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  • 1. Ahonen, Hanna-Mari
    Exploring practical experience of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) requirements: Report from the side event at the COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NOAK and NEFCO organised a side event on NAMAs and MRV requirements during the UN climate conference at COP18 in Doha, Qatar on 3.12.2012. There are different opinions on what the minimum requirements on MRV systems for NAMAs should be and what the role of the UNFCCC would be in this regard. Issues have also been raised on whether there should be a differentiation in the MRV system between the different types of NAMAs. The aim of the side event was to explore practical experience on the issue, both from on-going initiatives and from the donors. This report first presents briefly the key concepts NAMA and MRV, then discusses each presentation and finally draws a summary on the observations and lessons emerging from the side event.

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  • 2. Andersen, Jes Sig
    et al.
    Jespersen, Morten Gottlieb
    A Protocol for Black Carbon Emissions: A Protocol for Measuring Emissions of Elemental Carbon and Organic Carbon from Residential Wood Burning2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This protocol was developed and subsequently tested in 2012-2015 by Nordic test and research institutes, with Danish Technological Institute (DTI) as project manager. This protocol describes a potential standardized procedure for measurements of BC (Black Carbon) in terms of both EC (Elemental Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon) from residential wood burning stoves. Such a standardized test can then be used for voluntary eco-labeling of wood stoves, and by manufacturers interested in testing and developing extremely low-emission, low-black carbon, “climate-friendly” stoves. This testing protocol is part of a project supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), and implemented by the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI).

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  • 3. Angelsen, Arild
    et al.
    Gierløff, Caroline Wang
    Beltrán, Angelica Mendoza
    Elzen, Michel den
    REDD credits in a global carbon market: Options and impacts2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can REDD credits be included in a future global carbon market, and what are the impacts of inclusion? We analyze ten different scenarios through 2020, varying the global emission caps and the REDD rules. An inclusion of REDD credits without any adjustments in the global cap will lower carbon prices significantly and cause crowding out. The cap must move towards the 2 degrees climate target if REDD inclusion is to maintain high carbon prices and strong incentives for emissions reductions in other sectors. At the same time, reaching the 2 degree target without full REDD inclusion will increase global mitigation costs by more than 50%.

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  • 4. Antman, Anne
    et al.
    Brubæk, Stein
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Lindqvist, Kajsa
    Markus-Johansson, Miriam
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Teerikangas, Jenny
    Nordic agriculture air and climate: Baseline and system analysis report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2 (or 1.5) degrees of warming and the air pollution target of zero exceedance of critical loads and critical levels regarding ammonia emissions.

    The Nordic region has diverse geological and climatic conditions that make certain types of agricultural production more vulnerable than others.

    The policy recommendations aim to serve as input to different policies at EU, Nordic and national level.

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  • 5. Asikainen, Anna
    et al.
    Stadelmann, Martin
    Mobilizing private finance for climate action in the global South: Nordic experiences and the way forward2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, the Nordic countries have increased their efforts to support developing economies in the mobilization of private finance. It is now time to take stock of the success stories. Regardless of the progress, several barriers limit the Nordic ability to scale up private climate finance even more. This brief presents ideas for addressing some of these the barriers and increasing the ambition in mobilizing private finance, including considerations on de-risking solutions and the applicability of Article 6 under the Paris Agreement. The brief was produced as part of the Nordic Public-Private Platform on Mobilization of Climate Finance Mobilization, and ahead of the global climate conference in Katowice, December 2018. It builds on previous studies funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, such as “Mobilizing climate finance flows – Nordic approaches and opportunities”.

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  • 6. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Pauw, Pieter
    Sælen, Håkon
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 7. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    Assessment and Review under a 2015 Climate Change Agreement: Lessons Learned and Ways Forward2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, Parties to the UNFCCC were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 agreement. Assessment and review of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles, help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties, and raise ambition over time.

     This report analyses the existing review processes both under and outside the UNFCCC. It suggests that some form of ex ante assessment and review process of INDCs could help ensure that they are ambitious and fair. Such process can be complemented by assessments by observer organizations and informal discussions among Parties. In addition, a periodic review of collective ambition is desirable from the perspective of environmental effectiveness, and can build on existing review processes.

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  • 8. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    From Lima to Paris, and Beyond: Options for Ex Ante Assessment of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions under the UNFCCC2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial question in the development of a new climate change agreement centres on the “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) that parties have agreed to communicate before the COP 21 in Paris in December 2015. This paper explores options for the design, organization and timing of the ex ante assessment process of the INDCs. It identifies key choices to be made in Lima, and the implications of these choices for the road to Paris. Finally, it discusses the implications of the design, organization and timing of the assessment for future review processes under a Paris agreement.

