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  • 51. Taxell, Piia
    et al.
    Talasniemi, Petteri
    Räisänen, Jouni
    Santonen, Tiina
    Combining exposure scenario information for mixtures with combination effects2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aims of the present study were 1) to examine how the existing methods for combining component-based exposure scenario information for mixtures cover combination effects of the components, 2) to evaluate whether there is a need to develop further guidance to formulators for taking into consideration combination effects when combining exposure scenario information, and 3) to evaluate the usability of the Mixie software on combination effects in the REACH context. The report presents the outcomes of the study.

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  • 52. Tenie, Giorgiana Adina
    et al.
    Holmer, Marie Louise
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    Chemical induced effects on the developing nervous and immune systems: Protection against the harmful effects of chemicals on the development of the nervous and immune system, through better use of already planned animal studies2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of chemicals on the developing brain and immune system are of high concern in the Nordic countries and EU. Since 2015, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study can be required under the REACH regulation, and if existing data shows specific concerns, tests for developmental neurotoxicity DNT and immunotoxicity DIT can be included. We considered that open literature may provide evidence to trigger DNT or DIT investigations. Search for information was performed for > 120 substances. Potentially relevant data was found for 40% of substances. Analysis of relatively few substances (19) for which the regulatory decision process has been finalized indicate limited impact of the data identified on triggering of DNT/DIT. Scientific and regulatory questions identified during this work are brought for the attention of the scientific communities and regulatory authorities.

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  • 53. Tørsløv, Jens
    et al.
    Slothus, Tina
    Christiansen, Sofie
    Endocrine Disrupters – Combination effects2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2010 Danish Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers environment and health was a prioritized subject. The aim was enhanced Nordic information exchange. To support this aim a number of Nordic workshops were held to strengthen the capacity building and discuss future regulatory aspects in the area of endocrine disruptors, combination effects, and soft regulatory measures and effective risk communication. One of the workshops held in November focused on combination effects, with a special focus on endocrine disruptors. This report describes the workshop presentations, the ensuing discussions, and the outcome.

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  • 54. Tørsløv, Jens
    et al.
    Slothus, Tina
    Christiansen, Sofie
    Endocrine Disrupters – Developing criteria2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2010 Danish Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers environment and health was a prioritized subject. The aim was enhanced Nordic information exchange. To support this aim a number of Nordic workshops were held to strengthen the capacity building and discuss future regulatory aspects in the area of endocrine disruptors, combination effects, and soft regulatory measures and effective risk communication. One of the workshops held in November focused on developing criteria for endocrine disruptors. This report describes the workshop presentations, the ensuing discussions, and the outcome.

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  • 55. Veulemans, Mathieu
    et al.
    Bakka, Loella
    Kvien, Ingvild
    Sørensen, Karin B.
    Rahm, Charlotte
    Westlund, Camilla
    Salamäki, Tiia
    Baldursson, Eiríkur Þ.
    Bragason, Ísak Sigurjón
    Nordic enforcement project on give-away products2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic chemicals agencies have jointly controlled the Nordic market of give-away products. These products were controlled against the requirements of several EU-legislations (REACH Regulation, Toy Safety Directive, RoHS Directive, POPs Regulation and the Battery Directive).

    The results show that economic operators lack knowledge of the applicable requirements, as well as lacking understanding of the extent of their obligations. They are missing appropriate systems to comply with the rules. Nevertheless, the Nordic chemicals agencies have observed an interest from business organisations to be better at understanding and complying with the applicable rules.

    This joint enforcement project has also contributed to creating closer collaboration between the Nordic chemicals agencies resulting in sharing more information and ensuring better resource efficiency.

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  • 56. W. U. Appel, Peter
    Use of soaps containing mercury in Africa – how to fight it2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous women in sub-Saharan Africa use soaps containing mercury to bleach their skin. The mercury goes through their skin and reduces the melanin of the pigmentation. The mercury also causes damage to the body e.g. the nervous system. Mercury is particularly dangerous for the nervous system including the brain of the foetus. One of the most severe consequences is that during pregnancy the foetus will concentrate the mercury from their mothers. Children born by mothers using skin bleaching soaps have therefore a high risk of being mentally and physically disabled. The use of mercury for skin bleaching thus not only cause severe health problems for sub-Saharan Africa, but also adds to the ever increasing amount of mercury in the drainage systems and the oceans. The present project is an information campaign aimed at female and male users of bleaching soaps. The project used forum theatre on market places and information on secondary schools in Uganda. The project has proved very successful in informing black people of Uganda against the health and environmental hazards caused by using soaps containing mercury.

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  • 57. Wang, Dr. Zhanyun
    et al.
    Goldenman, Gretta
    Tugran, Tugce
    McNeil, Alicia
    Jones, Matthew
    Per- and polyfluoroalkylether substances: identity, production and use2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This project provides an initial overview of a group of PFASs, namely the per- and polyfluoroalkylether substances (PFAEs). The study shows that a large variety of PFAEs have been produced and used and their marketplace is complex. They have very diverse uses in a variety of industries and have a wide range of industrial and commercial applications including cosmetic products, food contact materials, lubricants, metal plating, paints and high-tech applications. PFAEs as a sub-group of PFASs merit further scrutiny, based on emerging evidence about the risks associated with some of the substances (such as GenX), their widespread use and their high persistence in the environment. Although many of these chemicals are produced/imported in small quantities in the EU, their combined impact may still present a significant risk to environment and health.

