nordic Council of Ministers organised an event in Stockholm for Nordic municipalities and other local authorities to meet and exchange their experiences in working with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This policy brief provides a synthesis of conclusions from the event, findings from a previous study on the topic and the authors’ experience within the sustainability field.

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    PB 2020 1 Agenda 2030
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  • 256.
    Slätmo, Elin
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Vestergård, Louise Ormstrup
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Compact cities trigger high use of second homes in the Nordic Region2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of spending time in a second home—a sommerhus, sumarhús, mökki, hytta or fritidshus—is an expression of the high quality of life in the Nordic countries. Estimations suggest that around half of the Nordic population have access to a second home via ownership, family or friends, and these ‘rural’ second homes are increasingly used all year round. The dominant understanding of the Nordic region is ongoing urbanisation, where people move from rural areas to urban centres.The analyses in this study nuance this understanding as there is also mobility from urban permanent homes to rural second homes ongoing throughout the year. This policy brief presents possibilities for how spatial planning can include second home users and seasonal tourists more directly as a factor for local development, in statistics and through proactive spatial planning.

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  • 257.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Planning Nordic City Regions: Challenges and Opportunities2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary challenges for the development of sustainable urban regions in the Nordic countries relate to how physical planning can contribute to green growth and city-regional competitiveness. More specifically, three types of challenges have been identified. The first relates to urban form and issues involving urban qualities and densification processes, accommodating rapid population growth, localisation and the mixing of urban functions. The second relates to social inclusion and segregation, the everyday life perspective and diversified lifestyles and mobility. Finally, while planning at the city-regional scale is increasingly seen as a way to meet these challenges, such a perspective also calls into question the traditional ways in which Nordic cities and regions are planned; the third type of challenge is therefore the fact that there is a recognised need for new and innovative forms of planning and governance.

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  • 258.
    Smas, Lukas
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Urban Contractual Policies in Northern Europe2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper is based on two separately commissioned projects that Nordregio carried out during 2015–2016. The first project was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions set up under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy (EK-R). This project relates to Chapters 2 to 5 of the present working paper, which describe the policy details and inner workings of urban contractualism in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The second project was commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation. The objective was to review the experiences in France and England with different forms of contractualism. This relates to Chapters 6 to 8, which incorporate additional comparisons and critique of urban policies in France and, especially, the UK. The projects were a collaborative undertaking, with a number of national experts at Nordregio involved. Lukas Smas was the overall co-ordinator and editor. Liisa Perjo was responsible for Finland, Christian Fredricsson contributed the Norwegian part and Christian Dymén (now at Trivector) was responsible for Sweden. Julien Grunfelder was responsible for France while Timothy Andersson (currently a PhD Student at Tallinn University) wrote the UK section alongside contributions to the introduction and conclusion.

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    WP 2017 3
  • 259. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Damsgaard, Ole
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Perjo, Liisa
    Integrating Urban Planning and Regional Development : - Nordic and European Examples 2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Harmonizing and integrating regional growth policies and physical urban planning, between and across different administrative levels and political fields is an important challenge for current and future spatial planning in Sweden. In this working paper we analyze how different Nordic and European regions and countries have worked with these issues, and discuss policy potentials for improving the Swedish spatial urban and regional planning system. The Swedish government has recurrently expressed that the regional development strategies should contribute to harmonizing and integrating plans and strategies at different governmental levels and between different administrative sectors. On behalf of Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning Nordregio has carried out a comparative study of how different strategically selected regions in Nordic and European countries has engaged with integrative planning and policy issues. The regions and countries include: Central Denmark Region Southwest Finland Telemark County in Norway Region Hannover in Germany Randstad in the Netherlands Greater Birmingham in England In the study both the formal planning framework and conditions in the various countries, as well as the practical work within the regions has been analyzed. Focus of the analysis has been three dimensions of integration sectorial collaboration, territorial coordination and synchronization of processes. The different international experiences form the basis for formulating policy potentials for enhancement of Swedish planning routines and practices. The identified policy potentials are also based on a workshop with Swedish regional and national representatives during which problems of integrating regional growth strategies and urban physical planning were discussed. There are policy potentials for harmonizing and integrating growth policies and physical planning at all governmental levels from the national to the local within the current planning and policy framework. National spatial visions which integrate regional policies and municipal plans as well as other sectors is one possibility, another is more national statements which emphasis the national governments priorities. Synchronizing the regional and municipal planning processes and setting up regional forums for collaboration are two interesting possibilities for harmonization and integration at the regional and local level. This could be done within the current framework but could also be developed into new formal regulations that require structural changes. It is important to recognize that changing practices takes time but also the spatial planning (samhällsplanering) is an integrative activity in itself.