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  • 9. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

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  • 10. Bager, Simon L
    et al.
    Dinesh, Dhanush
    Olesen, Asger S
    Richards, M
    Guizani, Sara
    Andersen, S. P
    Agriculture initiatives and COP22: A step towards fighting climate change2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Against the backdrop of population increase, changing dietary patterns, increased affluence and rising demands on land for the generation of biofuels, agricultural productivity is required to increase significantly in the coming years. This increase will take place in a context of constrained resources and a changing global climate requiring increased adaptive capacity and increased resilience of agricultural systems. At the same time, agricultural activities are contributing significantly to climate change, with agricultural production and the food supply chain being responsible for up to a third of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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  • 11. Barthelmes, Alexandra
    et al.
    Couwenberg, John
    Risager, Mette
    Tegetmeyer, Cosima
    Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands and Climate in a Ramsar context: A Nordic-Baltic Perspective2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in the Nordic Baltic region and elsewhere in the world store large amounts of carbon and are at the same time important for conservation of biodiversity. Thus peatlands are space-effective carbon stocks, but when drained carbon and nitrogen are released as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and as nitrate to the surface water, while methane will be released when rewetting.

    New knowledge reveals that one of the most efficient means to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are the restoration of drained peatlands by reestablish former high water tables on organic soils.

    This project on synergies between climate change mitigation and the restoration of peatlands has been conducted under a regional Ramsar initiative covering the Nordic and Baltic countries (NorBalWet), with support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report contains chapters on peatlands and their role in climate change mitigation, individual country chapters and the role of the Ramsar Convention.

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  • 12. Bergsager, Henrik
    et al.
    Korppoo, Anna
    China’s State-Owned Enterprises as Climate Policy Actors: The Power and Steel Sectors2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant share of the greenhouse gas emitting activities of China is operated by state owned enterprises (SOEs). This report, written by Fridtjof Nansen Institute for the Nordic Council of Ministers, discusses the role of SOEs on the electricity and steel sectors, for instance, in upgrading technologies, centralizing operations and developing alternative energy sources. Informal networks, guanxi and nomenklatura, and financial ties provide the state control over SOEs. This makes SOEs a preferable alternative to private companies. As policies limiting emission growth have been economically attractive to SOEs so far, they have shown little opposition but this may change should costly measures be introduced in the future. While China’s position in climate negotiations is determined by the political leadership, the SOEs deserve attention due to their impact on China’s emission trends.

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  • 13. Bird, Tim
    et al.
    Weaver, Sally
    Climate action in Peru: Nordic support for waste sector management yields results2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Partnership Initiative on Upscaled Mitigation Action (NPI) supported developing countries in designing and implementing mitigation action and attracting funding from international climate finance and carbon markets. In Peru, the initiative focused on building readiness for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal solid waste sector. It generated comprehensive information on the sector’s status and trends in terms of waste and emissions, mitigation potential and costs, and barriers to action. Mitigation plans for landfills were prepared, a robust information system developed, and policy reforms introduced for recognising waste as a valuable raw material. The NPI results have been integrated into national and local development plans and serve as valuable building blocks in the design and implementation of Peru’s mitigation pledges under the Paris Agreement.

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  • 14. Bird, Timothy
    Nordic Action on Climate Change2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This booklet presents actions taken by the Nordic countries to speed the transition to a sustainable low-carbon society. It shows how sustainable development is possible, with strong climate policies contributing to economic growth and job creation as well as environmental improvements. The Nordic countries successfully demonstrate how ambitious climate change mitigation targets and policies can be combined with high levels of human development.

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  • 15. Bridle, Richard
    et al.
    Merrill, Laura
    Halonen, Mikko
    Zinecker, Anna
    Klimscheffskij, Markus
    Tommila, Paula
    Swapping Fossil Fuel Subsidies for Sustainable Energy2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Underpricing of fossil fuels, caused by subsidies, drives carbon intensive consumption. Reforming fossil fuel subsidies and allocating some of the savings to sustainable energy could accelerate a transition to fairer, safer, cleaner and more sustainable energy systems. This report outlines the Nordic Council of Ministers’ work to promote these swaps through the development of a business model and description of the link between fossil fuel subsidies, reforms and carbon emissions. The report evaluates potential swaps to increase industrial energy efficiency in the mining sector, in the context of energy sector reforms in Zambia; and the replacement of butane subsidies with solar investments in Morocco. The report also presents an outline of how Nordic countries are supporting reforms and driving the swaps agenda as part of Nordic Solutions to Global Challenges.

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  • 16. Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    Jepsen, Nis
    Kivi, Rigel
    Hansen, Georg H.
    Larsen, Niels
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    Air Quality in the Nordic Countries and Climate Changes in the Arctic: LINKA2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report use ozone measurement data retrieved in the Arctic with balloon borne ozone sondes for the last 20-30 years. Four stations with the best data series have been selected. Using a Monte Carlo method the yearly period is subtracted from the data and the remains, the anomalies, are correlated towards the area of the Polar Front, the temperature rise of the Nortern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and towards one another. It was found that the NAO correlates negatively with ozone anomalies for all four stations albeit the correlations are weak. Besides, the polar front area correlates weakly positive with the ozone anomalies for three out of the four stations. These results, together with the observation that the ozone-anomalies have a brief decorrelation time, indicate that most of the variability in the anomalies should be found in local conditions.

