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  • 1. Aalto, Kristiina
    et al.
    Heiskanen, Eva
    Leire, Charlotte
    Thidell, Åke
    The Nordic Swan - From past experiences to future possibilities: The third evaluation of the Nordic ecolabelling scheme2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the third evaluation of the Nordic Swan ecolabelling scheme. The evaluation is conducted from the perspective of the public administration, and it examines the role of the Nordic Swan in a policy context. Recommendations are presented for authorities in the Nordic countries and for the bodies operating the schemes on a Nordic and national level. The evaluation focuses on current opportunities and challenges in the operating environment of the scheme. It examines the relations between the Nordic Swan and the EU Eco-label in the Nordic countries, including their governance procedures, popularity and reception in the market. Other current topics addressed include the progress achieved by the Nordic marketing strategy for the Swan and some current governance issues in the scheme, including the grounds for public funding for the Nordic Swan. The report also analyses the relations between the Swan and other environmental information systems. In particular, the report investigates the opportunities and challenges ensuing from the current attention to climate issues for the Nordic Swan.

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  • 2. Aase Sørensen, Bjørg
    et al.
    Thea Wathne, Christin
    Bærekr@ftig arbeidsliv: Arbeidslivsutvikling i Norden2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Endringer i klimaforhold og forsvarlig nivå for beskatning av naturressurser møtes av en sterk påpeking av sammenhengen mellom holdbar arbeidslivsutvikling og mulighetene for å møte de ytre bærekraftstruslene. Gjennom arbeidslivets sammensatte prosesser formes oppfatninger av legitimt eierskap, muligheter til gjennom samarbeid å realisere gruppers og enkeltmenneskers potensial og bidra til å løse fellesskapets utfordringer økonomisk, sosialt og miljømessig. Norden representerer en samfunnsmodell der arbeidslivet bidrar til en høy markedsmessig økonomisk effektivitet samtidig som det vedlikeholder og fornyer en stabil velferdsstat. Gjør den nordiske modellen oss bedre rustet til å møte holdbarhetsutfordringene? Denne gjennomgangen av nordisk arbeidslivspraksis viser at en allerede må forholde seg til tydelige tegn på likeartede holdbarhetsproblemer. Det paradoksale bildet er: Samtidig som vi aldri har hatt det så bra, har vi et økende utenforskap i arbeidslivet i form av sykefravær og frafall. Boken tematiserer hvordan handlingspress har utløst programmer, avtaler og (forsknings-)prosjekter som adresserer utfordringene både ad hoc og i et lengre perspektiv. Individuelle stemmer som bidrar med sine livserfaringer om hva holdbarhet representerer kommer også til orde. Boken tar ikke sikte på å gi svar på dagens utfordringer, men er en invitasjon til dialog mellom forskning, arbeidstaker/arbeidsgiver og myndigheter om de praktiske bærekraftsvalgene som arbeidslivet i Norden kan ta.

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  • 3. Aaskov Knudsen, Mette
    et al.
    Hjulmann Seidler, Poul
    Nature Interpretation for Children and Young People in the Nordic Countries2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This TEMA-Nord report is a result of a one-year project with all of the Nordic countries participating. The primary goal of the project has been to collect, develop and mediate a series of good examples of how nature interpretation, aimed at children and young people, can encourage children's understanding of nature, and inspire them to involve themselves with questions on humans nature and thus help contribute to sustainable development. Several issues should be considered when planning nature interpretation activities if nature interpretation aims to lead to sustainable development. These points of view are concerned especially with how nature interpreters can encourage children and young people to take ownership, to be involved with their body and mind, and to reflect and put the experience and the activities in nature into a wider context.

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  • 4. Aasland, Aadne
    For Children in Our Neighbourhood: An evaluation of the Nordic Action Plan for Children and Young Adults at Risk in the Adjacent Areas2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Action Plan for Children and Young Adults in the Adjacent Areas was launched in 1999 in order to contribute to an improvement of the living conditions of young risk groups in the Baltic states and North-West Russia. More than 400 small and large projects have received funding from the programme since then. The present evaluation of the programme has been carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR). The evaluation team recommends a continuation of the programme founded on its achievements in focusing on risk groups, keeping a cross-sectoral approach, involving the policy level in the adjacent area countries, emphasising competence transfer and capacity building, and stimulating an interest in Nordic approaches and models in work with the risk groups. At the same time the evaluators suggest that in the future more emphasis should be put on a further institutionalisation of the programme, it should be used more actively to build partnerships in the region, more attention should be paid to the human resources in the projects, and dissemination activities should be given a more prominent place.

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  • 5. Abildgaard, Jørgen
    et al.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Baltic Sea Region Testing Ground Facility: Status after 10 year2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives an overview of the technical and political work of the Nordic Council of Ministers since 1993 to create a Joint Implementation set-up that mitigates greenhouse gas emissions at least costs with mutual benefits for both the Nordic countries and the countries in the Baltic Sea Region.