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  • 260. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Claessen, Haukur
    Demographic changes, housing policies and urban planning: Examples of situations and strategies in Nordic municipalities2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic changes, such as urbanisation, ageing populations, and international migration, have significant effects on local development. This study examines the relationship between demographic changes and housing, focusing on different local demographic situations and related housing and planning strategies in the Nordic states. Nordic metropoles (Stavanger and Aalborg), regional centres with universities (Växjö and Sønderborg), medium-sized towns (Ålesund and Örnsköldsvik), and rural areas (Pargas) have different local demographic challenges and potentials. In all types of studied municipalities, an ageing population is typically seen as the most important challenge for the future, especially if younger people are moving out and fertility rates are low—but there are exceptions. How this challenge is met differs somewhat across the different municipalities examined here, but there seems to be a preference for attracting younger people rather than accommodating elderly populations, and a focus on development strategies rather than adaptive tactics. Depending on size and resources, most of the municipalities have ambitious statistical prognoses and strategic policies to integrate demographic changes and housing, but it is not entirely clear if such prognoses depend upon future housing developments or vice versa. How housing strategies are implemented differs between the municipalities, with some being very active through land politics and other forms of interventions, while others perceive their role as limited. However, it is evident that urban densification is a general spatial development strategy in Nordic municipalities, but balanced geographical development is often emphasized as well.

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  • 261.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ansträngande partnerskap: näringslivet i nordisk stadsplanering2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How urban planning contributes to economic growth and local development is a question high on the political agenda in the Nordic countries. This highlights, in turn, other key policy issues: how public planning can more efficiently contribute to private urban development, in particular the production of new housing, to accommodate rapid urbanisation and solve the housing crises. The various interactions between different public and private actors and their different rationales are at the heart of these problems, including the potential tensions between efficiency and legitimacy 

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  • 262.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universitet.
    Wänström, Johan
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS), Linköpings universite.
    Att skapa regioner och organisera för regional utveckling2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regionerna är viktiga pusselbitar i de nordiska ländernas välfärdsystem inte minst inom sjukvårdsområdet och för kollektivtrafiken. Men regionernas roll i samhällsplaneringen är mer oklar. Regioner är både aktörer och arenor för att skapa hållbar utveckling. Regionernas form och funktion är dock inte en oproblematisk fråga, som politiker, planerare och forskare försöker finna svar på. 

    Det experimenteras just nu mycket kringformell och informell regional organisering framför allt i de nordiska länderna. Syftet med denna text är att ge en kortfattad översiktöver problematiken och vad forskningen berättar omatt organisera regional utveckling och tillväxt, men också att lyfta fram några nordiska erfarenheter.

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    pb 2018 2
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  • 263.
    Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredriksson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Towards sustainable Nordic city-regions: A synthesis of the activities of the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 2013–2016, the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth: Sustainable Urban Regions (NWG4) and Nordregio have developed and shared knowledge about sustainable urban development, planning and green growth. Working in close collaboration with representatives from ministries and national authorities, policymakers and municipal and regional planners within larger Nordic city-regions, we have identified a number of common challenges and opportunities for sustainable urban development. City-regions are important arenas for addressing the many challenges associated with urban sustainability, inclusiveness and attractiveness. This synthesis highlights some of these key challenges, indicates where there is potential to develop more sustainable and co-ordinated planning and policy-making. It also provides insight into implementation, monitoring and evaluation of various plans and policies through different tools, models and concepts. In addition to outlining common challenges and opportunities for Nordic urban areas and governing city-regions, this report highlights some of the specific national concerns for cityregional planning in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It also provides an overview of municipal reforms and regional reforms in the Nordic region as well as an introduction to all the Nordic spatial planning systems. First comes a brief overview of the challenges addressed in this report. The different sections describe these in more depth and contextualising them with relation to the main findings from connected projects carried out by Nordregio. This is followed by national overviews of the spatial planning systems and regional reforms in all Nordic countries, as well as national concerns for city-regional planning. The report is concluded with a section about the NWG4 and a list of the related Nordregio publications.