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  • 58. Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    et al.
    Wiklund, Per
    Moe, Morten
    Retrospective environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in the Nordic countries 1997-20072009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    New pharmaceutical substances and formulations are constantly being introduced and marketed in the world, targeting an increasing number of human receptors. Consequently, the consumption of human pharmaceuticals has been rapidly increasing in the Nordic countries over the last decades. In the Nordic countries, a growing fraction of the population is the elderly. The increasing fraction of elderly people, having a higher propensity of getting several diseases and afflictions, will lead to even higher consumption of pharmaceuticals in the near future. The faith and possible effects of pharmaceutical residues, after they have been excretred from the patients taking them, has been attracting a growing interest whithin environmental scientific comunity. However,  since there are over 1200 different active substances being sold as human pharmaceuticals on the Nordic market, it is very difficult for authorities and regulating bodies to prioritise among them and identify which substances that needs special attention (in terms of monitoring, adjustments in the waste water treatment plants, specific information or directives to prescribers). This report presents the predicted (i.e., calculated) environmental concentrations of the top-selling pharmaceuticals in the Nordic countries in retrospective (1997-2007), along with a calulated environmental risk associated. The authors elaborate on the data and identifie the pattern common to all Nordic countries.

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  • 59. Würtz Sørensen, Esben
    Endocrine disrupters – consumer protection by soft regulatory measures2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2010 Danish Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers environment and health was a prioritized subject. The aim was enhanced Nordic information exchange. To support this aim a number of Nordic workshops were held to strengthen the capacity building and discuss future regulatory aspects in the area of endocrine disruptors, combination effects, and soft regulatory measures and effective risk communication. One of the workshops held in November focused on soft regulatory measures to reduce the exposure of sensitive population groups to chemicals, with a special focus on endocrine disruptors. This report describes the workshop presentations, the ensuing discussions, and the outcome.

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  • 60.
    Analysis of Enforcement According to REACH2006Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission launched on 29 October 2003 its proposal for a new chemical legislation con-cerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). In August 2004 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted funds to the Nordic Chemicals Group to start a joint Nordic project on "Analysis of the enforcement according to REACH". The objective of the project was to examine, from an enforcement perspective, the main titles (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions) of the Commissions REACH proposal of October 2003 and result in proposals and viewpoints on enforceability of REACH and how REACH will affect today's enforcement including new demands on enforcements authorities, enforcement methods and cooperation between en-forcement authorities and Member States. In brief, REACH means new challenges for enforcement in the Member States. These exercises are compiled and discussed in this report with proposals for further work.

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  • 61.
    Analysis of the Existing Chemicals Management System in the Russian Federation2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian chemicals legislation is in changing process. At the moment there is no common framework act on handling of hazardous chemicals in the Russian Federation and terminology in chemicals is different from the EU. This basis is intresting from a European point of view as there soon will be a new chemicals legislation (REACH) within EU with a close relation to the Global Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The task of analysis in this report was to provide information on existing chemicals management system in the Russian Federation and describe the following issues: 1) Hazardous information from producers to users: standards, requirements and formats 2) Safety requirements during chemicals use: where a company is getting information/knowledge on safety measures to apply during use of chemicals? 3) Environmental legislation related to providing information on quantities of hazardous substances used or released into environment including control mechanisms, environmental permit-ting and reporting plus inspection institutional set up 4) Institutional set up regarding entire chemicals management in the Russian Federation. This report has been elaborated in scope of the project ”Awareness raising and capacity building on chemicals control in NW Russia“ (BACCON RUS) which has been a co-operation project between Nordic Council of Ministers, Finland, Sweden and Russia. The project has been funded by Nordic Council of Ministers, Finnish Ministry of Environment and Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

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  • 62.
    Bilplejeprodukter: Nordisk tilsynsprojekt 2006–20072008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [da]

    Tilsynsmyndighederne på kemikalie-området i de nordiske lande har gennemført et fælles tilsynsprojekt for bilplejeprodukter. Hovedformålet med projektet har været at kontrollere om importører og producenter af bilplejeprodukter i Norden, har tilstrækkeligt kendskab til kemikaliereglerne og om de markedsførte produkter er korrekt klassificeret og mærket. Rapporten beskriver relevant lovgivning vedrørende sundheds- og miljøfarer for kemiske produkter samt tolkning af hvilke produkter der anses som omfattet af EU's forordning om vaske- og rengøringsmidler. Forordningen trådte i kraft i marts 2004 og foreskriver bl.a. særlige krav til deklarering af vaske- og rengøringsmidler. Resultaterne fra inspektionerne er opsummeret for hvert enkelt land.

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  • 63.
    Biocides in wastewater and in sewage sludge - a report of the Nordic Biocide Group 2005 / Biocider i avlopp och slam - rapport av Nordiska biocidgruppen 2005: Resumé2005Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 64.
    Biocides in wastewater and in sewage sludge: Report of the Nordic Biocid e Group 20052005Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a pilot project with the aim to gather information about the fate of some biocidal active substances in water treatment plants using different levels of treatment techniques. The aim was also to investigate whether the water temperature had any effect on the results of the treatment process. Four substances expected to be found in treatment plants (active substances notified in PT 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9 of the Biocidal Products Directive) were chosen for the project. Samples for analysis were taken from four different treatment plants located in Sweden and representing the most common treatment techniques in the Nordic countries.