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  • 6. Abrahamsen, Gerd
    et al.
    Berg, Lise-Kari
    Henriksen, Espen
    Sjøvoll, Jarle
    Kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap: Perspektiv på naturvitenskapelig talent og praktisk-musiske fag2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    De nordiske utdannings- og forskningsministre ønsker å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdannelsene. Dette var bakgrunnen for at ministrene i april 2009 besluttet at Nordisk ministerråd skulle gjennomføre en nordisk komparativ studie av hvordan kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap er integrert i de nordiske utdanningssystemene. Som tilleggsoppdrag til denne studien, ble det i 2010 under det danske formannskapet i Nordisk ministerråd, tatt initiativ til ytterligere to studier om henholdsvis de praktisk musiske fag og de nordiske lands arbeid med talentutvikling og kreativitet i relasjon til naturvitenskap. Studiene er en del av Nordisk ministerråds globaliseringsprosjekt "En god opplæring til ungdom og voksne" som har som ett av fire delmål å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdanningen. Studiene er gjennomført under ledelse av Universitet i Nordland, Norge, på oppdrag fra Nordisk ministerråd.

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  • 7. Ackerman, Frank
    et al.
    Massey, Rachel
    Les véritables coûts de REACH2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    The proposed new chemicals policy of the European Community, REACH, is an important new development in environmental protection. Rather than waiting for government or independent researchers to determine that chemicals are hazardous, it will make manufacturers, importers, and professional users of chemicals responsible for the safe use. There is little doubt that REACH will give health and environmental benefits, but there has been little agreement about the resulting costs: -Will European manufacturers be crushed by the economic burden of chemicals regulation, as some industry sources have suggested? -Or, as projected in some public sector studies, will there be a minor cost impact, well within the ability of industry and worth the price? This report offers a new look at these costs. Frank Ackerman and Rachel Massey compare the current EC legislation on chemicals, the European Commission’s proposal and an alternative proposal addressing previous versions of REACH. The authors make a bottom-up calculation of the expected registration and testing costs under REACH and provide a new analysis of the indirect economic impacts. Ultimately they evaluate some prominent arguments about the costs of REACH and discuss the expected benefits. In the appendices there is the derivation of their economic impacts analysis and a critique of the best-known industry-oriented study.

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  • 8. Afton, Halloran (Lead Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Guía para gente soñadora: Versión abreviada del Menú deSoluciones: Una guía nórdica parapolíticas alimentarias sostenibles.2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Por primera vez se reúnen en un mismo documento las soluciones de política alimentaria más innovadoras de la región nórdica. Este Menú de Soluciones abarca nutrición, cultura e identidad alimentarias, comida y alimentación públicas, desperdicio de alimentos y dietas sostenibles. Incluye 24 ejemplos de políticas locales, nacionales y regionales diseñadas para suscitar nuevas conversaciones e inspirar nuevas políticas en otras partes del mundo. Cada una de las soluciones supone un paso tangible para abordar un problema específico; en su conjunto, representan un enfoque nuevo e integral a la política alimentaria. También dan testimonio de cómo las políticas blandas pueden traducirse en soluciones y desempeñar un importante papel en la consecución de objetivos ambiciosos a nivel nacional e internacional.

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    Download free PDF
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  • 9. Agbodjan, Edem
    How do we turn waste to wealth?2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The world generates 2.01 billion tonnes of municipal solid waste annually and that number is estimated to rise to3.40 billion tonnes by 2050.Poor management of waste is not only causing the planet harm through the contamination of oceans, clogging drains and causing floods but it is also affecting daily health, productivity, and cleanliness ofcommunities.

    Nordic solutions

    The Nordic countries are aiming for a zero waste society where waste is avoided. Yet currently the Nordic countries are working within different levels of the EU waste hierarchy shown below.This booklet will showcase 3 different cases in Denmark, Sweden and Norway that cover waste-to-energy,auto recycling and biological waste management solutions.

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  • 10. Agnarsson, Sveinn
    et al.
    Arnason, Ragnar
    Johannsdottir, Karen
    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars
    K. Sandal, Leif
    I. Steinshamn, Stein
    Vestergaard, Niels
    Multispecies and Stochastic issues: Comparative Evaluation of the Fisheries Policies in Denmark, Iceland and Norway2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this report has been to compare the fisheries polices in Denmark, Iceland and Norway with respect to economic performance and degree of sustainability. This has been done by comparing the actual stock and harvest development in the three countries to the optimal stock and harvest development suggested by a dynamic optimization model developed in the project. Thus we have defined indicators for stock and harvest performance. Emphasis in this project compared to earlier has been put on uncertainty and especially on multi-species interaction and modelling. The result of the project is that although there are clear signs of both harvest and stock overexploitation in all three countries, there were also significant differences. In particular, some of the results from the single-species model were turned around when species interaction was taken into account.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 11. Ahonen, Hanna-Mari
    Exploring practical experience of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) requirements: Report from the side event at the COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NOAK and NEFCO organised a side event on NAMAs and MRV requirements during the UN climate conference at COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.2012. There are different opinions on what the minimum requirements on MRV systems for NAMAs should be and what the role of the UNFCCC would be in this regard. Issues have also been raised on whether there should be a differentiation in the MRV system between the different types of NAMAs. The aim of the side event was to explore practical experience on the issue, both from on-going initiatives and from the donors. This report first presents briefly the key concepts NAMA and MRV, then discusses each presentation and finally draws a summary on the observations and lessons emerging from the side event.