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  • 17.
    Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    DMI.
    Jepsen, Nis
    DMI.
    Kivi, Rigel
    FMI.
    Hansen, Georg H.
    NILU.
    Larsen, Niels
    DMI.
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    DMI.
    Time series analysis of Arctic tropospheric ozone as short-lived climate force2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone soundings from 9 Nordic stations with rather different data coverage have been homogenized followed by an interpolation to standard tropospheric pressure levels. A Bayesian model was applied which included a low-frequency variability, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for variability in seasonal amplitude and phasing, and noise. Regarding the low-frequency variability it was found that only Scoresbysund, Ny Aalesund and Sodankyla showed statistical significant changes with a maximum near 2007 followed by a decrease. We hypothesize that this decrease could be explained by an observed decrease in nitrogen oxide in Europe.

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  • 18. Cole, Scott
    et al.
    Lindhjem, Henrik
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Angelidis, Ioannis
    Barton, David N.
    Nordic urban nature recreation: How to practically integrate economic values in decision-making2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services.

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  • 19. Denby, Bruce
    et al.
    Karl, Matthias
    Laupsa, Herdis
    Johansson, Christer
    Pohjola, Mia
    Karppinen, Ari
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Wåhlin, Peter
    Source-Receptor and Inverse Modelling to quantify urban PARTiculate emissions (SRIMPART)2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be a significant health risk for humans. Yet, concentration levels in much of Europe still remain high. One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 (airborne particle matter with a diameter < 2.5  m) in Nordic countries is wood burning due to domestic heating. Unfortunately, emission inventories for wood burning are difficult to determine and there is a large uncertainty in the impact of these emissions on air quality. In SRIMPART we have applied independent methods to assess the contribution of wood burning to the total PM2.5 concentrations in three Nordic cities (Oslo, Lycksele and Helsinki).  These methods include receptor modelling, based on chemical analysis of filter samples, and inverse modelling using dispersion models. The results show that estimates of emissions based on wood consumption or based on the methods applied in SRIMPART have a similar level of uncertainty and so it is not possible to categorically state which is the most correct. However, both methods do agree within their respective uncertainties and this provides support that the long term average emissions from wood burning are correct to within a factor of two.

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  • 20. Ekholm, Tommi
    et al.
    Lindroos, Tomi
    A risk hedging strategy for the 2°C target and the Copenhagen Accord2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a research project ”Long term impact of the Copenhagen accord regarding the 2 degree target”, done at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland during autumn 2010 and winter 2011 for the Nordic Ad Hoc Group on Global Climate Negotiations (NOAK). The report portrays greenhouse gas emission pathways that would minimize the costs of reaching the 2oC target, while simultaneously taking into account the uncertainty of and future learning on climate sensitivity. Using these scenarios, we argue that the emission level resulting from the Copenhagen Accord would be at least 5 Gt CO2 eq higher than the cost-effective level in 2020. Therefore future climate negotiations should aim for more ambitious emission reductions, both in and after 2020.

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  • 21. Fauser, P
    et al.
    Ketzel, M
    Becker, T
    Plejdrup, M
    Brandt, J
    Gidhagen, L
    Omstedt, G
    Skårman, T
    Bartonova, A
    Schwarze, P
    Karvosenoja, N
    Paunu, V-V
    Kukkonen, J
    Karppinen, A
    Risk of Air Pollution in Relation to Cancer in the Nordic Countries2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gasses and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show no exceedances of the EU air quality values. The only exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations occurs for the PAH BaP in Denmark. However, the EU target value threshold for BaP is not exceeded. No emission data for BaP are available for the other countries and important uncertainties are still related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure.

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  • 22. Fauser, P.
    et al.
    Plejdrup, M.
    Ketzel, M.
    Hertel, O.
    Loft, S.
    Gidhagen, L.
    Omstedt, G.
    Skårman, T.
    Kittilsen, M.
    Walker, S-E.
    Schwarze, P.
    Karvosenoja, N.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Karppinen, A.
    Pukkala, E.
    Salonen, R.
    Emissions and air exposure of carcinogens and co-carcinogens in four Nordic countries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project (KoL 12-08) was performed for the Climate and Air Quality Group (KlimaogLuftgruppen, KoL), Nordic Council of Ministers by atmospheric emission, exposureand epidemiology experts from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Emission inventory methods and exposure models were presented. A list of carcinogenic andco-carcinogenic pollutants (particles, heavy metals and organic compounds) emittedfrom energy production, industrial activities, road transport, navigation, agriculture, residential heating and product use was compiled. Pollutant emissions levels for 2010and trends for 1990 to 2010 were compiled and discussed, and modelled andmeasured atmospheric concentrations for 2010 were compiled on regional, urbanand local scales. Nordic maps of emissions and air concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NOx,NMVOC, benzene, BaP, dioxin, cadmium and nickel were compiled for allaggregated main sources, traffic and residential wood combustion. An overview of local studies on exposure for cities or communities with emphasis on wood combustion and traffic and a discussion of existing epidemiological studies on cancer and environment were given.