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  • 65.
    Bronopol, Resorcinol, m-Cresol and Triclosan in the Nordic Environment2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Nordic screening study was to investigate the occurrence of bronopol, resorcinol, m-cresol and triclosan in the Nordic environment. The compounds selected for this study are widely used chemicals e.g. in consumer products with adverse effects to the environment. Bronopol, resorcinol and triclosan are highly toxic some aquatic organisms. As a result of their wide use, these compounds are easily spread into the environment both via point sources and via diffuse sources. In this study were Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden involved. Sampled media types were air, biota, sediment, sludge, soil and water. Despite a significant consumption of bronopol the compound could not be detected in any of the samples. Resorcinol was frequently found in municipal influent water and sludge samples but also in effluent water and environmental samples of water and sediment from recipients close to sewage treatment plants, landfills and industry. Triclosan was found in high concentrations in sludge from sewage treatment plants and also frequently detected in effluent water of the same plants and in re-cipient sediment. Triclosan was the only studied compound found in biota. m-cresol was found in several influent samples of municipal sewage treatment plants and in some landfill leachates but also in effluent water and environmental samples in vicinity of an industrial pulp and paper treatment plant.

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  • 66. Moilanen, Marianne ()
    Checklist – Exposure Scenarios in REACH: A Nordic Group Project 20162017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This checklist may be used in the REACH exposure evaluation such as compliance and consistency checks in the substance evaluation and dossier evaluation processes. It was published first time in 2014 (previous title "Exposure Evaluation Guidance for REACH"), but then it was focusing mainly on human health side, workers and consumers. Now it covers also environmental issues.

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  • 67.
    Chemical cocktails – a serious matter of concern2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Hver dag bliver mennesker og miljø udsat for mange forskellige kemiske stoffer fra forskellige kilder på samme tid. Meget tyder på, at risikoen ved kemikalier undervurderes, når der ikke er taget højde for denne cocktaileffekt. Ved traditionel risikovurdering og regulering af kemikalier vurderes hvert stof enkeltvist. I en ny nordisk folder sættes der fokus på denne problemstilling, og det foreslås hvordan man kan begynde at regulere cocktaileffekten i EU. Folderen er på engelsk og beskriver på en letforståelig måde problemet og giver forslag til en løsning. Konklusioner og anbefalinger kommer fra en workshop, som blev afholdt af Nordisk Ministerråd i efteråret 2010. Antallet af forskellige kemiske stoffer er for stort til, at det er praktisk umuligt at teste og vurdere alle de realistiske kombinationer, man kan blive udsat for. Det foreslås derfor at man i hver regulering (f.eks. kosmetik, legetøj, industrikemikalier), kun må bruge en andel (f.eks. 10 %) af den beregnede ”sikre dosis”. De nordiske anbefalinger er desuden på kort sigt at EU’s medlemslande skal forsøge at regulere kombinationer af forskellige stoffer under de gældende EU lovgivninger når dette er muligt. På længere sigt er anbefalingerne, at kombinationseffekter skal håndteres på tværs af lovgivningerne i EU. Problematikken omkring cocktaileffekter af kemikalier er også sat på dagsordenen under det danske EU formandskab i første halvår af 2012.

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  • 68.
    Chemicals and Development: Health and Economic Benefits of Sound Chemicals Management2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the social, economic, environmental and health benefits that can be achieved through sound management of chemicals. The report presents a series of case studies of initiatives to improve chemicals management in developing countries or economies in transition. The case studies examine national legislative initiatives as well as on-the-ground projects to educate firms about cleaner production options. It is also looked at the role of bilateral and multilateral development assistance in facilitating adoption of sound chemicals management systems. The report was issued as a draft prior to the adoption of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM) in February 2006 and has been amended according to inputs after that event.

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  • 69.
    Children and Chemicals in the Nordic Countries2005Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This information brochure wishes to present an overall picture of how the Nordic countries consider that chemicals should be handled in the vicinity of children starting from how products are chosen to the time when hazardous chemicals waste is destroyed or disposed of. The brochure is based on existing material produced by the Nordic countries in different contexts. It is published to provide inspiration and ideas for others in their equivalent efforts to spread information in order to lessen the exposure of children to hazardous chemicals. The brochure was made for the 4. Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Budapest on the 22-25th of June 2004. The conference was focused on children's environmental health.

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  • 70.
    Cost of Late Action - the Case of PCB2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate environmental costs for the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the European Union. The result of the estimate is that these costs in the EU of 25 members, will be at least EUR 15 billion (British milliards) 1971 - 2018. The estimate is based on information on costs in Sweden for the remediation of buildings, soil and waste, for administration, research and other related costs and on data about PCB production up to 1984 in the five largest of the EC Member States. The study confirms that early action in order to avoid chemicals pollution gives considerable environmental benefits to society. This is of particular interest to the future legislation on chemicals placed on the market of the European Community and the proposal of the European Commission to introduce a system for the registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (The REACH system). One main aim is to prevent missteps similar to the case of PCB. EC Member States will avoid huge costs in the future if missteps of this kind could be prevented by the new legislation.

