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  • 1. Aalbu, Hallgeir
    et al.
    Böhme, Kai
    Uhlin, Åke
    Administrative reform – Arguments and Values2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of regional development policies – Needs and demands in the Nordic countries. All eight Nordic countries and self-governing areas have recently discussed or are currently discussing their administrative structures, i.e. how many municipalities or regions there should be and what responsibilities they should have. Denmark has already implemented a reform, Finland has begun to do so and, Greenland will soon follow. The experience has however been rather less successful in Norway and Sweden where many years of study and discussion now seem to have been more or less wasted.This report describes the processes and the discourse of administrative reform with a particular focus on the arguments used and the values that lie behind these arguments. The discourses are mainly concerned with four types of arguments relating to democracy, efficiency, regional development and the reform process itself. The arguments used, it is argued here, are mainly prophesies about the future. This forward-looking political logic is rather different from the work undertaken by research-based inquiries where future direction is sought in past experiences. The current report is part of Nordregio's research programme, Internationalisation of regional development policies – needs and demands in the Nordic countries. The analysis of events and developments has been updated to June 2008.

  • 2. Aalbu, Hallgeir
    et al.
    Yuill, Douglas
    Regionalpolitikken og EØS-avtalen2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Muligheter och begrensninger.

  • 3. Aalto, Kristiina
    et al.
    Heiskanen, Eva
    Leire, Charlotte
    Thidell, Åke
    The Nordic Swan - From past experiences to future possibilities: The third evaluation of the Nordic ecolabelling scheme2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the third evaluation of the Nordic Swan ecolabelling scheme. The evaluation is conducted from the perspective of the public administration, and it examines the role of the Nordic Swan in a policy context. Recommendations are presented for authorities in the Nordic countries and for the bodies operating the schemes on a Nordic and national level. The evaluation focuses on current opportunities and challenges in the operating environment of the scheme. It examines the relations between the Nordic Swan and the EU Eco-label in the Nordic countries, including their governance procedures, popularity and reception in the market. Other current topics addressed include the progress achieved by the Nordic marketing strategy for the Swan and some current governance issues in the scheme, including the grounds for public funding for the Nordic Swan. The report also analyses the relations between the Swan and other environmental information systems. In particular, the report investigates the opportunities and challenges ensuing from the current attention to climate issues for the Nordic Swan.

  • 4.
    Aalto, Maarit
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Olaussen, Elinor Jeanette
    Lagercrantz, Helena (Editor)
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Winther Wehner, Lasse (Editor)
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Smedegaard, Marianne (Editor)
    Dags för studier - universitet och högskolor i centrum2014 (ed. 500)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nordiska goda exempel på stöd till studenter med funktionsnedsättning under utbildningen och under övergången från utbildning till arbete.

    Artikel 24 i FN:s konvention om rättigheter för personer med funktionsnedsättning, som alla nordiska länder harundertecknat, betonar rätten till utbildning på lika villkor. Den nationella funktionshinderpolitiken i de nordiska länderna betonar betydelsen av att personer med funktionsnedsättning ska få stöd under utbildningsperioden och i samband med övergången från utbildning till arbete.

    Ett syfte med detta häfte är att ge inspiration och idéer till universitet och högskolor i Norden för att underlätta för studenter med funktionsnedsättning att delta i och genomföra en högre utbildning. Ett annat syfte är att uppmärksamma övergången från utbildning till arbete.

  • 5.
    Aalto, Maarit
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Stankovic, Nenad
    Sällsynt samverkan för nordisk välfärd: Kartläggning av möjliga nordiska samarbetsområden anknutna till små och sällsynta diagnosgrupper2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Aanstad, Siri
    et al.
    Koch, Per
    Foreign takeovers in the Nordic countries (FOTON)2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Like domestic owned multinational companies, foreign owned multinational companies represent equally positive opportunities for Nordic trade and industry, both in terms of innovative capabilities and value creation. There are no apparent reasons for leading a different policy towards companies with foreign ownership. The governments in the Nordic countries should encourage initiatives that attract this type of companies. Foreign owned multinationals take part in international networks that might benefit other firms in the national innovation system.

  • 7. Aarre, Tine
    et al.
    Juul Andersen, Thomas
    Nyholm Thrane, Lars
    Future Nordic Concrete Architecture2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Where is the concrete architecture heading? And in which way should the technology be developed in order to bring the concrete architecture up front? These and other questions have been asked and answered in this Nordic report. The project's main goal was to promote continued innovation in the Nordic concrete architecture.

  • 8. Aarsæther, Nils
    Innovations in the Nordic Periphery2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to study the relationship between the municipal institution and recent innovations in the Nordic periphery. The reasons for undertaking such a study are fairly obvious: nowadays, it has become the norm to highlight a region's innovative capacities as a crucial element in strategies for its development. In the Nordic periphery, local government has acquired a strong position in society, so there is a definite interest in studying the relation between innovative processes and the operation of the municipal institution. A total of 21 Nordic municipalities have been studied in this project. In many respects, the area covered by the municipalities in this study may be characterized as part of the extreme periphery of Finland, Sweden, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland, respectively.

  • 9.
    Aas, Sigrid
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Foreldreerfaringer med barnehabilitering.: En brukerundersøkelse i Nord-Trøndelag med The Measure of Processes of Care.2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore experiences with professional services among parents of disabled children in contact with Childrens Habilitation Department in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway.