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  • 264. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Nordic capital regions in the global network economy2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    What positions and roles do our Nordic cities have in this world of flows, and how does the global network economy impact on Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, and Stockholm, and on Nordic urban policymaking more generally? World cities such as New York, London, Paris and Singapore are seen as central nodes in the global networks of capital, commodities, knowledge, people and cultural symbols. In this sense, they function as important hubs for the interaction of skilled labour and their 'tacit knowledge', as financial control centres and as major points of origin for the generation of different kinds of innovations (i.e. social, cultural, and technical). This Nordregio policy brief highlights how globalisation creates new challenges and opportunities for policymakers in the Nordic capital regions.

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  • 265. Smas, Lukas
    et al.
    Weber, Ryan
    Berglund, Lars
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Jensen, Jesper Ole
    Serras, Joan
    Bosredon, Melanie
    Herranz, Ricardo
    Batty, Michael
    Planning Tools for Urban Sustainability2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Nordregio News, we explore new technologies and new tools for sustainable urban planning.

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  • 266.
    Smeds, Lise
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Karlsdóttir, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sustainable Business Development in the Nordic Arctic2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication has been produced as part of the project Foresight Analysis for Sustainable Regional Development in the Nordic Arctic, commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Sustainable Regional Development in the Arctic. The Working Paper contributes with insight into the key areas of private business activities in the Nordic Arctic of large-scale industries, the bioeconomy, tourism, and the field of creative industries in an Arctic context.

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  • 267. Spiekermann, Klaus
    et al.
    Aalbu, Hallgeir
    Nordic Peripherality in Europe2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The northernmost parts of the Nordic countries are extremely peripheral in a European context. The lack of accessibility very often coincides with problems of population loss through out-migration. The question for the Nordic countries is how best to develop policies that can stimulate economic activities in these regions despite their geographical handicaps.

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  • 268. Spiekermann, Klaus
    et al.
    Neubauer, Jörg
    European Accessibility and Peripherality: Concepts, Models and Indicators2002Report (Other academic)
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  • 269. Steineke, Jon Moxnes
    Mot en mer samordnet nasjonal politikk for regional utvikling? : En nordisk erfaringsutveksling og sammenlikning av aktuelle arbeidsmetoder2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Høsten 2006 besluttet de nordiske regionalministrene å få utredet grunnlaget for å få en bedre samordning av den nasjonale politikken for regional utvikling. For alle de nordiske regjeringene er det en utfordring å kunne skape synergier mellom ulike politikkområder. Det er nødvendig å finne helhetsløsninger som dekker flere politikkområder samtidig. Dette gjelder i særlig grad for regionalpolitikken. Regionalpolitikk er et tverrpolitisk felt som krever samordning. Regio­nalpolitikken er samtidig en politikk som griper inn på flere nivåer. Særlig viktig er samspillet mellom nasjonalt og regionalt nivå.

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  • 270. Steineke, Jon Moxnes
    et al.
    Hedin, Sigrid
    Management by Objectives and Results2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures and practices in the regional policy field in the Scandinavian countries and Iceland.

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  • 271.
    Stjernberg, Mats
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Penje, Oskar
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Population Change Dynamics in Nordic Municipalities: – Grid data as a tool for studying residential change at local level2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, grid-based statistics from different Nordic countries are used in an integrated way to study demographic changes at local level within regions, municipalities and cities; especially cities or towns that could be considered small and medium-sized. One of the main methodological questions guiding the study is how fine-grained grid-level statistics can be used as a compliment to more general statistics bound to administrative areas such as municipalities and regions. This report seeks to form a more nuanced understanding of the population developments occurring in the Nordics that may be less apparent, or not evident at all, at more general territorial levels. The intention of the study is to shed light on the following questions: What types of population dynamics occurred in the Nordic countries at the municipal and grid levels during 2008–2017? To what degree do changes at the local level correspond to more general population development at the municipal level? What types of changes can be seen within municipalities, especially in small and medium-sized cities?

    The findings show that, the Nordic Region is undergoing highly unbalanced population develop­ment, and there are notable differences in demo­graphic trends both between and within countries.

