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  • 1. Aalto, Kristiina
    et al.
    Heiskanen, Eva
    Leire, Charlotte
    Thidell, Åke
    The Nordic Swan - From past experiences to future possibilities: The third evaluation of the Nordic ecolabelling scheme2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the third evaluation of the Nordic Swan ecolabelling scheme. The evaluation is conducted from the perspective of the public administration, and it examines the role of the Nordic Swan in a policy context. Recommendations are presented for authorities in the Nordic countries and for the bodies operating the schemes on a Nordic and national level. The evaluation focuses on current opportunities and challenges in the operating environment of the scheme. It examines the relations between the Nordic Swan and the EU Eco-label in the Nordic countries, including their governance procedures, popularity and reception in the market. Other current topics addressed include the progress achieved by the Nordic marketing strategy for the Swan and some current governance issues in the scheme, including the grounds for public funding for the Nordic Swan. The report also analyses the relations between the Swan and other environmental information systems. In particular, the report investigates the opportunities and challenges ensuing from the current attention to climate issues for the Nordic Swan.

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  • 2. Ahonen, Sanna
    Experiences on projects promoting sustainable lifestyles in Nordic countries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable Consumption is a focus theme in the Environmental Action Plan 2009-2012 of the Nordic Council of Ministers. As stressed in the Plan, the Nordic countries form a joint market with the same product range and similar patterns of consumption. Hence, the countries can together contribute to developing environmentally adapted production meth-ods and stimulating the interaction between environmentally conscious consumptionand an environment oriented product range. This report presents 22 different projects, realized recently in the Nordic countries, that have promoted sustainable life styles.

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  • 3. Ahonen, Sanna
    Kestävää elämäntapaa edistävät hankkeet Pohjoismaissa2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Kestävä kulutus on keskiössä Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston Ympäris-töyhteistyön toimintasuunnitelmassa vuosille 2009–2012. Ohjelmassa tode-taan, että Pohjoismaat muodostavat yhteiset markkinat ja niitä yhdistävät samanlaiset tuotevalikoimat ja kulutustottumukset. Siten maat voivat yhdessä edistää ympäristön kannalta kestävien tuotantomenetelmien kehittymistä sekä sitä kautta lisätä kestäviä kulutusmahdollisuuksia. Tässä raportissa esitellään 22 Pohjoismaissa toteutettua hanketta, jotka ovat edistäneet kestävää elämäntapaa.

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  • 4. Alhola, Katriina
    et al.
    Salmenperä, Hanna
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    Busch, Niels J.
    Circular Public Procurement in the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a framework for circular procurement and discusses its possibilities to promote circular economy. Several best practice examples in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway illustrate how and in which sectors and product groups circular procurement could be applicable. Different approaches to circular procurement and tendering criteria supporting circular aspects are also illustrated.The study was carried out in Nordic co-operation by Finnish Environment Institute, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and Copenhagen Resource Institute. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), administrated by the NCM Sustainable Consumption and Production Working Group and guided by a steering group consisting representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

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    Circular Procurement PowerPoint slides (PDF).
  • 5.
    Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Sandberg, Kenneth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Lundqvist, Per
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Thulin, Jens
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Kirkeby, Janus
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Weidling, Asbjørn
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Guideline2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres. The aim is to give assistance to the choices made by the management of recycling centres in order to collect plastic of better quality and in greater quantities. In the guideline, the potential plastic categories are listed and described, also with respect to potential content of hazardous substances. Issues to take into account when choosing how to organise the collection of plastic at the recycling centre are described. A separate chapter looks at how the public could be assisted with the sorting of plastics at the recycling centres.

    The guideline is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” - read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 6. Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Wejdling, Asbjørn
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Background report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a background report for the "Guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres". The background report describes the methodology used in preparing the guideline, including information from existing systems and the stakeholders that can be used by the recycling centres in their decision process. The report describes the importance of communicating with purchasers about the expected purity and traceability of the plastic further down the value chain.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read also more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org

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  • 7. Andreasson, Alf
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Nilsson, Per-Åke
    Wigholm, Pär
    Johansson, Örjan
    Bullerdämpning av externt industribuller från livsmedelsindustri och hamnar: Best Available Technique (BAT)2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ÅF Ljud & Vibrationer har på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådets BAT-grupp, som är en undergrupp till arbetsgruppen för hållbar konsumtion och produktion, utfört en studie kring bästa tillgängliga teknik, s.k. BAT(Best Available Technique) avseende dämpning av externt industribuller från livsmedelsindustrier och hamnverksamheter. Rapporten är framtagen i syfte att identifiera de tekniker, som ska beaktas när BAT ska bestämmas, för att begränsa bulleralstrande mekanismer och arbetsmoment inom externt industribuller. Tio respektive elva stycken tekniker presenteras och de fokuserar på de ljudalstrande mekanismer som olika maskiner och verksamheter ger upphov till, samt vad som kan göras för att minimera buller till omgivningen, BAT. Resultatet visar att en tillämpning av BAT medför att respektive bullerkällas bullerbidrag till omgivningen kan reduceras avsevärt.