    Method: A descriptive cross-sectional survey among parents, who’s children received services from the Childrens Habilitation Department during one year, was done. MPOC-20 NO, a questionnaire developed for this target group and translated into norwegian, was used. It consists of five factors: enabling/partnership, general information, spesific information, co-ordinated/comprehensive care and respectful/supportive care. Each factor consists of 3 – 5 questions.

    Results: The respons rate was 54,5%, parents of children with severe disabilities were overrepresented. Thus the results should be interpreted with care. The mean score on general information was lower than on other factors. The mean scores in Nord-Trøndelag was generally lower than in Canada, but about the same as results from Uppsala, Sweden.

    Parents of children under 6 years had better experiences than parents with older children. Parents with children with minor disabilities were more satisfied than others. Parents under 36 years and mothers had better experiences than older parents and fathers. Parents living together with their child less than 11 days/month were less satisfied than others. Having a key worker and/or an individual service plan made a positive difference on information factors, but not on the other factors.

    Conclusion: The answers showed that certain areas and qualities of the departments service should be better developed and some groups of parents should get a service delivery more fitted to their needs. Other methods should be considered to recruite parents and collect anwers to ensure a higher response rate.

  • 10. Aase Sørensen, Bjørg
    et al.
    Thea Wathne, Christin
    Bærekr@ftig arbeidsliv: Arbeidslivsutvikling i Norden2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Endringer i klimaforhold og forsvarlig nivå for beskatning av naturressurser møtes av en sterk påpeking av sammenhengen mellom holdbar arbeidslivsutvikling og mulighetene for å møte de ytre bærekraftstruslene. Gjennom arbeidslivets sammensatte prosesser formes oppfatninger av legitimt eierskap, muligheter til gjennom samarbeid å realisere gruppers og enkeltmenneskers potensial og bidra til å løse fellesskapets utfordringer økonomisk, sosialt og miljømessig. Norden representerer en samfunnsmodell der arbeidslivet bidrar til en høy markedsmessig økonomisk effektivitet samtidig som det vedlikeholder og fornyer en stabil velferdsstat. Gjør den nordiske modellen oss bedre rustet til å møte holdbarhetsutfordringene? Denne gjennomgangen av nordisk arbeidslivspraksis viser at en allerede må forholde seg til tydelige tegn på likeartede holdbarhetsproblemer. Det paradoksale bildet er: Samtidig som vi aldri har hatt det så bra, har vi et økende utenforskap i arbeidslivet i form av sykefravær og frafall. Boken tematiserer hvordan handlingspress har utløst programmer, avtaler og (forsknings-)prosjekter som adresserer utfordringene både ad hoc og i et lengre perspektiv. Individuelle stemmer som bidrar med sine livserfaringer om hva holdbarhet representerer kommer også til orde. Boken tar ikke sikte på å gi svar på dagens utfordringer, men er en invitasjon til dialog mellom forskning, arbeidstaker/arbeidsgiver og myndigheter om de praktiske bærekraftsvalgene som arbeidslivet i Norden kan ta.

  • 11. Aaskov Knudsen, Mette
    et al.
    Hjulmann Seidler, Poul
    Nature Interpretation for Children and Young People in the Nordic Countries2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This TEMA-Nord report is a result of a one-year project with all of the Nordic countries participating. The primary goal of the project has been to collect, develop and mediate a series of good examples of how nature interpretation, aimed at children and young people, can encourage children's understanding of nature, and inspire them to involve themselves with questions on humans nature and thus help contribute to sustainable development. Several issues should be considered when planning nature interpretation activities if nature interpretation aims to lead to sustainable development. These points of view are concerned especially with how nature interpreters can encourage children and young people to take ownership, to be involved with their body and mind, and to reflect and put the experience and the activities in nature into a wider context.

  • 12. Aasland, Aadne
    For Children in Our Neighbourhood: An evaluation of the Nordic Action Plan for Children and Young Adults at Risk in the Adjacent Areas2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Action Plan for Children and Young Adults in the Adjacent Areas was launched in 1999 in order to contribute to an improvement of the living conditions of young risk groups in the Baltic states and North-West Russia. More than 400 small and large projects have received funding from the programme since then. The present evaluation of the programme has been carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR). The evaluation team recommends a continuation of the programme founded on its achievements in focusing on risk groups, keeping a cross-sectoral approach, involving the policy level in the adjacent area countries, emphasising competence transfer and capacity building, and stimulating an interest in Nordic approaches and models in work with the risk groups. At the same time the evaluators suggest that in the future more emphasis should be put on a further institutionalisation of the programme, it should be used more actively to build partnerships in the region, more attention should be paid to the human resources in the projects, and dissemination activities should be given a more prominent place.

  • 13. Aasland, Aadne
    Going Nordic – A NordForsk user survey: A survey among participants in NordForsk and NorFA networks and research training courses 1999-20052006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This survey conducted among participants in Nordic research network and research training course activities in the 1999-2005 period shows that 90% of the project participants continue collaborating after Nordic funding has ended.

    One in five respondents have applied for EU funding as a direct result of the Nordic collaboration.

    More than half the activities included partners from the Baltic countries, 28% involved partners from Russia.

    Eight in ten would find it impossible to carry out their activity without the support fromNordForsk (or former NorFA).

    Most respondents find the application procedures clear and easily accessible. NordForsk is not perceived to be overly bureaucratic, and most people are satisfied with their communication with the responsible NordForsk staff.