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  • 71.
    Economic Instruments in Chemicals Policy: Past Experiences and Prospects for Future Use2009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the potential for increased use of economic instruments, not the least taxes and charges, in chemcials policy. It provides a conceptual discussion of the role of different market-based instruments in controlling pollution based on chemicals production and use, and outlines a comprehensive overview and analysis of the European experiences of taxes and charges in chemicals policy during the last decades. A final chapter evaluates a set of carefully selected economic instruments targeted at specific chemical compounds and products. The cases have been chosen so as to illustrate different types of challenges in relying more extensively on economic instruments in chemicals policy, and they include the use of: (a) different types of two-stroke oils, (b) the substance nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEs), which break down into NPs, and (c) ethylene glycol. The report has been commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economics under the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 72.
    EU REACH Enforcement project: Final report 20082008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    REACH, the new EU Regulation on chemicals, implies a significant restructuring and enlargement in the field of chemicals regulation, and thus also of enforcement. The importance of the Forum for enforcement included in REACH for a good implementation of REACH was early recognised. In 2006 the Nordic Chemicals Group and the Netherlands granted funds to start a joint EU project on enforcement of REACH. The aim of the project was to:

    • Identify present enforcement and new needs due to REACH.
    • Investigate the state of preparation of the Member States and start preparing for the operative work of the Forum.
    • Elaborate work division, co-operation and information exchange.
    • Prepare a draft proposal for Rules of Procedure for the Forum.
    • Develop a compendium of useful enforcement method.

    The project has resulted in several independent reports that are included in this final report. A presentation of the results has been given by the project at the 1st meeting of the Forum 11 December 2007.

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  • 73.
    Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment: A Nordic Exposure Group Project 20112012Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Default values are often used in exposure assessments e.g. in modelling because of lack of actually measured data.  The quality of the exposure assessment outcome is therefore heavily dependent on the validity and representativeness this input data. Today the used default factors consist of a wide range of more or less well-documented values originating from many different sources. The purpose of this report is to give an overview and to evaluate exposure factors that are currently used by the authorities and industry in the exposure assessments for both adults (occupational and consumer exposure) and children in relation to REACH.  Another important purpose of the report is to contribute towards a further harmonisation of exposure factors by giving recommendations of most valid and representative defaults.  These recommendations can be used besides REACH also in biocide's and plant protection product's exposure assessments. The exposure default values were collected from the relevant European sources (ECHA, Consexpo, EUSES, Biocide TNsG, ECETOC, ExpoFacts) as well as from WHO and US-EPA. The following key default factors selected to the evaluation: body weight, body surface area, inhalation rate, soil and dust ingestion, drinking water, food intake, non-dietary ingestion factors, lifetime expectancy, activity factors and consumer products

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  • 74.
    Exposure Evaluation Guidance for REACH2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This document is intended to be used as guidance in the REACH exposure evaluation (MSauthorities and ECHA) such as completeness and consistency checks in the substance evaluationand dossier evaluation processes. The checklist is not necessarily complete; there may also beother relevant issues to be taken into account during substance evaluation and dossier compliancechecks. This checklist will be updated when necessary, based on the experience gained. Thedocument is focusing mainly on human health issues (workers and consumers), but it may also beutilized, for general issues, in the environmental exposure checks.

    The exposure scenario is a new concept in the REACH regulation and is one of the key elements in REACH for ensuring a high level of protection of human health and environment. REACH defines exposure scenarios as a set of conditions that describe how the substance is manufactured or used during its life-cycle and how the manufacturer or importer controls, or recommends others to control exposures of humans and the environment. Exposure scenario has to be established forsubstances which are manufactured or imported in quantities over 10 tons per year and which are classified as dangerous or as PBT/vPvB. In addition, exposure scenario is needed also in caseswhere exposure information is used as a basis for waiving certain animal tests specified in REACH.

    The first REACH exposure scenarios were developed by registrants during the 1st registration phase in 2010. So far, some experience of exposure scenarios has been gained from dossier compliance checks (ES in CSR), substance evaluations (ES in CSR) as well as from the downstream user sites, when they receive extended safety data sheets (eSDS). The experience gained indicates clearly that there is room for improvement both in the exposure scenarios in the chemical safetyreports and in the annexes of the SDSs.

    Guidance documents, various IT tools and ES formats have been developed by ECHA and industrialassociations such as CEFIC. However, these may be considered rather complicated, and thus notalways helpful enough.

    The specific aims of this project were:

    • To learn more about the format and content of ESs, including the use descriptor system.
    • To check to what extent ECHA’s guidance has been exploited in the building of ESs.
    • To obtain experience of the quality /challenges in ESs.
    • To identify strengths and weaknesses in building of ESs (e.g. the usability and effectiveness ofrisk management measures).
    • To develop instructions or recommendations for authorities to be used eg. in the substanceevaluation process.
    • To make the check list available to ECHA and authorities and other relevant stakeholders.
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  • 75.
    Final report for the NORAP Priority Setting Workshop: 9–10 June 2009 Sigtuna, Sweden2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an outcome of the Nordic workshop on priority setting within the context of the new working fields under the REACH and CLP regulations. The workshop was arranged by the Nordic Risk Assessment Project (NORAP) and the report written by the Swedish Chemicals Agency, based on funding from the Nordic Chemicals Group (NKG) of the Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR). The workshop addressed priority setting for the processes which form the main part of the work of Member State Competent Authorities in relation to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and its Committees. The relevant processes were: substance and dossier evaluation, harmonised classification, identification of substances of very high concern (SVHC) and their subsequent risk management through authorisation requirements, as well as proposals for restrictions on marketing and use.The outcome of the workshop is intended primarily for use by the Nordic countries in national priority setting, but could be used as well for national input in contribution to further developments in these processes under ECHA's responsibility.