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  • 8. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Christensen, Jens
    Christensen, Karen
    Dyekjær-Hansen, Tue
    Bode, Ida
    Benefits of Green Public Procurement2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) can play a significant a role in efforts to influence the private sector towards more sustainable products and services. Following an account of the environmental impact of Nordic public procurement, the project provides an assessment of the potential of strengthening GPP within three key product groups in Nordic public procurement: Taxi and coach services, Computers and related services, and Cleaning products. The analyses show that compared to traditional regulatory instruments GPP tends to be more soft and dynamic - but also slower and less comprehensive. A decision model for GPP is developed. Two cases illustrate the potential benefits of GPP: Procurement of a new server centre in the City of Copenhagen, and procurement of transportation for disabled and elderly people in the City of Stockholm. Conclusions and recommendations on how to strengthen the benefits of GPP are provided. The study has been initiated and supervised by The Working Group on Environment and Economics under the Nordic Council of Ministries.

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  • 9. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Fischer-Bogason, Rikke
    Voluntary Agreements and Environmental Labelling in the Nordic Countries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten præsenterer et studie af brugen af frivillige aftaler og forekomsten af miljømærker i de nordiske lande, inklusiv brugen af instrumenterne i et policy mix med andre policy værktøjer. Grundlaget for rapporten er fem landestudier, der hver især kortlægger brugen af de nævnte policy værktøjer i de fem nordiske lande og præsenterer identificerede evalueringer af konkrete frivillige aftaler og miljømærkeordninger. Fra evalueringerne uddrages konklusioner om omkostningseffektivitet samt gode og dårlige eksempler på anvendelse af frivillige aftaler og miljømærkeordninger i kombination med andre styringsmidler. Det primære formål er at udvikle anbefalinger, der kan understøtte og give input til justeringer af strategier for den fremtidige anvendelse af frivillige aftaler og miljømærker i de nordiske landes miljøregulering. Rapporten er udført af Plan Miljø og finansieret af Nordisk Ministerråd.

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  • 10. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Fischer-Bogason, Rikke
    Boer, Luitzen de
    Kivistö, Timo
    Vildåsen, Sigurd
    Greening state framework contracts - Approaches in the Nordic countries2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to clear out how Green Public Procurement has been realized in state framework contracts in the Nordic countries, to propose country-specific ways to improve the situation, and to draw a general model of efficient ways to realize green state framework contracts. The study was carried through in 2014 and 2015 by Bjørn Bauer and Rikke Fischer-Bogason (PlanMiljø, Denmark), Luitzen de Boer and Sigurd Vildåsen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), and Timo Kivistö (Kivistö Consulting, Finland). The study was supervised by the Working Group of Nordic Council of Ministers for Sustainable Consumption and Production (i.e. HKP-group).

    In addition to this Full Report, the project has also resulted in a short Summary Report and a power point presentation (slides), including the key findings and conclusions.

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  • 11. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Fischer-Bogason, Rikke
    de Boer, Luitzen
    Kivistö, Timo
    Vildåsen, Sigurd
    Greening state framework contracts - Approaches in the Nordic countries: Summary Report2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Green Public Procurement, GPP, can be an important driver of green transition – and must be dealt with accordingly. All five Nordic countries have established framework contracts at state level and have allocated the responsibility for the State Framework Contracts (SFC) to certain organisations:

    • Denmark: Moderniseringsstyrelsen and SKI

    • Finland: Hansel Ltd

    • Iceland: Rikiskaup

    • Sweden: Kammarkollegiet

    • Norway: DiFi, HINAS

    The roles of these units differ, partly due to differences in the overall national structure.