  • 14. Aasland, Aadne
    Policy Brief 1-2007: Development in Research: An Outline of the Science Systems2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The science systems in Russia and, even more so, the Baltic States have undergone radical change in the years following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Although this report does not aim to provide a thorough description of the Soviet science system1, it is nevertheless useful to give a very brief outline of the structures which Baltic and Russian policy-makers were confronting at the outset of systemic reforms in the early 1990s.

  • 15. Abildgaard, Jørgen
    et al.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Baltic Sea Region Testing Ground Facility: Status after 10 year2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives an overview of the technical and political work of the Nordic Council of Ministers since 1993 to create a Joint Implementation set-up that mitigates greenhouse gas emissions at least costs with mutual benefits for both the Nordic countries and the countries in the Baltic Sea Region.

  • 16. Abrahamsen, Gerd
    et al.
    Berg, Lise-Kari
    Henriksen, Espen
    Sjøvoll, Jarle
    Kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap: Perspektiv på naturvitenskapelig talent og praktisk-musiske fag2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    De nordiske utdannings- og forskningsministre ønsker å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdannelsene. Dette var bakgrunnen for at ministrene i april 2009 besluttet at Nordisk ministerråd skulle gjennomføre en nordisk komparativ studie av hvordan kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap er integrert i de nordiske utdanningssystemene. Som tilleggsoppdrag til denne studien, ble det i 2010 under det danske formannskapet i Nordisk ministerråd, tatt initiativ til ytterligere to studier om henholdsvis de praktisk musiske fag og de nordiske lands arbeid med talentutvikling og kreativitet i relasjon til naturvitenskap. Studiene er en del av Nordisk ministerråds globaliseringsprosjekt "En god opplæring til ungdom og voksne" som har som ett av fire delmål å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdanningen. Studiene er gjennomført under ledelse av Universitet i Nordland, Norge, på oppdrag fra Nordisk ministerråd.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Mariette
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Kreftpasienters behov for og opplevelse av informasjon ved strålebehandling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aimed to increase understanding the information needs of cancer patients before and during radiation therapy. We also explored how cancer patients adapt such information to their new life situations.

    Method: Among 10 participants in our qualitative interview survey, eight individuals were interviewed before radiation therapy commenced, one was interviewed during treatment and one was interviewed following CT examination. We used grounded theory to analyse our data.Results: Our study identified one core category: small things matter. Other categories included information synergy (desire for information and manner of delivery), vulnerability (emotions and lack of knowledge), and coping skills (comprehension and security).

    Conclusions: This study identified the importance of answering patients´ questions. Providing accurate information, minimizing vulnerability, and enhancing coping skills all play an important role in optimizing patient preparation for radiation therapy. However, the process of developing a variety of communication methods (e.g., improved patient dialogue, printed information, and video presentations) will increase demands on the healthcare system.

  • 18. Ackerman, Frank
    et al.
    Massey, Rachel
    Les véritables coûts de REACH2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    The proposed new chemicals policy of the European Community, REACH, is an important new development in environmental protection. Rather than waiting for government or independent researchers to determine that chemicals are hazardous, it will make manufacturers, importers, and professional users of chemicals responsible for the safe use. There is little doubt that REACH will give health and environmental benefits, but there has been little agreement about the resulting costs: -Will European manufacturers be crushed by the economic burden of chemicals regulation, as some industry sources have suggested? -Or, as projected in some public sector studies, will there be a minor cost impact, well within the ability of industry and worth the price? This report offers a new look at these costs. Frank Ackerman and Rachel Massey compare the current EC legislation on chemicals, the European Commission’s proposal and an alternative proposal addressing previous versions of REACH. The authors make a bottom-up calculation of the expected registration and testing costs under REACH and provide a new analysis of the indirect economic impacts. Ultimately they evaluate some prominent arguments about the costs of REACH and discuss the expected benefits. In the appendices there is the derivation of their economic impacts analysis and a critique of the best-known industry-oriented study.

  • 19. Adås, Christian
    et al.
    Joki, Harri
    Kristiansen, Helge
    Redford, Keith
    Tilset, Bente
    Tunell, Helena
    Warszynski, Piotr
    Nanoscale Surface Treatments to Functionalise Polymer Particles (PARFUN)2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The consortium has generated particles with a very narrow size distribution and with properties tailored to the application. The particles have a size of the order 3 to 5 micrometer in diameter. Particles have been characterized extensively with respect to mechanical and surface properties. In order to produce conducting spacers the particles have been coated with nickel and gold. The particles have been incorporated in small prototype LCD cells and these cells have been characterized with respect to performance. No significant distortion of the liquid crystal crystallization is observed in the vicinity of the particles and ion leakage tests showed no leakage.

  • 20. Agnarsson, Sveinn
    et al.
    Arnason, Ragnar
    Johannsdottir, Karen
    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars
    K. Sandal, Leif
    I. Steinshamn, Stein
    Vestergaard, Niels
    Multispecies and Stochastic issues: Comparative Evaluation of the Fisheries Policies in Denmark, Iceland and Norway2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this report has been to compare the fisheries polices in Denmark, Iceland and Norway with respect to economic performance and degree of sustainability. This has been done by comparing the actual stock and harvest development in the three countries to the optimal stock and harvest development suggested by a dynamic optimization model developed in the project. Thus we have defined indicators for stock and harvest performance. Emphasis in this project compared to earlier has been put on uncertainty and especially on multi-species interaction and modelling. The result of the project is that although there are clear signs of both harvest and stock overexploitation in all three countries, there were also significant differences. In particular, some of the results from the single-species model were turned around when species interaction was taken into account.