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  • 76.
    Halon Critical Uses and Alternatives: A Nordic perspective2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Halons are the substances which are most harmful to the ozone layer, their potential to destroy ozone being three to ten times higher than that of CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons). Under the Montreal Protocol, halon production in the developed countries was banned from 1st. January 1994, since technically and economically feasible alternatives for the majority of uses of halons were available. EU Regulation (EC) No 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer controlled marketing and use of halons (1211, 1301 and 2402). Exceptions were made for a list of uses of halons in areas defined in annex 7 as critical uses. This report contains information on current areas of use of halon in the Nordic countries, Denmark, the Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The information was gathered by using contacts in the fire, security and defence fields, together with communications by mail and e-mail to other contacts and potential contacts as well as extensive Internet searching.

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  • 77.
    Hexabromocyclododecane as a possible global POP2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this report is to review the relevant information on a brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in relation to the screening criteria of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and of the Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants of the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution for adding new substances to these instruments. Some additional information needed in the consideration of the possible nomination of the substance as a new POP is also provided. This joint Nordic project has been prepared by consultant Johanna Peltola-Thies and supervised by a project group under Bjørg Fjeld from the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Nordic Chemicals Group and the Nordic Sea and Air Quality Group.

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  • 78.
    Kunstnerfarger: Et nordisk tilsynsprosjekt2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Tilsynsmyndighetene for kjemikalieområdet i de nordiske landene har gjennomført et felles tilsynsprosjekt for kunstnerfarger, porselens- og glassfarger og keramikkglasur. Hovedmålet med prosjektet har vært å kontrollere om importører og forhandlere av kunstnerfarger i Norden har kunnskap om kjemikalieregelverket og om produktene de importerer og omsetter er korrekt klassifisert og merket. I tillegg har Sverige undersøkt problemer som enkelte avløpsrenseanlegg har hatt med for høye verdier av kadmium i avløpsslam, noe man mistenker kan komme fra spillvann fra kunstskoler. Rapporten beskriver relevant regelverk og eventuelle problemområder for utvalgte helse- og/eller miljøskadelige stoffer som benyttes i kunstnerfarger. I tillegg så inneholder rapporten en konklusjon fra European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) om tolkningen av klassifiseringen av tre kadmiumforbindelser. Resultatene fra inspeksjonene er oppsummert for hvert enkelt land og rapporten gir også en oversikt over leverandører av ulike typer kunstnerfarger til de nordiske landene.

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  • 79.
    Musk Compounds in the Nordic environment2004Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic musk compounds are fragrances used in a wide variety of consumer products such as cosmetics, laundry detergents and other cleaning agents. The use leads to emission of musk compounds into the atmosphere and into wastewater. The compounds are persistent and may bioaccumulate in the environment. This report presents the results of a screening of musk compounds in the Nordic environment represented by rain water, sewage sludge, fox liver and blue mussels.

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  • 80.
    Nordic Project on Information Strategies (NOIS) for Fulfilling Data Requirements under REACH: Part 1 - Review of Current Testing/Information Requirements2005Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 the EU Commission initiated several REACH Implementation Projects (RIP) for development of technical guidance documents in support of the new EU Chemicals Legislation (REACH). The Nordic countries have worked on Information strategies in order to provide an early input to the RIP on information strategies that will prepare guidance documents to Industry regarding testing of chemicals. Guidance is needed on how the information should be generated, in a manner integrating different kinds of data by a weight of evidence approach (e.g., (Q)SAR, in vitro, in vivo data). The information strategies are stepwise procedures, where a higher level of data corresponds to more relevant, certain and accurate test data. The strategies should assist in deciding when sufficient data is available for the regulatory needs (e.g., classification and labelling, PBT-assessment, and risk assessment), considering the tonnage-based requirement set out by REACH. As the basis for elaboration of information strategies for selected environmental and human health end-points (to be published as part 2), some of the currently available testing and information requirements have been reviewed, e.g., the EU TGD, OECD guidance documents, and the REACH proposal. It has also been considered how data can be used for classification according to the GHS system. The analysis covers all environmental endpoints, and several human health endpoints. It is published in this report as part 1 of the Nordic project.

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  • 81.
    Nordic Screening of Chemicals: Aims and results obtained2008Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Content

    • Background to the Nordic screening initiative
    • Some words about a strategy for screening
    • Some results obtained
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  • 82.
    Nordic Workshop on Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA) in the new chemicals legislation – REACH.: 2-3 March 2005, Helsinki, Finland2005Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Risk Management Group under the Nordic Chemicals Group organised a workshop, where SocioEconomic Analysis (SEA) with respect to SEAs’ future use in the new European chemical legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) was discussed. The workshop focused on three themes: 1) information on substitutes, 2) benefits for health and environment and 3) dynamic consequences. The following aims were set for the workshop: The following aims were set for the workshop: o to exchange experiences of current work on SEA with the aim to identify ways how the knowhow developed could be transferred to future SEAs o to raise knowledge and understanding among the Nordic authorities on the possibilities and limitations in the work with SEAs o to identify important elements of the current SEA methodology, and the application thereof, that should be further developed with regard to the future use of SEA in the context of REACH o to provide input to the guidance documents that are being prepared in relevant REACH implementation projects (RIPs). Summaries of the presentations and conclusions from the discussions are presented in the report from the workshop.