    This is a short Summary Report with key findings and conclusions based on the Full Report (TN2016:506), which includes detailed country studies. The study was carried through in 2014 and 2015 and supervised by the Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production (i.e. HKP-group) of the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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    Power Point Greening state framework contracts - Presentation of main findings
  • 12. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Larsen, Bo
    Bode, Ida
    Standley, Martin
    Stigh, Lena
    Technology procurement2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology procurement is a method of merging public procurement with innovation in order to achieve specific, eg. environmental, benefits. The objective of this report has been to provide a clear and well structured review of Nordic and international experience within technology procurement and recommendations for development and increased use of technology procurement. The many examples from regional, national and supra-national contexts described in this report show that considerable benefits that can be achieved through technology procurement. The report includes a set of recommendations aiming at increased and effective use of technology procurement as a means of supporting environment-friendly and energy-saving technologies in the Nordic countries.

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  • 13. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Watson, David
    Gylling, Anja
    Remmen, Arne
    Lysemose, Michael Hauris
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    Jönbrink, Anna-Karin
    Policy Brief - Ecodesign Requirements for Textiles and Furniture: Eco design requirements that can be drawn up for non-energy-related products are in focus2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Policy Brief: Ecodesign Requirements for Textiles and Furniture The EU Eco design Directive’s potential for application to nonenergy related themes has come under the spotlight in recent years with Nordic countries at the forefront. A large part of the lifecycle environmental impacts of a product are determined at the design stage.

    In this report potential eco design requirements that can be drawn up for non-energy-related products are in focus. Textiles are here used as an example, and a light application of the approach has subsequently been applied to the furniture sector. Clothing and home textiles were chosen due to significant wastage in the value chain due to fast fashion, dropping quality and relatively low repair and reuse rates.

    The project was initiated, financed and steered by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production and carried out by a consultant team led by PlanMiljø.

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  • 14. Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Watson, David
    Gylling, Anja
    Remmen, Arne
    Lysemose, Michael Hauris
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    Jönbrink, Anna-Karin
    Potential Ecodesign Requirements for Textiles and Furniture2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the lifecycle environmental impacts of a product are determined at the design stage, why The EU Eco design Directive’s potential for application to non-energy related themes has come under the spotlight in recent years with Nordic countries at the forefront. In this report potential eco design requirements that can be drawn up for non-energy-related products are in focus. Textiles are here used as an example, and a light application of the approach has subsequently been applied to the furniture sector. Clothing and home textiles were chosen due to significant wastage in the value chain due to fast fashion, dropping quality and relatively low repair and reuse rates.The project was initiated and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and led by its Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production. A separate Policy Brief (ANP2018:739) is also published.

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  • 15. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Gislason, Stefan
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    Plastic value chains: Case: WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment): Part 2 Report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project identifies improvements in plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Limited improvement is possible through modest changes in the existing value chain, such as ensuring that wastes are directed as intended. But for the most part, enhanced plastics recycling implies higher costs. The necessary changes could be driven in part through revised policy and regulatory instruments. These changes might, in turn, encourage more positive engagement from electronics producers.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 16. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Gislason, Stefan
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    WEEE Plastics Recycling: A guide to enhancing the recovery of plasticsfrom waste electrical and electronic equipment2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this guide is to inform and assist different stakeholders in the Nordic region to enhance the recycling of plastic materials from WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Waste. It presents recommendations to various parties: consumers, authorities and policy-makers, recyclers and waste operators, as well as electronics producers.The guide was compiled as part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more at www.norden.org/greengrowth or in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org

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  • 17. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Stensgård, Aina
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Fråne, Anna
    Rüdenhausen, Malin zu Castell
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Løkke, Søren
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Nordic plastic value chains: Case WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment)2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief on recycling of WEEE, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more about the initiative in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 18. Baxter, John
    et al.
    Wahlstrom, Margareta
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin Zu
    Fråne, Anna
    Stare, Malin
    Løkke, Søren
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Plastic value chains: Case: WEEE (Waste Electric and electronic equipment) in the Nordic region2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project identifies thousands of tonnes per annum of potential enhanced plastics recycling from Nordic electronic waste. Plastics recycling does not always feature prominently in waste treatment. Recycling is technologically viable although the market and economic landscape is challenging. Easy export markets for waste plastic are largely closed and near-source treatment is increasingly needed. Concerns include issues of quality and worries about hazardous materials. Positively engaging electronics producers - beyond the bare punitive requirements within extended responsibility schemes – is a crucial driver for further developments.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 19. Bergman, Isa-Maria
    et al.
    Ståhlberg, Annie
    Dreyer, Rikke
    Standley, Martin
    Rakel Jonsdottír, Elva
    Mainstreaming GPP in the Nordic countries - a scoping study2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains the results of a scoping study on the potential for mainstreaming green public procurement in the Nordic countries. The report gives recommendations on how green public procurement can be better integrated in other policy areas.  The study was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Working group on Sustainable Consumption and Production.