  • 21. Agung Banyu Perwita, Anak
    Indonesia and the Muslim World: Between Islam and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    opular hostility and official ambivalence in Indonesia to the United States-led ‘War on Terror’ seem easily understandable in in the world’s largest Muslim country. But this kind of analysis misses the complexity of Indonesia and the host of internal differences behind this opposition. Military and bureaucratic elites since independence have worked to create a more secular nationalist Indonesian identity out of a multi-ethnic/religious mix, often provoking religious opposition. This dynamic (found also in Turkey, for instance) has especially shaped Indonesia’s encounter with and view of the outside world – and not least its reaction to events affecting the Muslim world.

    In this study, the author explores Islam as a domestic political variable in Indonesia’s foreign policy since independence. Here, Anak Agung Banyu Perwita argues that increasingly Indonesia’s foreign policy toward the Muslim world has become based on domestic political struggles. In support of his argument, the author mainly draws on material from the period when President Soeharto’s New Order regime ruled Indonesia but brings in more recent material from the post-Soeharto era to demonstate how Indonesian foreign policy is still shaped by the same forces today.

    Containing a wealth of information on the role of Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand how the world’s largest Muslim country is reacting to the international challenges of the modern world.

  • 22.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Experienced quality of the intimate relationship in first-time parents: Qualitative and quantitative studies2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Dahlöf, Lars-Gösta
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R-M
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Quality of intimate and sexual relationship in first-time parents six months after delivery.2005In: Journal of Sex Research, ISSN 0022-4499, E-ISSN 1559-8519, Vol. 42, no 2, 167-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe the quality of the intimate relationship among parents six months after the birth of their first child. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) has been modified and used on 820 responding first-time parents, of which 768 were couples. The results reveal that most parents were happy in their relationship, but both mothers and fathers were discontented with the dyadic sexuality. "Being too tired for sexual activity" was a problem, especially for the mothers, and the most common frequency of intercourse was once or twice per month. The result does not support the assumption that the couples compensate the lacking sexuality with sensuality. Good communication within the couple was associated with higher levels of several dimensions of the intimate relationship, especially dyadic consensus and satisfaction. Thus, one way to stabilize and strengthen a relationship when dyadic sexual activity is low would be to emphasize dyadic communication and sexual activity.

  • 24.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R-M
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Assessing the quality of the dyadic relationship in first-time parents: development of a new instrument.2005In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 11, no 1, 19-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to psychometrically evaluate the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), modified for use with new, first-time parents by extending the items of communication, sensuality, and sexuality. A total of 820 Swedish respondents, 6 months after the birth of their first child, participated in the study. Psychometric evaluation was conducted with factor analysis. The obtained factor structure was tested with multitrait analysis program. Thirty-three items were found to fit into a five-factor solution, explaining 50% of the total variance. Descriptive data revealed that most new parents were satisfied with their intimate relationship in general, but dissatisfied with their sexual lives. The modified DAS, now called the Quality of Dyadic Relationship Instrument includes 33 items and seems to be a useful, updated measurement for assessing quality of the intimate relationship in new first-time parents.

  • 25.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Strandmark, Margareta
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    The baby was the focus of attention - first-time parents' experiences of their intimate relationship.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 15, no 4, 318-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The baby was the focus of attention - first-time parents' experience of their intimate relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe the phenomenon of 'first-time parents' intimate relationship', to focus on their mental health, and the ability to support them professionally. Ten Swedish parents (five couples) were interviewed on two occasions, when the first baby was 6 and 18 months old, respectively. A descriptive phenomenological method was used. The findings show that the essence of the phenomenon is 'The baby was the focus of attention'. This had different meanings for the couples, putting them in two categories. For the first category, the essence was that the baby was the focus of mutual concern, which implied a fostered relationship. The strain of parenthood in this category was mild. In the second category, the baby was focused on at the expense of the father, who felt rejected emotionally. This impaired the relationship and parenthood involved a severe strain. The way the spouses communicated differed between the two categories. This study shows that mental health can be affected, especially among first-time fathers, and this could jeopardize the relationship and family health. An awareness of this fact is needed among the health professionals giving care to first-time parents.

  • 26.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV. Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Strandmark, Margaretha
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Factors influencing the quality of intimate relationships six months after delivery--first-time parents' own views and coping strategies.2006In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 27, no 3, 163-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyze first-time parents' experiences of factors that affect the quality of their intimate relationship and the way they cope with their situation six months after delivery. The method used was inductive qualitative content analysis of two open questions in a larger questionnaire. The data is based on 535 respondents' statements. The factors affecting the quality of the intimate relationship were available or missing and could be classified into four categories. 1. 'Coping by adjustment to parental role', e.g., mutual support as new parents, 2. 'The couple's 'intimacy', i.e., togetherness and love, 3. 'Coping by communication', i.e., verbal and non-verbal mutual confirmation, and 4. 'Coping with external conditions', e.g., by seeking social support. The results are described in a model, which could constitute a basis for the promotion of health in family health care, with the aim, if possible, of preventing unnecessary separations/divorces after couples become parents.