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  • 23. Fauser, Patrik
    et al.
    Saarinen, Kristina
    Aasestad, Kristin
    Danielsson, Helena
    Emissions of mercury, PAHs, dioxins and PCBs related to NFR 3: Solvent and Other Product Use in Nordic countries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PCBs and dioxins are among the most toxic organic chemicals and where the latter is an unwanted bi-product primarily from residential wood burning, fires, municipal waste incineration and steel reclamation, PCBs have been widely used in a number of industrial and commercial products and activities. PAHs have carcinogeni/mutagenic properties and are produced when materials containing carbon and hydrogen are burned. The heavy metal mercury is also one of the most toxic chemicals that is being used today and although there are legally binding instruments in force within the EU and globally, which aim to limit the use and spreading of mercury in the environment it is still found in various consumer and commercial products. The use of these chemicals gives rise to emissions to air. This joint Nordic project contributes to improving the emission inventories for mercury, PAHs, dioxins and PCBs related to the sector Solvents and Other Product Use", which will help the Nordic countries to assess whether they reach the overall environmental objective of clean and healthy surroundings and several targets in the Nordic Environmental Action Programme 2009-2012 and the international air quality conventions such as Convention on Long-Range, Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The report is mainly aimed at experts performing the national emission inventories but also policy-makers and the general public may find information on sources to emissions, working procedure of emission inventories and on measures implemented on an international and national level for reducing emissions."

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  • 24. Fauser, Patrik
    et al.
    Saarinen, Kristina
    Harðardóttir, Kristín
    O. Kittilsen, Marte
    Holmengen, Nina
    Skårman, Tina
    Improvement of Nordic Emission Models for Solvent Use in Selected Sectors2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project considers the NMVOC emission inventories for solvent use that are used by the five Nordic countries for reporting to e.g. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the European Commission and UNECE-Convention on Long-Range, Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The project covers the entire solvent use sector, however, special attention has been given to domestic use. All the major codes associated with emission reporting and registration of chemical substances have been collected and compared. Emission factors have been presented for source categories and specific chemical substances, when possible. For the entire solvent sector 94 different combinations of SNAP/CORINAIR, CRF, NFR, RAINS/GAINS and NACE codes have been identified. UCN and emission factors are assigned for each combination on a country specific level. The purpose of this project has been to present existing data in the most transparent way in order to share, compare and improve data and methodologies. The results can be used for different purposes, e.g., facilitate assignment of specific emission factors to sources and substances, extrapolate activity data and/or emission factors between code systems, filling data gaps and identify key source categories.

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  • 25. Fenhann, Jørgen
    et al.
    Konrad, Susanne
    Wretlind, Per Harry
    Høgsbro, Sofia Kazmi
    Drost, Philip
    The Climate Initiatives Platform: Towards Greater Transparency in International Cooperative Climate Initiatives (ICIs)2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If the Paris Agreement is to be implemented successfully, it is crucial that all actors step up their actions, including non-state actors such as businesses, cities, regions and investors. Transparency is crucial but still largely missing from the drive to report on current actions and scale them up. The Climate Initiatives Platform (CIP) is a vital transparency tool for international cooperative climate initiatives, so called ICIs, driven by non-state actors. The CIP provides open-source data on many aspects. It is also the data provider to the UNFCCC Global Climate Action portal NAZCA on ICIs. The aim of this project is to improve the CIP further. This document presents a strategy for tracking progress, including an impact-monitoring framework. In addition, analyses of progress with ICIs and of their coverage versus the potential emission reductions in certain sectors are provided.

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  • 26. Gardiner, Ann
    et al.
    Bardout, Matthieu
    Grossi, Francesca
    Dixson-Declève, Sandrine
    Public-Private Partnerships for Climate Finance2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong evidence showing the urgent need for scaling-up climate finance to mitigate greenhouse gases in line with the 2°C target, and to support adaptation to safeguard the international community from the consequences of a changing climate. While public actors have a responsibility to deploy climate finance, it is clear that the contribution from the private sector needs to be significant. Consequently, a strong public commitment is needed to engage with the private sector and ensure climate finance is leveraged and deployed effectively. In this context, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are a promising avenue to contribute to climate finance delivery. PPPs provide frameworks to ensure public leadership and accountability in tackling climate change, while enabling the ownership of certain components of climate finance to be transferred to private hands.

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  • 27. Gardiner, Ann
    et al.
    Bosquet, Michelle
    Webb, David
    Bartlett, Nicolette
    International Cooperative Initiatives: From Concept to Impact2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement is widely considered to be of historic significance sending a strong signal to non-state actors that countries stand behind curbing greenhouse gas emissions with the objective to keep temperature rise well below 2°C, with efforts to stay below 1.5°C. Still the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions by national governments will likely limit temperature rise to under 3°C but be insufficient to limit it to 2°C or lower. The multitude of international cooperative initiatives (ICIs) underway outside the formal negotiating process will be needed to support these government actions.