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  • 20. Blidberg, Eva
    et al.
    Leander, Elin
    Plug the marine litter tap: A pilot study on potential marine litter sources in urban areas2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine litter is a growing environmental problem where especially plastic material is accumulated in the seas where it will fragment to smaller pieces. The purpose of the presented pilot study is to raise awareness amongst officials at municipalities and authorities about the need to reduce the presence of litter in the marine environment and to give ideas/suggestions on how this can be done. The project has therefore developed a “Plug the Marine Litter Tap”-approach, which together with local knowledge and experience, can be used to identify sources of marine debris by using existing statistics. Södertälje is used as a pilot area where we give examples on indicators for marine litter in the urban environment and proposed measures for each indicator. We hope that this will encourage municipalities to reflect on how preventive measures against marine litter can be incorporated in local waste management plans and become part of their regular routine.

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  • 21.
    Brandt, Jacob
    et al.
    Bech-Bruun Law Firm.
    Holberg, Jacob Schall
    Bech-Bruun Law Firm.
    Restrictions on export of used EEE: A study on the legal possibilities to restrict exports of used electric and electronic equipment2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the legal possibilities of restricting export of certain types of used EEE due to e.g. content of hazardous substances, energy consumption and/or limited market value.

    The focus is current environmental regulation and trade regulation which have been evaluated in order to identify if they can serve as the legal basis for setting restrictions on export.

    The analysis concentrates on the legal framework of trade within the rules of the internal market in the EU and the legal concept of the WTO that regulates trade between countries worldwide.

    The report concludes that waste regulation has very limited possibilities in regards to restricting export of used EEE. In regards to trade restrictions, it cannot be ruled out that such restrictions can be adopted in accordance with the rules of the internal market in the EU and the legal concept of WTO.

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  • 22. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Enggaard, Mattias
    Jessen, Jes Erik
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Sköld, Christopher
    Berghäll, Elina
    Two approaches to pricing pollution2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison is the commonly used Cap and Trade method with an alternative and novel method for pricing pollution: The aim was to conduct a practical approach to clarify advantages and challenges of the respective mechanisms. Shortly, the report promotes:

    1) Levying a Fee which is sufficiently high and adjusted sufficiently often for a Fee.

    2) Letting the Futures Market and other hedging and insurance instruments indicate the price (the average abatement cost) which can be levied without harming the economy.

    3) Securing a repayment of a sufficiently large fraction of the revenue from the Fee.

    These three parts or components are all essential to the mechanism. Still, key questions remain unanswered in this report. This project was launched by the Working Group for SCP (HKP) in collaboration with the Working Group on Environment and Economy (MEG) under the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 23. Breugel, Christina van
    et al.
    Sand, Henrik
    Adenfelt, Maria
    Engström, Daniel
    Stavlöv, Ulrika
    Berninger, Kati
    Mehammer, Bernt Sverre
    Møller, Kirsten
    Locomotive business: How can large companies be the catalyst for SMEs in exporting cleantech?2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores how public sector support promotes the locomotive model, which is understood as partnerships between locomotive companies and SMEs in order to facilitate export of cleantech and system solutions. Support structures vary a lot among the Nordic countries. A main observation is that the various programmes in all Nordic countries had little information on the impacts of the instruments. Some suggestions for policy makers in the Nordic countries are offered, now with an understanding of the interaction between large businesses and SMEs, which wish to export clean technologies. The project was carried out from May 2014 to December 2014 by a consortium led by COWI with FORES, Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum and Tyrsky Consulting as partners. The Nordic Council of Minister's Working Group on Sustainable Consumption and Production initiated and financed the project.

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  • 24. Briedis, Rebecca
    et al.
    Syversen, Frode
    Plastic packaging recyclability in a Nordic context2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests of plastic packaging in Finland and Norway exposed products that are lost in the sorting process and are not recycled. Products that proved challenging to sort or recycle were then presented to their producers. To assist producers in making favourable decisions, fact sheets with design guidelines were developed for common plastics, HDPE, PP, LDPE and bio-based and biodegradable plastics, to highlight which design choices best help improve recyclability. These also include Norway-specific information on the downstream value chain for plastics. Producers have shown a willingness to improve their products to increase the level of recyclability. These developments show how higher recycling rates of plastic packaging can be achieved by supporting Nordic producers in implementing design for recyclability principles when designing their packaging.