  • 27.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Strandmark,, Margaretha
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Dahlöf, L-G
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    First-time parents' sexual relationships.2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Sexology, ISSN 1398-2966, Vol. 3, no 4, 127-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describes the phenomenon termed, "First-time parents' sexual relationship". The qualitative descriptive phenomenological method was applied for the material from the interviews. Ten couples (aged 24–42 yrs) were interviewed separately and undisturbed on a single occasion, when the first baby was nine-months-old. The results indicated that the essence of the phenomenon described in this study pertained to sexual desire. The significance of the concept differed among parents. Some couples lacked the time and energy for each other due to the presence of the baby but compensated for their desires with reciprocal tenderness alternating with that shown to the baby. Some couples assigned time actively for each other which enabled them to enjoy their sexual desire. One couple was forced to control their sexual desires due to severe mucus infection. However, this couple compensated with caressing and thereby confirmed each other emotionally and sexually. Certain mothers longed for desire or emotional confirmation. These couples lacked the ability to assign time and show interest reciprocally, as well as an ineffective communication. Their relationships were characterized by misunderstandings and unarticulated demands.

  • 28. Ahlqvist, Toni
    et al.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Iversen, Jonas
    Kristiansen, Ernst
    Nordic ICT foresight2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the Nordic ICT Foresight project was to contribute to the strategic intelligence of the Nordic knowledge region so that the full potential of information and communication technology can be exploited to increase the welfare in the Nordic countries. The focal areas of the ICT applications in this study were experience economy, health, production economy and security.

  • 29. Ahonen, Hanna-Mari
    Exploring practical experience of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) requirements: Report from the side event at the COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NOAK and NEFCO organised a side event on NAMAs and MRV requirements during the UN climate conference at COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.2012. There are different opinions on what the minimum requirements on MRV systems for NAMAs should be and what the role of the UNFCCC would be in this regard. Issues have also been raised on whether there should be a differentiation in the MRV system between the different types of NAMAs. The aim of the side event was to explore practical experience on the issue, both from on-going initiatives and from the donors. This report first presents briefly the key concepts NAMA and MRV, then discusses each presentation and finally draws a summary on the observations and lessons emerging from the side event.

  • 30. Ahonen, Sanna
    Experiences on projects promoting sustainable lifestyles in Nordic countries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable Consumption is a focus theme in the Environmental Action Plan 2009-2012 of the Nordic Council of Ministers. As stressed in the Plan, the Nordic countries form a joint market with the same product range and similar patterns of consumption. Hence, the countries can together contribute to developing environmentally adapted production meth-ods and stimulating the interaction between environmentally conscious consumptionand an environment oriented product range. This report presents 22 different projects, realized recently in the Nordic countries, that have promoted sustainable life styles.

  • 31. Ahonen, Sanna
    Kestävää elämäntapaa edistävät hankkeet Pohjoismaissa2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Kestävä kulutus on keskiössä Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston Ympäris-töyhteistyön toimintasuunnitelmassa vuosille 2009–2012. Ohjelmassa tode-taan, että Pohjoismaat muodostavat yhteiset markkinat ja niitä yhdistävät samanlaiset tuotevalikoimat ja kulutustottumukset. Siten maat voivat yhdessä edistää ympäristön kannalta kestävien tuotantomenetelmien kehittymistä sekä sitä kautta lisätä kestäviä kulutusmahdollisuuksia. Tässä raportissa esitellään 22 Pohjoismaissa toteutettua hanketta, jotka ovat edistäneet kestävää elämäntapaa.

  • 32. Ahrens, Andreas
    et al.
    Reihlen, Antonia
    The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database: Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission launched on 29 October 2003 its proposal for a new chemical legislation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). In 2006 the Nordic Chemicals Group granted funds to the Nordic Product Register Group to start a joint Nordic project on "The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database. Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments". The objective of the project was to clarify the extent of overlap between REACH substance database and the Product Registers and characterize the added value of the Nordic Product Registers. The REACH substance database and the Product Registers are different systems. These differences are compared and discussed in this report with proposals for use of Product Register information in the implementation of REACH.

  • 33. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea: Valuation of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of the ecosystem services and associated benefits provided by the Baltic Sea, including information on the approaches of assessing and valuing ecosystem services being applied in the Baltic Sea region. It also identifies the main challenges in ecosystem service assessments in the Baltic Sea, and outlines the way forward in applying assessment tools in regional and national policies.Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection of the Baltic Sea. The existing studies on the value of improved marine environment are useful in assessing the importance and value of some marine ecosystem services, but further work is still needed on describing ecosystem services and their interactions, and evaluating how policy changes affect these services and human well-being.

  • 34. Ahtiainen, Jukka
    et al.
    Väänänen, Elina
    Regulatory Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: Are we facing the same challenges as the regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals?2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic NanoNet Workshop and EDC discussion was organised in October 2011 in Espoo, Finland as part of the 2011 Finnish chairmanship of the Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR). The workshop focused on the safety assessment and management of nanomaterials (NMs) while reflecting on experiences in regulating endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).  This report describes the presentations, break-out group discussions and conclusions of the meeting. The regulatory frameworks and links between NMs and EDCs as well as the applicability of test guidelines and risk assessment tools for nanomaterials were addressed in presentations and break-out group work.  Regulatory possibilities were further considered in a panel-led discussion. The Nordic dimension was of special interest: strengthening of Nordic regulatory cooperation in the field of nanosafety gained support, while commencing a TG/GD project in the OECD test guideline programme was seen a concrete idea for future cooperation.