    In response to the growing interest in the potential for ICIs the Climate Initiative Platform was developed. This report highlights the information currently present in the platform as well as the changes and outlook for this comprehensive data on cooperative initiatives post-2015.

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  • 28.
    Geels, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box. 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark .
    Andersson, Camilla
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping SE-60176, Sweden .
    Hänninen, Otto
    Department of Health Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), 70701 Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwarze, Per E.
    Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway.
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box. 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark .
    Future air quality and related health effects in a Nordic perspective: The possible impacts of future changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, demography and building structure2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution has been estimated to lead to ca. 10.000 premature deaths every year in the Nordic countries. The external costs related to the health effects of air pollution amounts to EUR 8-13 billion per year. Main drivers, such as changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, building structure and demography have a vast impact on air quality-related effects on human health. The purpose of the FutureAirNordic project has been to investigate how potential future changes in main drivers will impact the assessment of air quality-related human health effects. Estimations of premature mortality due to exposure to air pollution as well as the external costs associated with the negative health effects have been analyzed. The results can contribute to improved assessments under future conditions and can be used to evaluate how policies and regulations impact the health effects of air pollution.

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  • 29. Grennfelt, Peringe
    et al.
    Engleryd, Anna
    Munthe, John
    Håård, Ulrika
    Saltsjöbaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future: Gothenburg 24-26 June 20132013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council.

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  • 30. Halldorsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Finér, Leena
    Gudmundsson, Jon
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Singh, Bal Ram
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Arnalds, Andres
    Soil Carbon Sequestration – for climate, food security and ecosystem services2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Soil carbon sequestration and preservation of present stocks reduces net global greenhouse gas emission and can contribute significantly to both Nordic and international goals of limiting serious climate change. In order to achieve this, sustainable use of soil resources, better soil and water management practices, and restoration of degraded soils is needed. Protection and restoration of soil organic carbon are also key solutions to many of the most pressing global challenges facing mankind today. Highlighting the importance of the soil and the multiple benefits of soil organic carbon sequestration has never been more needed than now.

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  • 31. Halonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Illman, Julia
    Klimscheffskij, Markus
    Gaia Consulting Ltd.
    Sjöblom, Henrik
    Rinne, Pasi
    Röser, Frauke
    Kurdziel, Marie-Jeanne
    Höhne, Niklas
    Atteridge, Aaron
    Canales, Nella
    Mobilizing climate finance flows: Nordic approaches and opportunities2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If the Agreement’s goal - limit the global temperature increase below 2°C - is to be met, all financial flows need to shift dramatically and rapidly from current investment patterns to 2°C compatible pathways. This study analyses the roles Nordic actors might play in mobilizing finance flows internationally and outlines a roadmap that can guide joint Nordic action during the next five to ten years. While the roadmap covers components of “climate related ODA” and climate compatible contributions from the private sector, the focus of the roadmap lies on the crucial bridging and dialogue that is required between key actors. Building on identified Nordic strengths and areas needing accelerated international support, the report concludes with a set of immediate next steps to operationalize the roadmap in 2017-2018.

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  • 32. Halonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Sjöblom, Henrik
    Greening the financial system: Nordic experiences and the way forward2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Nordic actors have illustrate leadership in mobilizing private finance for climate compatible investments with, for example, Nordic joint finance institutions and development finance institutions (DFIs) as key contributors.  Greening the financial system - Nordic experiences and ways forward highlights some lessons learned by the Nordics. It also reviews Nordic experiences in light of the recent global agreements and commitments, with a particular view on how the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and the on-going EU work on sustainable finance can help accelerate action. The brief was produced as part of the Nordic Public-Private Platform on Mobilization of Climate Finance that brought together leading Nordic actors through four thematic issues groups.

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  • 33. Hamro-Drotz, Dennis
    et al.
    Brüning, Kristian
    Nordic Climate Finance Opportunities: The NCF Case Study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of reaching an ambitious globally binding climate agreement by 2015 is one of the key challenges that the international community needs to address. Issues on how private finance can be linked to public funding structures to ensure sufficient funding for mitigation and adaptation activities, and how technology transfer could work as part of climate finance continue to be key topics in the upcoming climate negotiations.This report focuses on the current Nordic climate finance landscape, and uses the Nordic Climate Facility (NCF) as a case study, to offer examples of and lessons learned from practical Nordic climate actions that can be used in on-going and future climate negotiations. The report concludes with eight targeted recommendations that highlight key points and lessons learned that can be used for replication and scaling up of future climate actions.