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  • 12. Ahonen, Sanna
    Experiences on projects promoting sustainable lifestyles in Nordic countries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable Consumption is a focus theme in the Environmental Action Plan 2009-2012 of the Nordic Council of Ministers. As stressed in the Plan, the Nordic countries form a joint market with the same product range and similar patterns of consumption. Hence, the countries can together contribute to developing environmentally adapted production meth-ods and stimulating the interaction between environmentally conscious consumptionand an environment oriented product range. This report presents 22 different projects, realized recently in the Nordic countries, that have promoted sustainable life styles.

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  • 13. Ahonen, Sanna
    Kestävää elämäntapaa edistävät hankkeet Pohjoismaissa2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Kestävä kulutus on keskiössä Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston Ympäris-töyhteistyön toimintasuunnitelmassa vuosille 2009–2012. Ohjelmassa tode-taan, että Pohjoismaat muodostavat yhteiset markkinat ja niitä yhdistävät samanlaiset tuotevalikoimat ja kulutustottumukset. Siten maat voivat yhdessä edistää ympäristön kannalta kestävien tuotantomenetelmien kehittymistä sekä sitä kautta lisätä kestäviä kulutusmahdollisuuksia. Tässä raportissa esitellään 22 Pohjoismaissa toteutettua hanketta, jotka ovat edistäneet kestävää elämäntapaa.

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  • 14. Ahrens, Andreas
    et al.
    Reihlen, Antonia
    The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database: Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission launched on 29 October 2003 its proposal for a new chemical legislation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). In 2006 the Nordic Chemicals Group granted funds to the Nordic Product Register Group to start a joint Nordic project on "The Nordic Product Registers and the future REACH substance database. Comparison of the registration systems and options for future developments". The objective of the project was to clarify the extent of overlap between REACH substance database and the Product Registers and characterize the added value of the Nordic Product Registers. The REACH substance database and the Product Registers are different systems. These differences are compared and discussed in this report with proposals for use of Product Register information in the implementation of REACH.

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  • 15. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea: Valuation of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of the ecosystem services and associated benefits provided by the Baltic Sea, including information on the approaches of assessing and valuing ecosystem services being applied in the Baltic Sea region. It also identifies the main challenges in ecosystem service assessments in the Baltic Sea, and outlines the way forward in applying assessment tools in regional and national policies.Valuation of the benefits provided by ecosystem services can aid in designing more efficient policies for the protection of the Baltic Sea. The existing studies on the value of improved marine environment are useful in assessing the importance and value of some marine ecosystem services, but further work is still needed on describing ecosystem services and their interactions, and evaluating how policy changes affect these services and human well-being.

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  • 16. Ahtiainen, Jukka
    et al.
    Väänänen, Elina
    Regulatory Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: Are we facing the same challenges as the regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals?2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic NanoNet Workshop and EDC discussion was organised in October 2011 in Espoo, Finland as part of the 2011 Finnish chairmanship of the Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR). The workshop focused on the safety assessment and management of nanomaterials (NMs) while reflecting on experiences in regulating endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).  This report describes the presentations, break-out group discussions and conclusions of the meeting. The regulatory frameworks and links between NMs and EDCs as well as the applicability of test guidelines and risk assessment tools for nanomaterials were addressed in presentations and break-out group work.  Regulatory possibilities were further considered in a panel-led discussion. The Nordic dimension was of special interest: strengthening of Nordic regulatory cooperation in the field of nanosafety gained support, while commencing a TG/GD project in the OECD test guideline programme was seen a concrete idea for future cooperation.

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  • 17. Airoldi, Adele
    European Union and the Arctic: Main developments July 2008–July 20102010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for the Arctic region has been intense in recent years, as demonstrated by intensified political debate on Arctic issues and increased national activity and multilateral cooperation in the region. In this period the European Union has also paid increased attention to the Arctic region, expressed  through  the Commission's Arctic Communication (November 2008) and the Council's Conclusions (December 2009). The Arctic now appears as a recognized feature in EU policies and activities. This paper by Ms. Adele Airoldi, commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers,  describes and analyses the principal elements of the EU approach to Arctic issues as it has developed from July 2008 to July 2010, updating the report "The European Union and the Arctic - policies and actions" from 2008 . It reviews EU documents and pronouncements on Arctic issues, explores the development in the main EU policy sectors which impact the Arctic region and positions the EU in the wider Arctic political context through examining EU multilateral cooperation and bilateral relations. It also aims at giving an input to the ongoing co-operation of the Nordic Council of Ministers with the EU on Arctic questions.

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  • 18. Airoldi, Adele
    The European Union and the Arctic: Developments and perspectives 2010-20142014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report analyses the policy statements on Arctic issues released from 2010 by the EU institutions and the EU’s role-building in the Arctic political framework, notably the Arctic Council. It describes how the EU’s role in the Arctic is seen in strategies and policy papers of Member States, and reports on the EU’s relations with other Arctic actors, particularly indigenous peoples. It gives an overall view of the status of the main EU policies with relevance for the Arctic and identifies the main challenges the EU has to face for progressing to an integrated and coherent Arctic policy.