  • 35. Ahvenharju, Sanna
    et al.
    Gilbert, Ylva
    Illman, Julia
    Lunabba, Johan
    Vehviläinen, Iivo
    The role of the insurance industry in environmental policy in the Nordic countries2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    While insurance could be a relevant policy instrument in many areas of environmental policy, there are some areas with more potential than others. This study highlights the role of the insurance industry, as well as the role of insurance, as a tool in environmental policy.

  • 36. Airoldi, Adele
    European Union and the Arctic: Main developments July 2008–July 20102010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for the Arctic region has been intense in recent years, as demonstrated by intensified political debate on Arctic issues and increased national activity and multilateral cooperation in the region. In this period the European Union has also paid increased attention to the Arctic region, expressed  through  the Commission's Arctic Communication (November 2008) and the Council's Conclusions (December 2009). The Arctic now appears as a recognized feature in EU policies and activities. This paper by Ms. Adele Airoldi, commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers,  describes and analyses the principal elements of the EU approach to Arctic issues as it has developed from July 2008 to July 2010, updating the report "The European Union and the Arctic - policies and actions" from 2008 . It reviews EU documents and pronouncements on Arctic issues, explores the development in the main EU policy sectors which impact the Arctic region and positions the EU in the wider Arctic political context through examining EU multilateral cooperation and bilateral relations. It also aims at giving an input to the ongoing co-operation of the Nordic Council of Ministers with the EU on Arctic questions.

  • 37. Airoldi, Adele
    The European Union and the Arctic: Developments and perspectives 2010-20142014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report analyses the policy statements on Arctic issues released from 2010 by the EU institutions and the EU’s role-building in the Arctic political framework, notably the Arctic Council. It describes how the EU’s role in the Arctic is seen in strategies and policy papers of Member States, and reports on the EU’s relations with other Arctic actors, particularly indigenous peoples. It gives an overall view of the status of the main EU policies with relevance for the Arctic and identifies the main challenges the EU has to face for progressing to an integrated and coherent Arctic policy.

  • 38. Airoldi, Adele
    The European Union and the Arctic: Policies and actions2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The developments in the Arctic are increasingly a subject for political dialogue and policy discussion in global and regional fora and within individual states. There's a need to facilitate coordination of international action to meet the many challenges facing the Arctic region. Cooperation with and within the EU is of great importance for the Arctic, since a range of the existing policies and activities pursued by the EU impact on the Arctic region. The NCM has therefore commissioned this review of the EU's policies and its administrative processes that are related to or affect the development in the Arctic. The aim of the report is to create an overview of existing policies of the EU of importance to the Arctic and to identify possible areas of co-operation. It also constitutes an input to the Nordic Council Ministers' Arctic Conference "Common Concern for the Arctic" that will take place on the 9-10 September in Ilulissat, Greenland.

  • 39. Aitattaleb, Saadia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Besöksförbud i Norden. En studie av ländernas lagstiftningar och tillämpning2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Besöksförbud i Norden - En studie av ländernas lagstiftningar och tillämpning Denna rapport tar sikte på att särskilt studera besöksförbudsregleringen i Norden och utgör en del av ett större nordiskt samarbetsprojekt kring våld: Våld och våldsreducering i Norden. Forskning visar att det är en liten grupp gärningspersoner som begår en stor andel av brotten men även att de personer som en gång utsatts för brott riskerar att på nytt bli offer. Detta gäller för olika typer av brott, exempelvis rån och misshandel. Av de kvinnor som polisanmält att de utsatts för misshandel eller hot av en bekant gärningsperson återkommer 25 procent inom ett år med en anmälan om liknande brott (Brå 2001:3). Besöksförbud är en åtgärd vars syfte är att förebygga att personer utsätts för våld, hot eller trakasserier - i första hand för kvinnor, men även andra. I studien har besöksförbud granskats från följande perspektiv: " De rättsliga förutsättningarna för förbudet. " På vilket sätt förbudet tillämpas i praktiken. I rapporten redovisas besöksförbuds-lagstiftningarna i Norden samt de problem som identifierats. Avslutningsvis lämnas vissa åtgärdsförslag som kopplas till en förklaringsmodell.

  • 40. Alavere, Helene
    ScanBalt Clinical Research Network2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for highly specific clinical trials. The Nordic-Baltic countries and regions are too small on their own to be able to supply large enough trial groups. Through cooperation the Nordic-Baltic region can position itself on the clinical research testing map to the benefit for researchers, entrepreneurs and society as a whole. The idea of the project is to take advantage of the existing knowledge and experience of the universities, hospitals and companies in the Nordic and Baltic areas to create a dynamic and comprehensive platform for high quality pre-clinical and clinical research. ScanBalt Clinical Research Network is envisaged to link flexibly pre-clinical animal study centres and clinical facilities in the 21st century ICT infrastructure in the Baltic Sea area.

  • 41. Al-Badri, Dominic
    et al.
    Berends, Gijs
    After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Political and Policy Change in Post-Fukushima Japan2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triple disaster that struck Japan in March 2011 began with the most powerful earthquake known to have hit Japan and led to tsunami up to 40 meters in height that devastated a wide area and caused thousands of deaths. The ensuing accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant was Japan’s worst and only second to Chernobyl in its severity.

     

    But has this triple disaster also changed Japan? Has it led to a transformation of the country, a shift in how Japan functions? This book, with fresh perspectives on extraordinary events written by diplomats and policy experts at European embassies to Japan, explores subsequent shifts in Japanese politics and policy-making to see if profound changes have occurred or if instead these are limited.