    Also, the findings demonstrate that population data at the grid level are well-suited for identifying demographic change processes and trends occurring within regions and municipalities. While this study concentrates on changes in population size over time, it is evident that gridded statistics offer further potential for uncovering trends that are concealed at more general levels of analysis. To fully realise the potential of grid level data at the Nordic level, further harmonisation of data processing and availability is required.

    The population change map on page 19 can be found seperately through this link: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1280442&dswid=8902 

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  • 272. Sánchez Gassen, Nora
    et al.
    Penje, Oskar
    Slätmo, Elin
    Global goals for local priorities: The 2030 Agenda at local level2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    On 25 September 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Municipalities are key when it comes to their implementation, since they are closest to the people, local businesses and civil society organisations. This report identifies 27 Nordic local authorities that are “first movers” in working with the 2030 Agenda and describes their priorities and activities. It also highlights challenges and success factors in working with the SDGs. The aim of this report is to provide local authorities with ideas on how to implement the 2030 Agenda and to inform experts and policy makers at national and regional levels on how to support the municipalities in their work.

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    Nordregio Report 2018:2
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  • 273. Sánchez Gassen, Nora
    et al.
    Penje, Oskar
    Slätmo, Elin
    Globala mål för lokala prioriteringar: Agenda 2030 på lokal nivå2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en analys av hur Agenda 2030 implementeras på lokal nivå i Norden. I december 2017 gav Nordiska ministerrådet Nordregio i uppdrag att genomföra studien somen del av programmet Generation 2030. Centralaforskningsmål var att identifiera vilka nordiskakommuner som redan arbetar med de 17 målenför hållbar utveckling och att dokumentera dessa kommuners insatser och erfarenheter.

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    Nordregio Report 2019:5 Agenda 2030
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  • 274. Telle, Stefan
    An Institutionalist View on Experimentalist Governance: Local-level obstacles to policy-learning in European Union Cohesion Policy2017In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 66, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper has the dual objective of contributing to theory development as well as to the debate about the added value of EU Cohesion Policy. Experimentalist governance theory suggests that a virtuous feedback loop between policy design and implementation can the input- and output-legitimacy of policy making. EU Cohesion Policy formally resembles this experimentalist setting, but persistent debates about its added value suggest that the virtuous loop is blocked. The paper uses new institutionalism theory to systematically identify theoretical explanations for this blockage. It argues that the experimentalist link between organizational structure, pooling of experiences, greater participation, and policy learning is highly precarious. First, the rational-choice perspective suggests that the link rests on the optimistic assumption of a common utility function among the participating actors. Moreover, the structural funds provide strong incentives for grant-seeking. Second, the discursive perspective shows that the identification of shared interests depends on highly demanding speech conditions. Third, the sociological perspective highlights that the evaluation of information is socially conditioned. Therefore, learning may be based on fallacious assumptions and lead to undesired results. The paper substantiates these insights with empirical evidence from one case of institutionalized cross-border cooperation in East Central Europe.

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  • 275. Tepecik Diş, Aslı
    et al.
    Dymén, Christian
    Lange Scherbenske, Stefanie
    Adaptive Urban Planning in Response to a Changing Climate : – Innovative practices from the Nordic Countries regarding Sea Level Rise and Precipitation2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change can be seen all over the world. In the Nordic countries, we have experienced warmer winters, stronger storms and greater precipitation, especially heavier rainfalls. Management of, and planning for, larger quantities of water, as well as adaptation of our territorial structures to climate changes are on everybody's agenda. This Working Paper reflects a Nordic seminar, Adaptive Urban Planning Challenged by Changing Climate (Stadsplaneringens utmaningar i ett förändrat klimat), hosted by Nordregio in Stockholm on June, 8, 2011. The seminar was initiated by the Working Group for exchange of experience and knowledge development (Urban Policies) under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The purpose of the seminar was to create dialogue among Nordic practitioners responsible for physical planning and adaptation to climate change at different administrative levels. Further, the aim was to share knowledge among the Nordic countries concerning challenges and needs for new planning instruments at the local, regional and national level. The main message from the seminar, presented in this Nordregio Working Paper, is that planning for adaptation to larger precipitation calls for cooperation of authorities within the drainage area. In many cases, climate adaptation concerns a geographical area different from the one delimited by the borders of municipalities or regions. Thus, cooperation in planning across the boundaries of municipalities is needed, as is cooperation between relevant municipal and regional authorities. The geography of the solutions should match the geography of the challenges. Cooperation also involves different levels of government. Coordination between local, regional and national policies is often necessary and should be done, respecting the tasks and duties of the various levels. The&nbspWorking Group for exchange of experience and knowledge development (Urban Policies) recommends all stakeholders to consider how such processes of cooperation could be promoted.