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  • 34. Hansen, Kristina
    et al.
    Koyama, Aki
    Sofie Lansø, Anne
    Thorborg Mørk, Eva
    Podgrajsek, Eva
    Workshop on assessments of National Carbon Budgets within the Nordic Region: Current status and sensitivity to changes2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The three-day workshop organized by the three Nordic research projects, ECOCLIM, LAGGE and SnowCarbo brought together scientists and other actors from Nordic countries to communicate and discuss research on carbon budget estimations in the Nordic region. Through presentations of most recent research in the field and following scientific discussions, the workshop contributed to strengthen the scientific basis of the identification and quantification of major natural carbon sinks in the Nordic region on which integrated climate change abatement and management strategies and policy decisions is formed from. This report summarizes presentations and discussions from the four thematic sessions, Observations of carbon sinks and sources, Modeling the carbon budget, Remote sensing data for carbon modeling, and Impacts of future climate and land use scenarios and gives an overview of the current status and knowledge on research on assessments of national carbon budgets as well as on projections and sensitivity to future changes in e.g. management and climate change in the Nordic Region.

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  • 35.
    Harrison, Nicholas
    et al.
    Ecofys.
    Bartlett, Nicolette
    CISL.
    Block, Kornelis
    Ecofys.
    Gardiner, Ann
    Ecofys.
    Levin, Kelly
    WRI.
    Elliott, Cynthia
    WRI.
    Tracking International Cooperative Initiatives2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the greenhouse gas emissions reduction pledges made by national governments are insufficient to achieve what is required by science to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. In parallel to the formal climate negotiations, a multitude of international cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are now engaging in efforts to address the growing emissions gap.

    A database and web platform have been developed that presents the most current and comprehensive publically available collection of information on ICIs in operation. The web platform includes details of more than 180 mitigation-focused initiatives that have the potential for impact at the global scale. The project also makes recommendations for continuing support for the database and additional activities to support an increasing use of the database to inform negotiators and other stakeholders.

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  • 36. Harrison, Nicholas
    et al.
    Höhne, Niklas
    Braun, Nadine
    Deng, Yvonne
    Day, Thomas
    Bartlett, Nicolette
    Dixson-Declève, Sandrine
    Enhancing Ambition through International Cooperative Initiatives2014 (ed. 2014:518)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International Cooperative Initiatives (ICIs) could hold significant promise for closing the global emissions gap between a pathway to a 2°C warming limit and current national emission reduction pledges. This report examines a selection of these ICIs to explore their potential for delivering additional greenhouse gas mitigation and for raising ambition at national and international levels. It concludes that there are a range of ICIs already making an important contribution. Many have potential to scale-up their activities and could offer promising new channels for public climate finance.

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  • 37. Hellstedt, Cajsa
    et al.
    Cerruto, Jenny
    Nilsson, Maria
    McCann, Michael
    Nordic initiatives to abate methane emissions: a catalogue of best practices2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A description of good examples of technical measures to reduce anthropogenic emissions of methane and their economic aspects. Relevant methane emitting sectors identified are ruminant livestock, manure management, landfill, waste water treatment, waste management and oil and gas systems. The consultancy firm Ramböll is responsible for the production of the catalogue, initiated by the Nordic Climate and Air Pollution Group (KOL) under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 38. Henoch, Nils
    Workshop on Market Based Mechanisms & Results Based Finance: Report from a workshop organized by the Nordic Council of Ministers in co-operation with Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO) and KfW Development Bank on 11.10.2013 in Stockholm, Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a debrief note from the international workshop on ‘Market Based Mechanisms and Results Based Finance’ organized by the Nordic Council of Ministers in co-operation with Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO) and KfW Development Bank on 11.10.2013 in Stockholm, Sweden.The Nordic Council of Ministers in co-operation with KfW and NEFCO wish to contribute to an increased momentum for market based mechanisms through focused exchange and coordination among potential first movers from the finance sector, European policy makers and further interested key stakeholders.

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  • 39. Illman, Julia
    et al.
    Halonen, Mikko
    Rinne, Pasi
    Huq, Saleemul
    Tveitdal, Svein
    Scoping study on financing adaptation-mitigation synergy activities2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scoping study for NOAK sheds light on synergies between climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and suggests that Nordic countries place more focus on financing synergies.  The study argues from a financing perspective that there is potential in funding synergistic activities for improving the efficiency of climate change actions. While the landscape of current research remains rather scattered and limited, examples that demonstrate promising potential have been identified in several sectors: agriculture, forestry and land use, energy, infrastructure planning and construction, transportation, insurance, and waste treatment. Synergies are offering solutions to more efficient, responsive and comprehensive climate policy. Activities which genuinely combine climate change adaptation and mitigation perspectives can also result in co-benefits with other goals of sustainable development, the report concludes. The study reveals that no funding instruments with explicit and systematic aims to harness synergies exist to date. However, multiple stakeholders interviewed in the study acknowledge the potential for synergies and assume the existence of these to some extent in several of their activities, suggesting that there is a strong need to dedicate more attention to synergies. The study provides four recommendations: Firstly, it recommends that more empirical research on synergies is conducted to further define and concretize the benefits and challenges - in some cases trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation also exist. Secondly, it is suggested that a review of the funding criteria of relevant climate funds is carried out. Thirdly, it is recommended that the concept of synergies is linked with the climate mainstreaming agenda. Finally, attention should be paid to opportunities to catalyze private sector climate action also in harnessing synergies.