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  • 19. Airoldi, Adele
    The European Union and the Arctic: Policies and actions2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The developments in the Arctic are increasingly a subject for political dialogue and policy discussion in global and regional fora and within individual states. There's a need to facilitate coordination of international action to meet the many challenges facing the Arctic region. Cooperation with and within the EU is of great importance for the Arctic, since a range of the existing policies and activities pursued by the EU impact on the Arctic region. The NCM has therefore commissioned this review of the EU's policies and its administrative processes that are related to or affect the development in the Arctic. The aim of the report is to create an overview of existing policies of the EU of importance to the Arctic and to identify possible areas of co-operation. It also constitutes an input to the Nordic Council Ministers' Arctic Conference "Common Concern for the Arctic" that will take place on the 9-10 September in Ilulissat, Greenland.

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  • 20. Aitattaleb, Saadia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Besöksförbud i Norden. En studie av ländernas lagstiftningar och tillämpning2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Besöksförbud i Norden - En studie av ländernas lagstiftningar och tillämpning Denna rapport tar sikte på att särskilt studera besöksförbudsregleringen i Norden och utgör en del av ett större nordiskt samarbetsprojekt kring våld: Våld och våldsreducering i Norden. Forskning visar att det är en liten grupp gärningspersoner som begår en stor andel av brotten men även att de personer som en gång utsatts för brott riskerar att på nytt bli offer. Detta gäller för olika typer av brott, exempelvis rån och misshandel. Av de kvinnor som polisanmält att de utsatts för misshandel eller hot av en bekant gärningsperson återkommer 25 procent inom ett år med en anmälan om liknande brott (Brå 2001:3). Besöksförbud är en åtgärd vars syfte är att förebygga att personer utsätts för våld, hot eller trakasserier - i första hand för kvinnor, men även andra. I studien har besöksförbud granskats från följande perspektiv: " De rättsliga förutsättningarna för förbudet. " På vilket sätt förbudet tillämpas i praktiken. I rapporten redovisas besöksförbuds-lagstiftningarna i Norden samt de problem som identifierats. Avslutningsvis lämnas vissa åtgärdsförslag som kopplas till en förklaringsmodell.

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  • 21. Albertsen, Karen
    et al.
    Kauppinen, Kaisa
    Grimsmo, Asbjön
    Aase Sørensen, Björg
    Linda Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg
    Tómasson, Kristinn
    Working time arrangements and social consequences – What do we know?2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New working time arrangement are becoming still more abundant partly due to globalization (the 24-hours global economy with around-the-clock communication and transport of gods and services) and increasing demands for productivity and quality both in private and public sectors. The new working time arrangements are associated both with company -based flexibility, referring to the needs of employers to modify, extend or reduce work hours according to production needs, and with individual flexibility that provides more influence over own work schedule for the employees but also contains the risk of over-commitment. I all Nordic countries an increasing public debate on stress, mental health problems and conflicts between work and private life have emerged during the last decade. To some extent the public debate seems to be governed more by beliefs than by knowledge and scientific evidence. The knowledge in this field is far from complete, but in some areas research has provided good knowledge, and several ongoing research projects will provide new and important knowledge the coming years. The present report - being the result of a Nordic expert group - provides an excellent review of the current international scientific knowledge with regard to direct social consequences (mental well-being, stress and work-life balance) of long and irregular working hours and employee influence on working hours. Furthermore, the labour market development in the Nordic countries is presented in relation to new working time arrangements. The report provides a well-structured insight in the social consequences of new working time arrangements. I am convinced that decision makers, working environment professionals, and researchers will gain a lot by reading the report.   Monday, 24 September 2007     Otto Melchior Poulsen Research Director National Research Centre for the Working Environment

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  • 22. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Andersen, Torben M.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Bratsberg, Bernt
    Calmfors, Lars
    Kauhanen, Antti
    Lassila, Jukka
    Maliranta, Mika
    Määttänen, Niku
    Raaum, Oddbjørn
    Røed, Knut
    Simson, Kristine von
    Sørensen, Allan
    Valkonen, Tarmo
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Vihriälä, Vesa
    The Nordic model – challenged but capable of reform2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic welfare model has received a lot of positive attention around the world.  High standard of living, small income disparities and substantial social mobility looks like a very attractive package. Moreover, sound public finances and strong emphasis on environmental sustainability suggest that today’s success has not been accomplished at the expense of future generations. But is there really a unique “Nordic Supermodel”, unshaken by the global economic crisis and capable of producing continuous high growth and world class welfare services when many developed economies struggle with the impacts of global competition and population ageing? This book shows that Nordic performance has not been quite as unique or uniform as often claimed. The recent global and European crisis and country specific shocks have affected also the Nordic countries, some of them very strongly. And there are as many variants of the Nordic model as there are Nordic countries. Going forward, also the Nordic countries will be challenged by ageing, globalisation and technological change, some more than the others. On the other hand many fundamentals remain strong in the Nordic countries, and, what is perhaps most important, the Nordics have proved themselves capable of adjusting.  Labour market practices, pension policies, and production of public services have been reformed to match new circumstances. Public policies have been aimed at creating new jobs and helping people in transition, not at protecting uncompetitive businesses. There is a strong, rational tradition of consensual policy making. Further reforms are needed, and some widening of income disparities may be inevitable. The message of the book is, however, that refocused and recalibrated in a realistic scale the Nordic model has good chances of thriving well into the future.