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  • 276.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioeconomy - the growth engine for Nordic regions?2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why this buzz about bioeconomy, you might wonder? Perhaps because it can be seen as a “silver bullet”, able to avert several staggering threats to our societies: economic and demographic decline in rural areas; joblessness and the climate crises. Clearly, there are several good reasons for the Nordic countries to dig deeper into their bountiful biological assets. First, it is about replacing fossil fuels with biofuels and replacing non-degradable products with bio-degradable ones. Second, the bioeconomy could boost the productivity and product development within agriculture, fisheries, forestry and the chemical industry. Finally, the bioeconomy creates new jobs in sparsely populated areas, by utilizing existing natural resources in new ways.

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  • 277.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Johnsen, Ingrid H G
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Giacometti, Alberto
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioeconomy in the Nordic region: Regional case studies2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Working Paper by Nordregio presents the results of five case studies on bioeconomy in Nordic regions. It contributes to the discussion on bioeconomy in the Nordic countries by focusing on its implications for regional development and policy.

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  • 278.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordregio News 4 2014: Bioeconomy and Regional Economic Development2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the Icelandic Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers has put bioeconomy at the top of the Nordic political agenda, stating that the Nordic countries have excellent potential for creating a sustainable bioeconomy, with positive effects on regional development. There are three arguments behind this statement. First, the Nordic countries are rich in biotic natural resources. Second, they have well-functioning institutions and well-developed cross-border co-operation. Finally, they have the requisite competence and research capacity. In this issue of Nordregio News, we look at the current situation regarding the bioeconomy in the Nordic countries.

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  • 279.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lundgren, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Salenius, Viktor
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Ålands strukturfonds-program 2014–2020: Utvärderarnas andra delrapport per 31.12.20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten innehåller andra delrapport per 31.12.2018 av utvärderingen av de europeiska regional- och socialfondernas gemensamma operativa program på Åland för perioden 2014–2020. Bakom programmet står två olika EU-fonder med delvis olika krav på de av programmet (med-) finansierade verksamheterna. De förenas dock i ambitionen att i enlighet med Unionens övergripande mål om smart och hållbar tillväxt för alla utveckla och stärka företagande, innovationskapacitet, social integration, arbetsmarknad och miljö på Åland.

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  • 280.
    Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nordic Green Growth Road Show - Final Report2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the Nordic Green Growth Road Show programme which was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth – Innovation and Entrepreneurship and coordinated by Nordregio in partnership with local actors. Over 200 green growth actors participated in the Road Show events, which were held in ten locations across the Nordic Region between May and October, 2016. 

    The Road Show was one of the final activities of the Nordic Working Group on Green Growth – Innovation and Entrepreneurship and was an excellent opportunity to reflect on the progress that has occurred since the group’s inception in 2013. Each Road Show event provided insight into the current status of green growth in the Nordic Region as well as a platform through which to gather ideas to inform joint Nordic efforts going forward.

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  • 281.
    Tulumello, Simone
    Universidade de Lisboa.
    Multi-level Territorial Governance and Cohesion Policy: Structural Funds and the Timing of Development in Palermo and the Italian Mezzogiorno2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 62, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the role of changing arrangements of multi-level territorial governance in the European Cohesion Policy. It hypothesises the existence of a temporal duality between successful/unsuccessful phases of Cohesion Policy between the 1990s and 2000s, that is, a structural change in the implementation of Structural Funds stemming from the reforms at the turn of the millennium. The article seeks to understand the implications of such a duality using case study analysis, with the theoretical aim of exploring in-depth the connections between the European and the local scale. It analyses in the long term (1994-2013) the use of Structural Funds for urban development in a specific context, the city of Palermo in the Objective 1 region of Sicily, under-explored by international literature. The phases of Structural Funds are understood in the wider context of Palermo, Sicily and Southern Italy, emphasising the temporal coherence between (i) the phases of autonomous/dependent development, (ii) evolution/involution in the implementation of cohesion policies, and (iii) shifting multi-level territorial governance arrangements. The local case confirms the duality hypothesised and, based on this, wider considerations for the future of Cohesion Policy are set out.