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  • 40. Illman, Julia
    et al.
    Halonen, Mikko
    Whitley, Shelagh
    Canales Trujillo, Nella
    Practical Methods for Assessing Private Climate Finance Flows2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the climate finance commitment by the developed countries to mobilise jointly 100 billion USD per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries from a wide variety of sources, there is no clear agreement on the types of funds that might count as mobilised by developed countries and what private finance flows could be considered as mobilised for climate action in developing countries.This study identifies ten considerations that are key to estimating mobilised private climate finance. An example methodology is proposed for tracking mobilised private investment and the methodology is tested on three Nordic case studies. Through the further refinement of methodologies, it should be possible to develop common systems for M&E of finance enabling a clearer understanding of the finance landscape and the effectiveness of interventions for mobilising private investment.

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  • 41. Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation: An issue brief on the importance of peatlands for carbon and biodiversity conservation and the role of drained peatlands as greenhouse gas emission hotspots2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation

     Did you know that

    • peatlands hold more carbon than all forests of the world combined?
    • drained peatlands are responsible for 25% of total CO2 emissions in the Nordic and Baltic countries?
    • rewetting of peatlands substantially reduces these emissions?

     This policy brief pleads for increased commitments to conserving and rewetting peatlands; for abolishing regulations that drive peatland drainage; for changing drained peatland use to paludicultures; and for setting up good practice demonstration projects. It stresses the need for better communicating the benefits of wet peatlands and the costs arising from damaged ones. Finally it highlights the role of peatland rewetting and restoration in reaching national and international policy targets for climate change mitigation, water quality improvement and biodiversity conservation.

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  • 42. Kakareka, Sergey
    et al.
    Malchykhina, Hanna
    Krukowskaya, Olga
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    Kindbom, Karin
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    Åström, Stefan
    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth
    Plejdrup, Marlene
    Bak, Jesper
    Saarinen, Kristina
    Savolahti, Mikko
    Particle emissions in Belarus and in the Nordic countries: Emission inventories and integrated assessment modelling of black carbon and PM2.52018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the project is to stimulate decision-makers in Belarus to prioritize abatement measures aimed at black carbon in their efforts to reduce emissions of PM2.5, as encouraged in the Gothenburg protocol under the UNECE CLRTAP. To reach this purpose and in order to build up scientific basis necessary for further policy development, a comprehensive analysis of PM2.5 and BC emissions, emission reduction potentials and cost-effective abatement measures in Belarus has been conducted. The report presents two main parts of the conducted analysis: a part focused on the emission inventories, and a part summarizing the results of the integrated assessment modelling. The main focus is on analysis for Belarus; however, a range of modelling results have been obtained for the three participating Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

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  • 43. Kallbekken, Steffen
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Operationalizing Equity in the 2015 Agreement: Report from Nordic-Belgian Workshop on 24.-25.10.2013 in Stockholm, Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Council of Ministers and the Government of Belgium organized a workshop on Operationalizing Equity in the 2015 Agreement on 24.-25.10.2013 in Stockholm, Sweden. The workshop aimed to focus on implementing equity in a practical way, rather than having abstract, theoretical discussions. The first day was devoted to academic presentation and follow-up discussions. The second day featured a roundtable discussion between negotiators under Chatham House Rules.

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  • 44. Kallbekken, Steffen
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Underdal, Arild
    Equity and spectrum of mitigation commitments in the 2015 agreement2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent and how can equity be operationalized in a spectrum of mitigation commitments? We approach this question through academic literature review and analysis of Parties' submissions and statements. We argue that a potentially feasible and constructive way forward is a mutual recognition approach. This approach implies that parties should accept a set or norms, and a range of interpretations of these norms, as legitimate. Parties should also respect a principle of reciprocity, which means that any (interpretation of a) principle of fairness invoked by oneself can legitimately be invoked also by others. We apply this approach to the issue of equity indicators, and propose a non-coercive template of indicators approach, building on two critical components: transparency and open, critical review of Parties' pledges and justifications thereof.