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  • 23. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    Lindahl, Lena
    Simson, Kristine von
    Vanhala, Pekka
    Youth unemployment and inactivity: A comparison of school-to-work transitions and labour market outcomes in four Nordic countries2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people follow highly different trajectories from age 16 up to age 20, a time period which is often argued to be the most critical in terms of their future labour market outcomes. The focus of this report is on investigating the look of these early pathways, as well as on exploring their link to labour market outcomes in adulthood. Results are reported and compared for four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

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  • 24. Alhola, Katriina
    et al.
    Salmenperä, Hanna
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    Busch, Niels J.
    Circular Public Procurement in the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a framework for circular procurement and discusses its possibilities to promote circular economy. Several best practice examples in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway illustrate how and in which sectors and product groups circular procurement could be applicable. Different approaches to circular procurement and tendering criteria supporting circular aspects are also illustrated.The study was carried out in Nordic co-operation by Finnish Environment Institute, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and Copenhagen Resource Institute. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), administrated by the NCM Sustainable Consumption and Production Working Group and guided by a steering group consisting representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

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    Circular Procurement PowerPoint slides (PDF).
  • 25. Alsing Pedersen, Gitte
    et al.
    Carlson, Erlend
    Ekroth, Susanne
    Kostamo, Pirkko
    Lagersted Nordström, Åsa
    Olafsson, Grimur
    Rajakangas, Liisa
    Vaz, Reggie
    Fabech, Bente
    Food contact materials and articles: Printing Inks: Check lists for compliance in industry and trade and control by food inspection2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-house control and the documentation of it is the basis for the assurance of compliance with legislation, in the food area and in the area of food contact materials (FCM). Safe use of FCM is a complicated area, in general, and specifically the use of printing inks and the critical points in the printing process. One of the goals for this check list is to contribute to the development of more uniform control and requirements for in-house control. Printing inks used in FCM are regulated by these general requirements and some uses are addressed more specifically , and as there is no specific legislation in the area in EU yet. In-house documentation is based on the assumption, that each link in the supply chain ensures compliance. The check lists set a frame with minimum requirements to all relevant links in the supply chain from producers to food industry and trade. The check lists are guidance to industry and trade in order to ensure compliance with the requirements in the FCM.

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  • 26. Andersen, Bent
    The Impact of Renewables and Energy Efficiency on Greenhouse Gas Emissions2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the impact of renewables, CO2 pricing and energy efficiency improvements on CO2 emissions from stationary energy use in the Nordic countries except Iceland. The analysis shows that CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2005 could have been as much as 30-50% higher without the penetration of renewables in the energy system and the improvement in the energy intensity of GDP. Looking ahead, both the EU ETS and renewables policies may have a significant impact on CO2 emissions. Both measures yield significant CO2 reductions when applied separately, and even in combination for moderate CO2 prices. This is because the measures to some extent apply to different sectors and uses. The effectiveness of energy efficiency improvements is also found to have a significant effect on emissions. Electricity saving measures are found to be more effective in terms of CO2 emission reductions than general heat saving measures.

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  • 27. Andersen, Jes Sig
    et al.
    Jespersen, Morten Gottlieb
    A Protocol for Black Carbon Emissions: A Protocol for Measuring Emissions of Elemental Carbon and Organic Carbon from Residential Wood Burning2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This protocol was developed and subsequently tested in 2012-2015 by Nordic test and research institutes, with Danish Technological Institute (DTI) as project manager. This protocol describes a potential standardized procedure for measurements of BC (Black Carbon) in terms of both EC (Elemental Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon) from residential wood burning stoves. Such a standardized test can then be used for voluntary eco-labeling of wood stoves, and by manufacturers interested in testing and developing extremely low-emission, low-black carbon, “climate-friendly” stoves. This testing protocol is part of a project supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), and implemented by the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI).

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  • 28. Andersen, Lene Feldthus
    et al.
    Manniche, Jesper
    Kaae, Berit C.
    Certificering og andre virkemidler til udvikling af bæredygtig outdoorturisme: Betydning og potentiale for nordiske småsamfund2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Projektets formål er at give outdooraktører, turismeorganisationer, myndigheder og nordiske beslutningstagere mere viden om mulighederne for udvikling af bæredygtig outdoorturisme. Projektet har taget udgangspunkt i (outdoor)turismen i Grønland, Island, Færøerne, Åland og Bornholm og har beskrevet virkemidler til at fremme bæredygtighed inden for outdoorturisme - fra Best practices og Standarder til Regulering og Certificering. Analyserne viser, at udfordringer, muligheder og styringsbehov mht. outdoorturisme i de fem områder er forskellige. Projektet anbefaler, at organisationer og myndigheder i de fem områder organiserer egne processer, der klargør, hvordan man skal arbejde med bæredygtighed i forhold til outdoorturisme. Det anbefales også, at Nordisk Ministerråd tager stilling til, om der under det nordiske Svanemærke kan oprettes en ny produktkategori for turismeservices.