     

    The book addresses those policy areas most likely to be affected by the tragedy – politics, economics, energy, climate, agriculture and food safety – describes how the sector has been affected and considers what the implications are for the future.

  • 42. Albertsen, Karen
    et al.
    Kauppinen, Kaisa
    Grimsmo, Asbjön
    Aase Sørensen, Björg
    Linda Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg
    Tómasson, Kristinn
    Working time arrangements and social consequences – What do we know?2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New working time arrangement are becoming still more abundant partly due to globalization (the 24-hours global economy with around-the-clock communication and transport of gods and services) and increasing demands for productivity and quality both in private and public sectors. The new working time arrangements are associated both with company -based flexibility, referring to the needs of employers to modify, extend or reduce work hours according to production needs, and with individual flexibility that provides more influence over own work schedule for the employees but also contains the risk of over-commitment. I all Nordic countries an increasing public debate on stress, mental health problems and conflicts between work and private life have emerged during the last decade. To some extent the public debate seems to be governed more by beliefs than by knowledge and scientific evidence. The knowledge in this field is far from complete, but in some areas research has provided good knowledge, and several ongoing research projects will provide new and important knowledge the coming years. The present report - being the result of a Nordic expert group - provides an excellent review of the current international scientific knowledge with regard to direct social consequences (mental well-being, stress and work-life balance) of long and irregular working hours and employee influence on working hours. Furthermore, the labour market development in the Nordic countries is presented in relation to new working time arrangements. The report provides a well-structured insight in the social consequences of new working time arrangements. I am convinced that decision makers, working environment professionals, and researchers will gain a lot by reading the report.   Monday, 24 September 2007     Otto Melchior Poulsen Research Director National Research Centre for the Working Environment

  • 43. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Andersen, Torben M.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Bratsberg, Bernt
    Calmfors, Lars
    Kauhanen, Antti
    Lassila, Jukka
    Maliranta, Mika
    Määttänen, Niku
    Raaum, Oddbjørn
    Røed, Knut
    Simson, Kristine von
    Sørensen, Allan
    Valkonen, Tarmo
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Vihriälä, Vesa
    The Nordic model – challenged but capable of reform2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic welfare model has received a lot of positive attention around the world.  High standard of living, small income disparities and substantial social mobility looks like a very attractive package. Moreover, sound public finances and strong emphasis on environmental sustainability suggest that today’s success has not been accomplished at the expense of future generations. But is there really a unique “Nordic Supermodel”, unshaken by the global economic crisis and capable of producing continuous high growth and world class welfare services when many developed economies struggle with the impacts of global competition and population ageing? This book shows that Nordic performance has not been quite as unique or uniform as often claimed. The recent global and European crisis and country specific shocks have affected also the Nordic countries, some of them very strongly. And there are as many variants of the Nordic model as there are Nordic countries. Going forward, also the Nordic countries will be challenged by ageing, globalisation and technological change, some more than the others. On the other hand many fundamentals remain strong in the Nordic countries, and, what is perhaps most important, the Nordics have proved themselves capable of adjusting.  Labour market practices, pension policies, and production of public services have been reformed to match new circumstances. Public policies have been aimed at creating new jobs and helping people in transition, not at protecting uncompetitive businesses. There is a strong, rational tradition of consensual policy making. Further reforms are needed, and some widening of income disparities may be inevitable. The message of the book is, however, that refocused and recalibrated in a realistic scale the Nordic model has good chances of thriving well into the future.

  • 44. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Lindahl, Lena
    Simson, Kristine von
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Youth unemployment and inactivity: A comparison of school-to-work transitions and labour market outcomes in four Nordic countries2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people follow highly different trajectories from age 16 up to age 20, a time period which is often argued to be the most critical in terms of their future labour market outcomes. The focus of this report is on investigating the look of these early pathways, as well as on exploring their link to labour market outcomes in adulthood. Results are reported and compared for four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  • 45. Alhola, Katriina
    et al.
    Salmenperä, Hanna
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    Busch, Niels J.
    Circular Public Procurement in the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a framework for circular procurement and discusses its possibilities to promote circular economy. Several best practice examples in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway illustrate how and in which sectors and product groups circular procurement could be applicable. Different approaches to circular procurement and tendering criteria supporting circular aspects are also illustrated.The study was carried out in Nordic co-operation by Finnish Environment Institute, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and Copenhagen Resource Institute. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), administrated by the NCM Sustainable Consumption and Production Working Group and guided by a steering group consisting representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  • 46.
    Alieu Sanyang, Famara
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Are patient satisfaction surveys tools for quality improvement or mere symbolism?: The case of Østfold Hospital Trust in Norway2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997 and 2002 the Østfold Hospital Trust conducted patient satisfaction surveys. This study presented the results of the 2002 survey and compares them with the 1997 results. This is done to ascertain if there are any changes with regards to the dimensions the hospital scored poorly on in 1997. The purpose of this study is to find out if the patient satisfaction survey conducted at the Østfold Hospital Trust in 1997 was a serious attempt to improve the quality of the health care provided or only a symbolic act. The concepts of innovation, rational choice and institutional theory were used as spectacles to analyse how the Østfold Hospital Trust acted on the results of the 1997 patient satisfaction survey. The choice of study design is not an "either / or" situation between the quantitative and qualitative approach, since both methods can strengthen each other. This study has therefore employed a form of methodological triangulation. The finding of the study showed that the Østfold Hospital Trust can be termed as innovative, when they implemented the patient satisfaction survey in 1997. This because there was no coercive forces from the hospital owners to implement such surveys. There were only signals in the form of strategy documents. In spite of the hospitals innovative action in implementing the non-mandatory survey in 1997, the hospital leadership did not use the results to improve quality. Based on the findings, the study can conclude that the implementation of the patient satisfaction survey in 1997 was more symbolic, rather than a quality improvement act. Looking further than 1997, it’s important to remark that the hospital leadership resolved a number measures to improve quality, based on the 2002 patient survey. At the time of writing the issue of patient feedback as a quality improvement tool is high on the agenda at the Østfold Hospital Trust. The development point in the direction of a paradigm shift