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  • 45. Karl, Hallding
    et al.
    Marie, Olsson
    Aaron, Atteridge
    Antto, Vihma
    Marcus, Carson
    Mikael, Román
    Together Alone: BASIC countries and the climate change conundrum2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Siden 2009 har Brasilien, Sydafrika, Indien og Kina – de såkaldte BASIC-lande – samarbejdet i de internationale klimaforhandlinger. Dette afspejler deres stræben efter en større indflydelse på den globale politik. Men der er nogle der hævder at gruppens fremgangsmåde har blokeret for fremskridt i forhandlingerne. Dette er dog en overfladisk betragtning. Hvis man ønsker en reel indsigt i BASIC-gruppens fremgangsmåde, er det nødvendigt at forstå udviklingsproblemerne i hvert enkelt land og den geopolitiske værdi som de ser i et samarbejde. Der er tale om fire forskellige lande, og derfor er det de indenrigspolitiske prioriteringer som definerer grænserne for deres samarbejde, og hvad de kan bidrage med i klimadiskussionerne. Denne rapport, som Nordisk Ministerråd har bestilt fra Stockholm Environment Institute, giver en mere nuanceret forståelse for BASIC-samarbejdet. En sådan forståelse er af afgørende betydning hvis de internationale klimaforhandlinger skal lykkes.

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  • 46. Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    Röös, Elin
    Sjunnestrand, Tove
    Pira, Kajsa
    Larsson, Malin
    Andersen, Bente Hessellund
    Sørensen, Jacob
    Veistola, Tapani
    Rantakokko, Jaana
    Manninen, Sirkku
    Brubæk, Stein
    Future Nordic Diets: Exploring ways for sustainably feeding the Nordics2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Farming is the foundation of our food system. While the prerequisite for farming is a clean environment and a diverse nature, agriculture is currently the cause of major environmental problems, including greenhouse gas and nitrogen emissions. The challenge to protect our environment and feed the world sometimes seem insurmountable, but solutions might be just around the corner. This report describes two food system scenarios for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, where the majority of food is produced within the region using organic farming practices and where livestock is mainly fed on grass and by-products not suitable for human consumption. The results show that we could feed the projected Nordic population in 2030 on organic food, mostly grown within the region, while reducing the climate and nitrogen footprints of our food system.

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  • 47. Karlsson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Hole, Lars
    Tømmervik, Hans
    Kobets, Elena
    Air pollution in the Nordic countries from biomass burning in Eastern Europe: A Policy brief2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted air with impacts on human health and ecosystems is transported with the winds over very long distances. Large-scale biomass burning is an important source for polluted air over the northern hemisphere. In 2006, biomass burning occurred on approximately 2 Mha forest and agricultural land in Russia and neighbouring countries. This highly polluted air was transported across northern Europe all the way to Iceland and Svalbard. High air concentrations of black carbon, ozone and high deposition of nitrogen were measured in Scandinavian forests. High concentrations of particulate matter caused health problems. Large-scale wildfires in Russia have continued until today. The Nordic countries and the EU ought to support neighbouring countries in order to restrict wildfires. Important activities are preventing the burning of agricultural waste and fire-prevention activities in forests.

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  • 48. Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Åström, Stefan
    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth
    Saarinen, Kristina
    Potentials for reducing the health and climate impacts of residential biomass combustion in the Nordic countries2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential biomass combustion is a major source of PM2.5 and SLCP (Short Lived Climate Pollutants) emissions in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. SLCPs and PM2.5 have impact on climate, environment and health. When developing strategies for reduced emissions, reliable information on current emissions and assessments for how they can be reduced is essential. This report presents recommendations for how to further improve national activity data collection procedures for less uncertain emission inventory results. It also presents scenario results with estimated technical potentials for reduced emissions of SLCPs and PM2.5 from residential biomass combustion, transformed into potential impact on health and climate effects in 2035.

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  • 49. Korppoo, Anna
    et al.
    Sakonov, George
    Lugovoy, Oleg
    Russia and the Post 2012 Climate Regime: Emission Trends, Commitments and Bargains2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyzes the development trends and conditions of the Russian economy, specifically its energy sector. It also reviews the projections of carbon emissions by 2020 and beyond in the context of the Russian government's scenarios of economic development. The second section of the report focuses on Russia's position in the negotiation process on a post-2012 climate regime, including the emission limitation pledge, carry-over of the surplus of assigned amount units (AAU) beyond 2012 and the forest carbon sinks. The report is written by Dr George Safonov, State University - Higher School of Economics/ Russian Environmental Defense Fund and Dr Oleg Lugovoy, Russian Environmental Defense Fund and Dr Anna Korppoo, the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. The Nordic Ministers of Environments established the Nordic COP 15 Group early in 2008. In January 2010 the group was renamed to the Nordic ad hoc Group on Global Climate Negotiations. The main tasks of the group are to prepare reports and studies, conduct relevant meetings and organize conferences supporting the Nordic negotiators in the UN climate negotiations. The overall aim of the group is to contribute to a global and comprehensive agreement on climate change with ambitious emission reduction commitments.

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  • 50. Korsbakken, Jan Ivar
    et al.
    Aamaas, Borgar
    Technical report: Nordic Green to Scale2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical analysis for the Nordic Green to Scale report was commissioned to CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo), which is Norway’s foremost institute for interdisciplinary climate research. The report illustrates the scaling potential of 15 proven Nordic low-carbon solutions and presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions reductions of these solutions and their scalability internationally.

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