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  • 29. Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Jacobsen, Jens Bjørn
    Lundqvist, Per
    Johansen, Marius
    Johansen, Marius
    Kirkeby, Janus
    Plastic Sorting at Recycling Centres, v.12014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres. The aim is to assist the management of recycling centres in their choices in order to collect plastic of better quality and in greater quantities. Potential plastic categories are listed and described together with Issues to take into account when choosing how to organise the collection at the recycling centre.The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – www.norden.org/greengrowth. Read also more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org

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  • 30.
    Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Sandberg, Kenneth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Lundqvist, Per
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Thulin, Jens
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Kirkeby, Janus
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Weidling, Asbjørn
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Guideline2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres. The aim is to give assistance to the choices made by the management of recycling centres in order to collect plastic of better quality and in greater quantities. In the guideline, the potential plastic categories are listed and described, also with respect to potential content of hazardous substances. Issues to take into account when choosing how to organise the collection of plastic at the recycling centre are described. A separate chapter looks at how the public could be assisted with the sorting of plastics at the recycling centres.

    The guideline is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” - read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 31. Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Wejdling, Asbjørn
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Background report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a background report for the "Guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres". The background report describes the methodology used in preparing the guideline, including information from existing systems and the stakeholders that can be used by the recycling centres in their decision process. The report describes the importance of communicating with purchasers about the expected purity and traceability of the plastic further down the value chain.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read also more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org

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  • 32. Anderson, Ryan
    et al.
    Magne Skjelvik, John
    Vennemo, Haakon
    Individual Financial Guarantee for Future Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has increased dramatically over recent years within the European Economic Area (EEA). Much of this waste is potentially damaging for humans and the environment if not collected and treated in a sound manner. EU-directive 2002/96, which was to be implemented by all EEA member states by August 13, 2005, places full financial responsibility of the management of WEEE on producers and importers, and aims to protect consumers from the risk that a producer exits on the market without fulfilling these financial obligations. The directive calls for a financial guarantee provided by producers at the time that electrical and electronic products are placed on the market.The Nordic Council of Ministers has asked ECON to develop a method for calculating producer contributions as a financial guarantee that would cover the collection and treatment of WEEE from private households, as provided for in article 8 in the EU directive. This report proposes a model for this purpose.

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  • 33. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Kristinsson, Jakob
    Gry, Jørn
    Occurrence and use of hallucinogenic mushrooms containing psilocybin alkaloids2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some parts of the world mushrooms have had a central role in religious ritual ceremonies. Ethnomycological studies among the Indian tribes of Mexico - the Aztecs and the Chichimecas - revealed the mushrooms to be hallucinogenic. Chemists from a leading Pharmaceutical company took over, isolated and described the mushroom alkaloid psilocybin, that upon dephosphorylation after collection of the mushroom or in the human body, form psilocin that is the active hallucinogenic compound. For a long time psilocybin/psilocin was expected to become a constituent of psychedelic drugs useful for treatment of specific psychoses. As the effect of psilocybin/psilocin resembles that of LSD the isolated compound, as well as mushrooms containing the compound, became popular among recreational users of hallucinogenic drugs in Western America, and from there the habit of using these mushrooms have spread around the world. Psilocybin/psilocin is legally prohibited in many countries which usually treat the compound as a narcotic drug. Some countries also prohibit the use of some or all psilocybin-containing mushrooms. In this respect, the legal situation differs between Nordic countries. Although psilocybin-containing mushrooms are not what Nordic mushroom pickers are trying to find as food or food supplement, there is a risk, admittedly small, that these mushrooms accidentally will be collected. At the present situation, this may be a legal problem in some Nordic countries. This document aims at identifying when this might be the case without going into legal interpretations.

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  • 34. Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Arbetskraftenss rörlighet i Norden: – Drivkrafter och effekter2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska gemensamma arbetsmarknaden har vuxit och fortsätter att växa. Det finns en omfattande diskussion om vilka effekter denna expansion har och kommer att få. Det finns i denna diskussion lärdomar att dra från erfarenheterna av den nordiska arbetsmarknaden som etablerades långt tidigare. I denna rapport behandlar vi ekonomiska aspekter av den gemensamma arbetsmarknaden i Norden med betoning på migration och pendling.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 35. Andreasson, Alf
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Nilsson, Per-Åke
    Wigholm, Pär
    Johansson, Örjan
    Bullerdämpning av externt industribuller från livsmedelsindustri och hamnar: Best Available Technique (BAT)2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ÅF Ljud & Vibrationer har på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådets BAT-grupp, som är en undergrupp till arbetsgruppen för hållbar konsumtion och produktion, utfört en studie kring bästa tillgängliga teknik, s.k. BAT(Best Available Technique) avseende dämpning av externt industribuller från livsmedelsindustrier och hamnverksamheter. Rapporten är framtagen i syfte att identifiera de tekniker, som ska beaktas när BAT ska bestämmas, för att begränsa bulleralstrande mekanismer och arbetsmoment inom externt industribuller. Tio respektive elva stycken tekniker presenteras och de fokuserar på de ljudalstrande mekanismer som olika maskiner och verksamheter ger upphov till, samt vad som kan göras för att minimera buller till omgivningen, BAT. Resultatet visar att en tillämpning av BAT medför att respektive bullerkällas bullerbidrag till omgivningen kan reduceras avsevärt.