  • 47.
    Alquist, Ragnhild
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Mødre som strever med amming2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The study describes mothers and children who strived with the breastfeeding dyad. The aim was to see if information, help and close support increase duration of breastfeeding and to gather information of mothers’ experience of breastfeeding problems and breastfeeding support in practise.

    METHOD: The study had a descriptive, retrospective design. Data were gathered through a postal questionnaire with 37 questions. The informants were Norwegian speaking mothers who had received extra breastfeeding help and support at a well-baby clinic in Oslo.

    RESULTS: The majority of children were under a week old when discharged from hospital. There were no differences in gender. The children’s most reported problems were suckling problems, and failure to thrive. 75 % of the breastfeeding problems among mothers occurred during the first two weeks. More than half of the mothers reported the reason for breastfeeding problems to be sore, cracked and/or infected nipples. The majority of the mothers coped with breastfeeding in spite of huge breastfeeding problems, and breastfed for a long period. Knowledge of how mothers milk protects the baby was the most important motivation for coping with breastfeeding problems. To succeed with breastfeeding was related to the feeling of being a good mother. Support from the child’s father was important for the mother’s decision to continue or to stop breastfeeding. The mothers described that to be given knowledge, counselling and support from competent health workers increased their self confidence and motivation to continue breastfeeding.

    CONCLUSION: The time of breastfeeding initiation was an indicator for mothers who needed breastfeeding support both in maternity ward and in the well-baby clinic. The use of supplements in addition to breastfeeding at an early stage was a marker for shorter duration of breastfeeding. It is important to ensure that mothers get breastfeeding support before discharge from hospital and that the support is individual and based on knowledge. Mothers’ need of breastfeeding support after discharge from hospital is a central part of health promotion at the well-baby clinic as it concerns the baby’s nutrition and the mothers mastering.

  • 48. Als,, Birgitte
    CSR-DRIVEN INNOVATION - Combining design and business in a profitable and sustainable way2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one of the outcomes of the project: “CSR-Driven Innovation – Combining design and business in a profitable and sustainable way” which was carried out in the period 2007 - 2010. The aim of the project was to strengthen the competitiveness of Nordic SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) by providing them with an increased knowledge about how to use CSR-driven innovation.

  • 49. Alsing Pedersen, Gitte
    et al.
    Carlson, Erlend
    Ekroth, Susanne
    Kostamo, Pirkko
    Lagersted Nordström, Åsa
    Olafsson, Grimur
    Rajakangas, Liisa
    Vaz, Reggie
    Fabech, Bente
    Food contact materials and articles: Printing Inks: Check lists for compliance in industry and trade and control by food inspection2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-house control and the documentation of it is the basis for the assurance of compliance with legislation, in the food area and in the area of food contact materials (FCM). Safe use of FCM is a complicated area, in general, and specifically the use of printing inks and the critical points in the printing process. One of the goals for this check list is to contribute to the development of more uniform control and requirements for in-house control. Printing inks used in FCM are regulated by these general requirements and some uses are addressed more specifically , and as there is no specific legislation in the area in EU yet. In-house documentation is based on the assumption, that each link in the supply chain ensures compliance. The check lists set a frame with minimum requirements to all relevant links in the supply chain from producers to food industry and trade. The check lists are guidance to industry and trade in order to ensure compliance with the requirements in the FCM.

  • 50.
    Amtsbiller, Helle
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Hvordan oplever og håndterer de danske infektionshygiejniske enheder risikoen for udvikling af antibiotikaresistente mikroorganismer?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to present and future patients. Despite several interventions, the increase in multidrug-resistant microorganisms is a global challenge in public health.

    Aim: This study describes and analyzesthe viewpoint of infection control specialists (physicians and infection control nurses) regarding the threat of antimicrobial resistance. It was also evaluated whether specialists perceive a need to improve the match between individual specialist and decision makers.

    Methods: Qualitative content theory was used to analyze empirical data based upon semi-structured interviews with infection control specialists. Management, inter-and cross-sector cooperation, and quality improvement and evaluationformed the theoretical framework for this thesis.

    Results: Interviewees reported thatDenmark’s efforts to prevent the spread of infection and the development of new resistant micro-organisms have been insufficient. The interviewees viewed current national and international guidelines as sufficient but the interviewees expressed that there is in adequate compliance withvarious elements of the infection control program, including vocational training, guidelines, information and education, monitoring, and a national antibiotic strategy. However, there is a need for more focus and emphasis on implementation and information to all involved personnel.

    Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance requires greaterinter-and cross-sector cooperationin Denmark, regarding the overuse of antibiotics. This effort will require the participation of general practitioners, healthcare professionals, veterinarian specialists, as well as the involvement of leaders and relevant organizations and ministries

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