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  • 282.
    Tunström, Moa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Can planning combat segregation and strengthen social sustainability?2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Within Nordic cities, residential segregation is high on the agenda and a hotly debated topic, often discussed alongside concerns relating to socioeconomic inequality, welfare provision, immigration, and integration. Social sustainability is another recurrent ‘buzzword’, but what does it actually mean and imply in practice? This policy brief presents Nordic perspectives on segregated cities and planning for social sustainability.

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  • 283.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Anderson, Timothy
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Segregated cities and planning for social sustainability - a Nordic perspective2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Nordic cities, residential segregation is a hotly debated topic, often discussed in conjunction with concerns relating to socio economic inequality, welfare provision, immigration, and integration. Nordic capital cities have experienced similar patterns of segregation and face shared problems. The objective of this report is to provide a basis for a political discussion on planning for urban social sustainability in the Nordic countries.

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  • 284.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bringing attention back to the city centre: - six Nordic examples2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many small and medium-sized Nordic cities are dealing with challenges related to the role and development of their city centres. They use strategies related to urban planning, governance and business development, to aim for greater compactness, attractiveness, economic development and sustainability. What can we learn from the Nordic countries’ different approaches to city-centre development? This policy brief summarises investigations in six small and medium-sized Nordic cities.

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  • 285.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bogason, Ágúst
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The Compact City of the North: – functions, challenges and planning strategies2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the characteristics and consequences of the compact city ideal in Nordic cities, and more specifically in their city centres, are investigated. The research was done in the form of a series of small case studies of city centre development, and they are presented thematically. They focus on public spaces and the threat from external shopping, densification as a planning strategy, new housing as a planning tool, and finally governance and actor collaboration. The Nordic region is dominated by small and medium sized cities, and we chose the following cities for our investigation of city centre challenges and planning strategies: Bodø (Norway), Kokkola (Finland), Mariehamn (Åland), Mosfellsbær (Iceland), Sorø (Denmark) and Västervik (Sweden).

    The cities were investigated through planning and policy documents, interviews and observations, and the work was guided by the following questions: What does “the compact city” mean in the investigated cities – and how is it operationalized? What are the main planning problems related to city centres, and what are the visions for the future in relation to these? What can we learn from different ways of approaching city centre development across the different Nordic countries? Two strong themes related to development in city centres, and to the commonly held view that the city core needs to be strengthened, regenerated or recreated, are competition from external shopping centres, and urban sprawl.

     These themes point to the challenges to the central city as the one and only centre. The examples from the Nordic region show that the competition from external shopping is very real, and that planning regulations do not always have the desired effect on the competition. This has led to a variety of responses – new central housing, new attractive spaces, new types of plans and new governance collaborations. In addition to their different approaches to competition from external shopping, cities employ diverse strategies to increase the critical mass of people who populate the city and its venues.

    This study was interested in what the city centre is, or should be, when it no longer has an obvious role. The investigations have led us to conclude that there is no essence to be found and it is instead important to understand the city centre as dynamic and constantly changing. In line with this, the importance of actor collaboration and flexible urban spaces are among the lessons learned from the study.

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    Errata
  • 286.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Liliegreen, Curt
    The Knowledge Centre for Housing Economics.
    Kurvinen, Antti
    Tampere University.
    Sveinsson, Jón Rúnar
    The Reykjavík Academy.
    Nordahl, Berit Irene
    Urban and regional research institute OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University.
    Granath Hansson, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Building affordable homes: Challenges and solutions in the Nordic Region2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this publication is primarily on newbuilding for low-income and vulnerable groups, often referred to in English as ‘affordable housing’, that is, housing for groups on the market’s periphery who suffer from high barriers. The financial aspects of housing are central, especially as regards new-building costs, subsidies, social housing models, and affordability. Nordic cities are segregated, and new housing development, application of diverse forms of tenure, and housing subsidies are examples of tools that can either worsen or reduce segregation, depending on how they are used. The market seems unable, on its own, to supply enough suitable housing for students, young people, low-income groups, and newly arrived immigrants, among others. This is of political interest since it challenges the whole idea of the Nordic welfare model, and social cohesion and equality as characteristics of the Nordic region.