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  • 36. Andreasson, Ulf
    Jämställdhetens ekonomi: Politiken bakom och effekter av ökad jämställdhet på den nordiska arbetsmarknaden2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet med jämställdhet har kommit långt i Norden. På omkring femtio år har kvinnor gått från hemmafruar till en självklar del av arbetslivet. Det har starkt påverkat både individer och samhällen i de nordiska samhällena. Denna rapport diskuterar de politiska beslut som ligger bakom att kvinnor i de nordiska länderna i så hög grad lönearbetar jämfört med andra länder. Den innehåller också en beräkning vad utvecklingen har betytt ekonomiskt för de nordiska samhällena, samt vad det skulle innebära om vi lyckas utjämna skillnaderna ytterligare fram till år 2040.

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  • 37. Andreasson, Ulf
    Möjligheternas Norden: Reformarbetet i Nordiska ministerrådet 2014-172018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna text handlar om det reformarbete som genomfördes inom Nordiska ministerrådet under perioden 2014–17.

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  • 38. Andreasson, Ulf
    Tillid – det nordiske guld2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Denne rapport handler om social tillid i de nordiske samfund. I Norden finder man de højeste niveauer af tillid i verden. Den er til gavn for såvel samfundsøkonomien som for enkeltpersoner og samfundet i sin helhed. Rapporten undersøger, hvordan den sociale tillid er blevet så stor i Norden, og hvilke udfordringer den står over for.

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    Download Russian version Доверие – золото Северной Европы
  • 39.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TILLIT – DET NORDISKA GULDET2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om social tillit i de nordiska samhällena. Norden har högst nivåer av social tillit i världen. Detta gynnar såväl samhällsekonomin som individer och samhället i dess helhet. Rapporten diskuterar bakgrunden till att den sociala tilliten blivit så hög i Norden samt vilka utmaningar som den står inför.

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  • 40.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TRUST – THE NORDIC GOLD2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns social trust in the Nordic countries. The Nordic region has the highest levels of social trust in the world. This benefits the economy, individuals and society as a whole. This report discusses the background to why social trust has reached such high levels in the Nordic region, and the present day challenges it is facing.

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    Доверие – золото Северной Европы
  • 41. Andreasson, Ulf
    et al.
    Stende, Truls
    Ett värdefullt samarbete: Den nordiska befolkningens syn på Norden2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nordiska ministerrådet och Nordiska rådet har genomfört en större enkätundersökning om vad invånarna i Norden anser om det nordiska samarbetet: dess grunder, utformning och innehåll.

    Undersökningen visar at det nordiska samarbetet har ett brett folkligt stöd. Befolkningen menar at de två viktigaste grunderna för samarbetet er gemensamma värderingar och likartade samhällssystem. Den mest typisk nordiska värderingen upplevs vara yttrandefriheten.

    En betydande del av befolkningen anser att möjligheten att använda hela regionenför arbete, studier eller boende är en av de största fördelene med samarbetet. På det mest övergripande planet ses försvars- och säkerhetsfrågor som det viktigaste att samarbeta.

    Denna rapport er författad av Nordiska ministerrådets analys- och utredningsenhet. Enhetens rapportserie skal belysa aktuella ämnen som är centrala utifrån et nordiskt perspektiv. Detta er den tredje rapporten i serien. De två första var:

    • Tillit – Det nordiska guldet. Analys nr. 01/2017
    • Er Norden best i verden? Analys nr. 02/2017
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  • 42. Andreasson, Ulf
    et al.
    Stende, Truls
    Nordic municipalities’ work with artificial intelligence2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities in the Nordic regions are working to adopt artificial intelligence. Chat bots answer questions from citizens, algorithms can predict leaks in the water and sewage network, and tests are being conducted to determine how the technology can advise and support the municipalities’ case officers.

    This report describes how selected municipalities in the Nordic region are working with artificial intelligence. It discusses how the adoption of the technology may affect trust in the Nordic region, both in terms of the population’s trust in the public administration and social trust.

    The report makes recommendations for how the municipalities in the Nordic region can work together on artificial intelligence.

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  • 43. Andreasson, Ulf
    et al.
    Stende, Truls
    Nordiske kommuners arbeid med kunstig intelligens2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Kommuner i Norden arbeider med å ta i bruk kunstig intelligens. Chatboter svarer på spørsmål fra innbyggerne, algoritmer kan forutse lekkasjer i vann- og avløpsnettet, og det testes ut hvordan teknologien kan rådgi og støtte kommunenes saksbehandlere.

    Denne rapporten beskriver hvordan noen utvalgte kommuner i Norden arbeider med kunstig intelligens. Den drøfter hvordan innføringen av teknologien kan påvirke tilliten i Norden, både befolkningens tillit til den offentlige forvaltningen og den sosiale tilliten.

    Rapporten gir anbefalinger for hvordan kommunene i Norden kan samarbeide om kunstig intelligens.

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  • 44. Andreasson, Ulf
    et al.
    Stende, Truls
    Status för mobiliteten i Norden: Nordiska ministerrådets aktiviteter för ökad rörlighet över de nordiska gränserna2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten genomgår arbetet inom Nordiska ministerrådet med fokus på mobilitet över de nordiska gränserna. Mobilitet definieras som rörelse över gränser i Norden av människor, kapital, varor och tjänster. Sammanställningen bygger på en insamling av material från de olika sektorerna inom ministerrådet. Rapporten innehåller också relevant statistik om mobilitet i Norden.