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  • 83.
    Nordisk miljøhandlingsprogram 2013–20182013Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [no]

    I løpet av de siste 40 årene har de nordiske landene oppnådd vesentlige resultater gjennom samarbeid på miljøområdet. Landene har klart å kombinere økonomisk vekst og velferdsutvikling med en ambisiøs miljøpolitikk, og har aktivt bidratt til miljøforbedringer både i Norden og internasjonalt. Utvikling av bærekraftig produksjon og forbruk, miljøvennlig teknologi og grønn økonomisk vekst i samarbeid med andre sektorer, herunder næringsliv og internasjonale organisasjoner, vil være viktige utfordringer i det nordiske samarbeidet. I tillegg vil oppfølging av FNs konferanse om bærekraftig utvikling i Rio 2012 være sentral i det videre nordiske samarbeidet.

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  • 84.
    ODS waste treatment in the Nordic Countries: A Nordic Ozone Group Project 20112013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally sound disposal of Ozone Depleting Substances is increasingly recognized as an important issue in terms of both the protection of the ozone layer and the effect on climate change. However, there is only a limited overview in the Nordic countries of product groups containing Ozone Depleting Substances, regulation of the substances, available treatment technologies, and waste infrastructure etc. This report provides an overview of the waste treatment and regulation of Ozone Depleting Substances in the Nordic countries. The report identifies gaps, proposes solutions and provides recommendations for relevant Nordic efforts within the area. The report has been prepared by PlanMiljø ApS (Denmark) for the Nordic Ozone Group. The report has been financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, through the Nordic Chemical Group and the Nordic Waste Group.

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  • 85.
    OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters as a basis for regulation of substances with endocrine disrupting properties2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing EU chemical legislation only covers some of the effects caused by endocrine disruption. In the proposal for the new REACH system, endocrine disrupters are covered by the authorisation procedure based on a case-by-case assessment, but no indication of criteria for the assessment is given. Several toxicological and ecotoxicological screening tests for predicting endocrine disrupting properties of a chemical are now under development and international validation within the OECD, but it will probably take several years before the full range of validated testing methods and criteria are developed. In the meantime there is a need for guidance on how to interpret test results from existing test methods and how to identify a substance as an endocrine disrupter. Regulatory instruments that can be used towards endocrine disrupters should also be considered in this interim period. The aim of this project has been to investigate if and how the OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters can be used as a basis for regulatory initiatives towards endocrine disrupters. The report includes an assessment of the tests in the OECD Conceptual Framework, including specification of the endpoint for the test and reliability and relevance for effects in humans. This report is expected to serve as a basis for the Nordic contribution to the discussions in EU on interpretation and use of test results indicating endocrine disruption for regulatory purposes and furthermore, how to integrate endocrine disrupters in the new EU chemicals regulation.

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  • 86.
    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) in the Nordic environment2004Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are found in nearly all samples in a joint Nordic screening project, but the concentrations are below the reported toxicological threshold levels with a possible exception for the marine predating mammals. Other perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) were also commonly found. Since the chemicals of this group are very persistent, measures should be considered to ensure that PFAS will not turn into environmental problems in the future. These are some of the results from the screening project performed by the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Samples of rainwater, lake water, coastal water, sewage effluent, sewage sludge, landfill effluent, sediments, freshwater fish, marine fish, seal and whale were collected and analysed. Most of the samples were collected close to populated areas and possible sources (see map below), but remote areas were also covered. Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) make up a large group of chemicals that have been used in different industrial and consumer products since the 1950s. The substances are mainly used in fire fighting foams, protective coating, textiles, floor wax, polish and electronic industries. From this use the substances are likely to end up in waste dumps, sewage water and the general environment.

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  • 87.
    Poolkemikalier: Nordisk tilsynsprojekt 2009–20102012Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [da]

    Tilsynsmyndighederne på kemikalieområdet i de nordiske lande har gennemført et fælles tilsynsprojekt om poolkemikalier i 2009. Ved poolkemikalier forstås produkter til rensning, regulering og hygiejneformål i forhold til kvaliteten af badevandet i pools.  Hovedformålet med projektet har været at kontrollere om importører og producenter af poolkemikalier i Norden overholder kemikaliereglerne, som omfatter reglerne for markedsføring af biocid- og rengøringsmidler og klassificering og mærkning af farlige kemiske produkter. Rapporten beskriver relevant lovgivning og problemområder vedrørende sundheds- og miljøfarer for de kontrollerede produkter. Resultaterne fra landenes inspektioner samt vurdering og tolkning af de fundne overtrædelser er opsummeret for hvert enkelt land. Projektet munder ud i en række anbefalinger til virksomheder og forbrugere i forhold til markedsføring og anvendelsen af poolkemikalier.

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  • 88.
    Potential Ozone Depleting Substances: Uses and Alternatives in the Nordic Countries2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Montreal Protocol has had great success in reducing the production and use of a number of known ozone depleting substances. As a result many alternatives to the banned substances have been developed. Some of these substances have, however, themselves ozone depleting properties or can be hazardous to the environment in other ways. As the procedure for including new ozone depleting substances under the regulation of the Montreal protocol is rather time consuming the parties to the Montreal Protocol have decided to encourage parties to take measures to actively discourage the production and marketing of new ozone depleting substances. Further it was decided to request parties to report to the ozone secretariat on new substances. EU has taken the effort to elaborate a table of 'New substances with ozone depletion potential'.Based on this list a shorter list of 7 substances of concern has been prepared by the Nordic Ozone Group for assessment in this study. The overall objective of the study is to contribute to the work on the protection of the ozone layer eventually by providing information which would facilitate the inclusion of new substances under the Montreal Protocol or by otherwise reducing the use of these substances if appropriate.