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  • 287.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Forskning och praktik i samverkan om medborgardeltagande i stadsplanering2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprojektet som startade 2016 genomför bland annat en kartläggning av dialogaktiviteter i planeringsprocesser i tolv svenska kommuner mellan år 2000-2015. Kartläggningen är betydelsefull eftersom det inte sedan tidigare finns någon sammanställning av planprocesser som (utöver det obligatoriska samrådet) har innehållit dialogaktiviteter. Den är dessutom en utmaning, eftersom det inte finns någon exakt definition av vad en planeringsdialog är, eller några enhetliga former för hur dialogaktiviteter ska dokumenteras. Av bland annat dessa orsaker är det återkommande samtalet mellan forskarna och referensgruppen med kommunala tjänstepersoner av stor vikt. I denna policy brief berättas om hur projektet präglas av det kontinuerliga samtalet mellan forskning och praktik, och det görs även ett nedslag i ett fördjupat samtal om praktikers lärdomar kring medborgardeltagande.

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  • 288. Van Well, Lisa
    et al.
    Francke, Per
    Langlais, Richard
    Damsgaard, Ole
    Planning for Climate Change: The Adaptation Challenge2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Nordic Perspective. Conference Report. On September 11, 2007, a group of 70 practitioners, policymakers, researchers and other actors met in Helsinki to discuss one the most challenging and important issues on the current global agenda – climate change, and particularly adaptation to the effects of a changing climate. This conference, entitled, Planning for Climate Change: The Adaptation Challenge – A Nordic Perspective, organised by the Nordic Council of Ministers and Nordregio, Nordic Centre for Spatial Development, examined the challenges and opportunities inherent in climate change adaptation in the Nordic Countries and how planning and political processes can deal with these imperatives.

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  • 289.
    Wang, Shinan
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Turunen, Eeva
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Roto, Johanna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Arledal Thunell, Pontus
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Nilsson, Kjell
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Demografisk sårbarhet: En gemensam utmaning örkommunerna längs riksgränsenmellan Norge och Sverige2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to emphasize the diversity and variety of Nordic regions and municipalities, Nordregio has been utilising the concept of “demographic vulnerabilities”, which is based on demographic data. This approach has been used since 2011 to analyse Nordic and Baltic municipalities and regions. In this project, it will be brought up to date, relying on statistical data from 2018, with a focus on the Swedish – Norwegian border.

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  • 290.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Green growth and spatial planning in the Nordic city regions2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief aims to provide planners with a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges presented by the use of sustainability indicators to support urban planning and policy-making.

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  • 291.
    Weber, Ryan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Indicator frameworks: Helping planners monitor urban sustainability2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common saying that goes “what gets measured gets managed”. With this in mind, Nordregio research has identified a number of perspectives that can be of value to planners considering whether to use indicator frameworks to monitor the performance of comprehensive urban planning strategies. We found this to be a pressing issue in light of the fact that a number of comprehensive city plans in large Nordic cities have been developed with little or no consideration given to the inclusion of indicator frameworks. his policy brief aims to provide planners with a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges presented by the use of sustainability indicators to support urban planning and policy-making.

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  • 292.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Integrated Models: Planning Urban Sustainability2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief offers local and regional planners an introduction to the world of integrated urban modelling. It provides information on their potential benefits, implementation process and current use in the Nordic city-regions.

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  • 293.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Larsson, Veronique
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The Use of Integrated Urban Models in the Nordic Countries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents the results of a survey on the use of Integrated Urban Models in the Nordic countries carried out by Nordregio's researchers (with preparatory support from WSP Analysis and Strategy). It reveals that the use of models is limited in the Nordic countries and provides an account of the underlying reasons why, despite the potential benefits they offer, models aren't more widely used.