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  • 45. Andresen, Britt
    et al.
    Palmehag, Anna
    Wessman, Johan
    Wiborg, Thea
    ID‐ og grænsekontroller i Norden: Effekter af ID- og grænsekontroller i Norden sommer og efterår 20162016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en uppföljning av rapporten ID‐ og grænsekontroller i Norden. Effekter af ID‐ og grænsekontroller i et nordisk perspektiv som offentliggjordes den 4 juli 2016. Rapporten visar hur situationen har utvecklats under sommaren och hösten 2016 när det gäller de effekter kontrollerna har på mobiliteten, resenärer och ekonomin i de nordiska gränsregionerna. Rapporten fokuserar särskilt på situationen i Öresundsregionen där kontrollerna fortfarande har avsevärda negativa effekter för de resande. Detta gäller i synnerhet för de som arbetspendlar med tåg mellan Sverige och Danmark. Rapporten visar att antalet arbetstillfällen i Danmark som är tillgängliga för arbetspendling från Sverige med kollektivtrafik har reducerats avsevärt och undersökningar bland arbetstagare och arbetsgivare i regionen indikerar att arbetspendlingen kan komma att minska på längre sikt till följd av kontrollerna. Rapporten har utarbetats av Öresundsinstittutet på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet.

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  • 46.
    Andresen, Britt
    et al.
    Øresundsinstituttet.
    Palmehag, Anna
    Øresundsinstituttet.
    Wiborg, Thea
    Øresundsinstituttet.
    ID- og grænsekontroller i Norden: Effekter af ID- og grænsekontroller i et nordisk perspektiv2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver effekterna av de tillfälliga gränskontroller och ID-kontroller som förekommer i Norden sedan drygt ett halvår tillbaka. Rapporten fokuserar på de effekter kontrollerna har på mobiliteten, resenärer och ekonomin i de nordiska gränsregionerna. Rapporten ger en översikt över de åtgärder som respektive land har vidtagit för att genomföra dessa kontroller och den innehåller också en närmare analys av situationen i ett antal utvalda gränsområden i Norden. Analysen visar att kontrollerna generellt fungerar relativt smidigt och att de inte stör trafiken med undantag för tågtrafiken över Öresundsbron där både tillgängligheten och restiden har försämrats väsentligt. Det är också i Öresundsområdet som tranportörernas kostnader för ID-kontrollerna är som störst. Rapporten har utarbetats av Öresundsinstittutet på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet. 

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  • 47. Andrée, Dan
    The Nordic Research and Innovation Area (NORIA) and synergies with the European Research Area (ERA)2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into the issue: How the Nordic Research and Innovation Area (NORIA) could be strengthen in synergy with the European Research Area (ERA) and how NORIA could be used as a platform for wider European and international cooperation, in particular in relations to activities supported by the EU's Framework Programme for research (FP7). The study also elaborates on how NORIA could contribute to the implementation of the ERA. The study concludes:

    • National and EU programmes become more and more integrated, thus ERA should have increased priority both on National and on Nordic level.
    • A more strategic pro-active approach is needed in order to have a longer term impact on ERA policy and content
    • Member States have to cooperate in "variable geometry" to have impact.
    • Nordic cooperation could be used as a platform, if used selectively in areas of common interest.
    • Nordic organisations should have a strong role as facilitator, catalysts and coordinator complementing agencies/councils on National level.
    • The Nordic Top-level research initiative should be utilised to the maximum on EU-level.
    • Lessons from the Nordic cooperation should be shared within ERA.
    • The study gives 17 concrete proposals building on the existing structure on National and Nordic level.
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  • 48. Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Clarke, Annemarie
    Telford, Richard
    Weckström, Kaarina
    Vilbaste, Sirje
    Aigars, Juris
    Conley, Daniel
    Johnsen, Torbjørn
    Juggins, Steve
    Korhola, Atte
    Defining reference conditions for coastal areas in the Baltic Sea2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of DEFINE is to provide a methodology to define reference conditions for nutrient concentrations in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. This will aid the national authorities that surround the Baltic basin in implementing the EU's Water Framework Directive (WFD) by providing decision-makers with a methodology to assess reference conditions and the degree of past and present departure from this state, such that appropriate policy and management measures can be taken at national and European levels. DEFINE adopts a palaeoecological approach grounded on diatom-based transfer functions, which can then be applied to define background total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in estuaries and coastal areas over the entire Baltic Sea. All transfer functions and necessary supporting documentation will be publicly available as a coherent management tool and accessible via the MOLTEN/DEFINE web page (http://craticula.ncl.ac.uk/Molten/jsp/).

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  • 49. Angelsen, Arild
    et al.
    Gierløff, Caroline Wang
    Beltrán, Angelica Mendoza
    Elzen, Michel den
    REDD credits in a global carbon market: Options and impacts2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can REDD credits be included in a future global carbon market, and what are the impacts of inclusion? We analyze ten different scenarios through 2020, varying the global emission caps and the REDD rules. An inclusion of REDD credits without any adjustments in the global cap will lower carbon prices significantly and cause crowding out. The cap must move towards the 2 degrees climate target if REDD inclusion is to maintain high carbon prices and strong incentives for emissions reductions in other sectors. At the same time, reaching the 2 degree target without full REDD inclusion will increase global mitigation costs by more than 50%.

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  • 50. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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