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  • 89.
    PPCP monitoring in the Nordic Countries – Status Report2012Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Screening group is pleased to present a compilation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) monitoring data from the Nordic countries. The report has been prepared by Bergfald miljørådgivere and founded by the Nordic Council of Ministers via the Aquatic Ecosystems Group and the Nordic Chemicals Group.   In recent years, there has been an increased awareness of environmental effects from our use of PPCPs. In order to examine the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment, the Nordic countries have conducted several regional and national environmental surveys. The Nordic screening group saw the need for a compilation of these studies. The objective of this report was therefore to present the existing Nordic environmental data on PPCPs, by identifying which compounds have been analysed, in which countries and if there are obvious variations of levels detected in each country. The Nordic screening is run by a steering group with representatives from the Danish Centre for environment and Energy, Aarhus University, the Finnish Environment Institute, the Environment Agency of Iceland, the Environment Agency of the Faroe Islands, the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

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  • 90.
    Preservation efficacy of pine wood tars2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine tar has been used for wood protection in the Nordic countries for over a millennium. Pine tar is in particular used on old traditional wooden buildings and structures and it is important for protection of cultural heritage in the Nordic countries. In the EU review program under the Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) pine tar was considered as a biocidal active substance (wood preservative) to be evaluated in the review program. However, it was unclear if pine tar had a sufficient biocidal efficacy to fall under the Biocidal Products Directive. In order to clarify that question the Nordic Biocides Group under the Nordic Chemicals Group decided to initiate this study on the fungicidal efficacy of pine tar. This joint Nordic project was carried out by SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute and supervised by the Nordic Biocides Group under the Nordic Chemicals Group. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Nordic Chemicals Group, Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Directorate for Cultural Heritage of Norway.

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  • 91.
    Probabilistic Exposure Assessment Methods in Chemical Safety Assessments (REACH)2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the applicability of the probabilistic methods for the assessment human exposure within the REACH. The objectives of the project were to introduce the principles of probabilistic exposure assessment and to investigate the applicability and possibilities to use probabilistic methods in human exposure assessments in REACH context. The report and conclusions made were based on a real exposure study. Report was presented in the Nordic Workshop on Human Exposure Assessment Methods in REACH and Biocide Contexts, on 9th - 10th of May 2007 in Oslo. Nature of this report is an eye opener which provides basis for further discussions. The report cannot consider being as a guidance which describes how to make a probabilistic exposure assessment. The project was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministries through the Nordic Chemicals Group. The project was launched and coordinated by the Nordic Exposure Group under the Nordic Chemicals Group.

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  • 92.
    Prolonged copper release rate study with three pleasure boat antifouling paints2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a joint Nordic project on method development for measurement of release rate of active substances from antifouling products. The aim was to evaluate whether a prolongation of a standard method for release rate measurement of copper from antifouling paints may give information which is of importance for the evaluation of the environmental effects of modern antifouling paints. The background was the suspicion that some new antifouling paints for pleasure boats have non traditional release behaviour in that the release rate is low at start and then increases to a higher level. To date, the standard methods do not detect this kind of release pattern, and consequently, risks for the aquatic environment due to high release rates later in the service life of the paints are not properly evaluated. In the report, a prolongation from the standard 45 days to 122 days is studied, and some conclusions are drawn regarding the additional information for environmental risk assessment that it may give. The project was conducted by Åke Forsberg, AB Thalassa (test laboratory) and Kurt Haglund, Swedish Chemicals Agency and supervised by the Nordic Biocides Group under the Nordic Chemicals Group. The project was financially supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 93.
    REACH Trigger for Information on Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC): – An Assessment of the 0.1% Limit in Articles2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European regulation on chemicals, REACH, introduces new information obligations for articles that contain substances of very high concern (SVHC). For such articles, producers and importers have substantial information obligations, triggered by a SVHC concentration limit. But some controversial issues concerning the application to complex articles are still under debate. They involve issues on level of protection, workability and enforceability. This is the report from a study where 70 actors from 58 companies, industry associations and institutes were interviewed. They represent the supply chains for six product groups, namely: - Furniture (upholstered sofa)- Shoes (sports shoe)- Tools (pliers)- Toys (cuddly toy)- Electric installations (power distribution unit)- Electronics (desktop computer). Results from the interviews show that gaps in the flow of SVHC information occur, in some cases it was possible to estimate the extent of this loss. Also, it was possible to clarify that the information obligations will be "diluted away" at random, without relation to exposure or risk.

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  • 94.
    Ready for REACH?: Report from the Nordic workshop 8-9 December 2005 in Copenhagen2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the workshop was to ensure a continued focused Nordic contribution to the EU REACH related activities and to prepare the Nordic authorities for REACH. The idea would be to allow the participants to exchange and to collect experiences with already completed (and maybe ongoing) RIP projects, including evaluation of the benefit of the Nordic collaboration. Further objectives of the workshop were to discuss and if possible identify new Nordic project with relevance for the REACH preparatory work. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Nordic Chemicals Chemicals Group (NKG) in collaboration with the Danish EPA and other Nordic national authorities. The report is primarily indented to the benefit of the participants for their use in planning of the work preparing the implementation of REACH in the coming years.