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  • 294.
    Weber, Ryan
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tammi, Iilpo
    Wang, Shinan
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Anderson, Timothy
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    A Spatial Analysis of City-Regions: Urban Form & Service Accessibility2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the urban form of a city, planners must engage with complex questions of density, land use distribution, and accessibility to services and amenities. These issues, in turn, relate to critical strategic planning goals, such as regional equity, attractiveness, and environmental sustainability. In our research, conducted on behalf of the Nordic Working Group for Green Growth - sustainable urban regions, we tested a new methodological approach for integrating and measuring several of these dimensions. In doing so, we provided a spatial analysis of population density, service accessibility, and commuting pattern metrics of four case study areas in the Nordic Region: Funen (DK),Stockholm (SE), Tampere (FI) and Trondheim (NO). This analysis was applied with the following general principle in mind: where many types of services, public transportation and other amenities that people take benefit from in their everyday life are available within a convenient time distance, we can talk of well-functioning nodes in the urban form of a city. By considering this principle in relation to the urban patterns that are mapped, we aimed to determine how our analytical approach can be relevant for strategic planners working at the municipal or regional level. 

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  • 295. Winther, Lars
    The Spatial Structure of the New Economy in the Nordic countries2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 296.
    Wøien, Mari
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Is the coast clear?: The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalisation is impacting various facets of society and holds great potential in radically changing the ways businesses are operating. Despite these radical changes, little has been said about the impact of digitalisation on micro-, small and medium-sized businesses within the marine sector.

    To close this gap, this complimentary report, Is the coast clear? The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund is a follow-up study of Randal and Berlina’s report Governing the digital transition in Nordic regions: The human element (2019).

    The latter report was written on behalf of the Nordic thematic group for innovative and resilient regions 2017–2020, under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Civil Servants for Regional Affairs.

    The present, complimentary study on digitalisation and blue growth has been developed on behalf of the Nordic thematic working group’s member Svinesundskommittén (The Svinesund committee).

    The study explores what role digitalisation plays in the context of business development and growth in the marine sector in the Svinesund area; the different challenges and opportunities that surface in this context; and what role the Svinesund mega-region may play for the future of blue growth.

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  • 297.
    Wøien, Mari
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Kristensen, Iryna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    The status, characteristics and potential of smart specialisation in Nordic Regions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report attempts to create a foundation for understanding the added value of smart specialisation in the Nordic context. It focuses on the cohesiveness and complementarity between the different tiers of government, paying particular attention to the dialogue between the national and regional levels to identify factors that enable or impede the implementation of smart specialisation. The report also addresses the role of smart specialisation in realising the green economy and looks at regional commonalities in the pursuit of identifying a Nordic model of smart specialisation.

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    Nordregio Report 2019:3 Smart Specialisation
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  • 298.
    Wøien, Mari
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Teräs, Jukka
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Implementing Smart Specialisation strategies in Nordic regions2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Specialisation (S3) as a policy tool has quickly been adopted across the European Union and in the Nordic countries, but the implementation of S3 is not uniformly adopted. What is the added value of smart specialisation implementation in Nordic regions?

    This policy brief explores the adoption of S3 strategies in the Nordic Region. Strengthened governance structures, clear ownership to S3 processes, and understanding S3 as a process in its own right are some of our key recommendations. We also explore if there is a Nordic Model of S3; A highly compatible Nordic innovation environment may suggest a favourable positioning for maximising the added value of S3 in Nordic regions. This research is part of the work of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient Regions established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 299.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Innovation Networks in Different Industrial Settings: From Flexible to Smart Specialization2016In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, no 63, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key research objective of this paper is to analyse industrial specialisation by developing innovative networks linked to the region. Institutional and entrepreneurial innovation systems, smart specialisation and a network based research framework for entrepreneurship are used as conceptual foundations in the paper. Based on theoretical elaborations our analyses illustrate how certain interventions have stimulated regional development and innovation in two specific Scandinavian regions. Our results highlight that both regions have gone from interventions fostering flexible specialization, with the motive of staying resilient and competitive over time, to an approach based on smart specialization with a focus on one or a limited number of strong industries.

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  • 300. Østby, Stein
    The Local Impact of European Policy Integration2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some Issues relevant to the Nordic Countries. Across all Nordic countries there is now an intensive debate on changing responsibilities and the division of labour between the state and the regions. Recent trends toward decentralisation have been accompanied by a further trend towards supranational centralisation. Besides the extensive adoption of European legislation into national law, this trend has been most notable in the field of macroeconomic policies. Although macroeconomic policies have no intended geographical bias, there are certainly unintended effects. An understanding of how the regional economy is affected is therefore necessary in order to make informed choices between different the policy designs and different policy instruments to be targeted at the regional level. In this report Stein Østbye, University of Tromsø, discusses some issues relevant to the Nordic countries concerning the local impact of European policy integration.

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