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  • 95.
    Risks and Management of Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in Baltic Sea Fish: An Integrated Assessment: A Knowledge Evaluation and Discussion Document2006Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxins, PCBs and related toxic compounds also in Baltic Sea fish have caused much interest, concern and activity. Dioxins have become a 'boundary object' uniting many disciplines and acting as a symbol also for other concerns and issues. This report, produced in a cooperative project of the Nordic Council of Ministers, synthesizes and evaluates knowledge relevant for assessing and managing risks from dioxin-like compounds in Baltic fish, and analyzes aspects of these risks and their management. It clarifies what risks are associated with 'dioxins' in this context and what can be, ought to be, has been and is being done about them and on what grounds. The intended audiences include experts in the disciplines involved, such as toxicology and chemistry, public health and food safety, and fisheries and environmental management. The report may also be of interest, and is hoped to be of use, to other professionals and students, to decision makers in various realms, even to lay persons, considering the broad and keen interest in the topic field.

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  • 96.
    Siloxanes in the Nordic Environment2006Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Siloxanes belong to a group of substances used in a number of industrial applications and in consumer products such as additives in fuel, car polish, cleaners, anti foamiers and car waxes. Besides this, they are widely used in e.g. personal care and biomedical products. As a result of their wide use, siloxanes are presumably spread into the environment both via point sources and via diffuse sources and may be found in the environment. Recent studies have suggested that siloxanes may have direct or indirect toxic effects on various biological processes. The aim of this screening study was to obtain a snapshot of the occurrence of siloxanes in the Nordic environment. The here presented screening study involved six countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Sampled media types were air, biota, sediment, sludge, soil and water. Siloxanes were found in all the analysed samples types except soils. The results indicate that there is a general pollution of siloxanes in the Nordic environment, close to dense population and major sources. There was, however, a great variation in concentrations. The cyclic siloxanes occurred in all media in significantly higher concentrations than the linear siloxanes. At present, the observed concentrations are not alarmingly high, and many background sites seem to be non-contaminated. However, the use of siloxanes is extensive and it is possible that continued use will lead to increased environmental levels, eventually reaching effect concentrations.

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  • 97.
    The True Costs of REACH2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposed new chemicals policy of the European Community, REACH, is an important new development in environmental protection. Rather than waiting for government or independent researchers to determine that chemicals are hazardous, it will make manufacturers, importers, and professional users of chemicals responsible for the safe use. There is little doubt that REACH will give health and environmental benefits, but there has been little agreement about the resulting costs: -Will European manufacturers be crushed by the economic burden of chemicals regulation, as some industry sources have suggested? -Or, as projected in some public sector studies, will there be a minor cost impact, well within the ability of industry and worth the price? This report offers a new look at these costs. Frank Ackerman and Rachel Massey compare the current EC legislation on chemicals, the European Commission’s proposal and an alternative proposal addressing previous versions of REACH. The authors make a bottom-up calculation of the expected registration and testing costs under REACH and provide a new analysis of the indirect economic impacts. Ultimately they evaluate some prominent arguments about the costs of REACH and discuss the expected benefits. In the appendices there is the derivation of their economic impacts analysis and a critique of the best-known industry-oriented study.

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  • 98.
    THE USE OF DATA FROM THE NORDIC PRODUCT REGISTERS: Uppsala, 20-21 October 20042004Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this workshop is to explore the possibilities how to use non-confidential data stored in the Nordic Products Registers with the aim to map and quantify downstream-use and exposure to chemicals.

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  • 99.
    Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC): Literature review and applicability2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the regulation of food contact articles and flavouring substances, the TTC concept (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) has been developed as a substitute for substance-specific information. The TTC concept is based on the analysis of the toxicological and/or structural data of a broad range of different chemicals, with the aim to set an exposure-value below which no toxicity testing is necessary. Recently, application of the TTC concept has been proposed as a tool in risk assessment of industrial chemicals within REACH, both for defining when no testing is needed based on exposure information and as a substitute for effect values. The proposal concerns both human health and the environment. The present report does not advocate the use of TTC instead of substance specific toxicity data for risk assessment of industrial chemicals within REACH at time being. This conclusion is based on current knowledge and understanding of the concept, and on limitations and uncertainties in the derivation of TTCs. Furthermore, the suitability of the TTC concept so far has not been evaluated for the diverse group of industrial chemicals. In addition, the possible consequences for the level of protection of human health and the environment resulting from applying the TTC concept in the risk assessment should be examined.

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  • 100.
    Tillsyn av RoHS-direktivet: – ett nordiskt samarbetsprosjekt2009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elektriska och elektroniska produkter som sätts ut på EU-marknaden efter den 1 juli 2006 omfattas av ett förbud om innehåll av tungmetallerna bly, kvicksilver, kadmium och krom(IV) samt flamskyddsmedlen PBB och PBDE i RoHS-direktivet. Under hösten 2007 genomförde Sverige, Norge, Finland och Danmark samarbetsprojekt där företag som tillverkar och/eller importerar EE-produkter inspekterades. Totalt besöktes 62 företag och ytterligare 33 företag inspekterades per brev. Myndigheterna har även analyserat 208 EE-produkter från marknaden. Företagens kunskap om RoHS-direktivet var god. Av de analyserade produkterna var det knappt 20 procent som inte uppfyllde RoHS-direktivet trots att importörerna hade fått dokumentation från tillverkaren att produkten var RoHS-kompatibel. Detta projekt visar hur viktigt det är för myndigheten att utföra analyser och inte bara lita på företagens dokumentation.

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