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  • 25. Bugge, Heidi Belinda
    et al.
    Nicolaisen, Karl-Oskar
    Ecolabelled Textiles in the Nordic Countries: Promoting the supply of textiles ecolabelled with the official ecolabels - English Summary to Nordic Working Paper2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry is one of the world's largest industries. The fashion and textile industry is also one of the most polluting and resource-consuming industries in the world. Ecolabels such as the Nordic Swan Ecolabel and the EU Ecolabel can play an important role in reducing the environmental impact of textiles purchased in Nordic countries. The project aims to identify barriers to more ecolabelled textiles on the Nordic consumer market and initiate activities and actions to remedy these. The project has also taken a global perspective, identifying how producers in e.g. India and Turkey can be encouraged to engage in eco-labelling. The study was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and carried out by Nordic Ecolabelling with a subgroup of the Nordic Sustainable Consumption and Production group (HKP) as steering group

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  • 26. Cecilie Valeur, Camilla
    The Potential for Green Textile sourcing from Tirupur: – on the path to more sustainable global textile chains2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a thorough analysis concerning the situation in Tirupur, India, where the local government has imposed strict requirements on zero liquid discharge of wastewater in textile production. The report analyzes how Tirupur can turn the Zero Liquid Discharge requirements into a competitive advantage by creating a green textile cluster based on the European Eco-label Flower and ISO 14001. The report also includes an analysis of the demand situation for environmentally certified textile in the Nordic countries and how this demand can be affected positively.

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  • 27. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja Marie
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Policy Brief: Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations for Nordic policymakers:Resource related ecodesign obligations will be a necessary part of the future policy mix, though not all parts of the policy puzzle is yet in place. The Nordic policymakers can begin processes in order to realise strategic opportunities. Examples of such policies would be to continue the development of resource efficiency criteria in the Nordic eco-labelling and public procurement in order to pave the way for an uptake in EU eco-labelling and in the Ecodesign Directive. By continuously developing resource related criteria in voluntary policy instruments a platform for legal standard setting will be created that can be applied for ecodesign. See also the main report Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive - A review of opportunities and barriers at http://www.norden.org/sv/publikationer/publikationer/2014-511

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  • 28. Dalhammar, Carl
    et al.
    Machacek, Erika
    Bundgaard, Anja
    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard
    Remmen, Arne
    Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive: A review of opportunities and barriers2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes the potential to apply certain types of legal standards. There is a need for continuous development of indicators and methods in order to allow for a broader range of legal standards in the future. The study provides some short and long term recommendations on the way forward.

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  • 29. Egeris Nielsen, Claus
    The Nordic Ecolabel 2015 -synergies with other information systems2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventeen Nordic and international labelling and certification schemes met at an international workshop on dialogue and cooperation at Lund’s University in November 2011. With this meeting among schemes across fields such as the environment, organic, fair trade and sustainability, NCM Working Group on Sustainable Consumption and Production and Nordic Ecolabelling has taken a first step to create transparency and exchange of experience between label schemes with relevance for Sustainable Consumption and Production. Prior to the workshop in Lund the consulting firm Ecostory mapped information schemes on the Nordic markets and carried out a stakeholder survey. Ecostory found four megatrends that are important for schemes within SCP:  convergence towards sustainability, information overload, regulation as driver, and national/regional labels on global markets. This report presents findings from the mapping of schemes, the stakeholder survey and the workshop on dialogue and cooperation. Ecostory describes 10 key challenges and recommends policy responses and gives tentative proposals to follow-up and support cooperation between the Swan and other information systems.

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  • 30. Elander, Maria
    et al.
    Palm, David
    A Nordic strategy for collection, sorting, reuse and recycling of textiles: Policy brief2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief on Nordic textile reuse and recycling is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ overall green growth initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 31. Emtairah, Tareq
    et al.
    Tojo, Naoko
    Thidell, Åke
    Rozite, Vida
    Hayes, Morrigan
    The challenges of energy efficiency innovations in the Nordic building sector: Greener Markets and Cleaner Technologies (GMCT)2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and diffusion of environmental technologies, which is considered to be one way of achieving the dual goals of maintaining competitiveness in a dynamic and knowledge-based economy while integrating environmental consideration in this process, may be influenced by a number of sector-specific conditions. In light of this, case studies of energy efficiency innovations in the Nordic building sector were carried out as a part of two-year research project on Green Market and Cleaner Technologies - Leading Nordic Innovation and Technological Potential for Future Markets. The studies looked into the characteristics of the industry as well as other issues influencing the three key activities of an innovation system - access to knowledge, access to resources and market formation. This report highlights some features of the building industry as well as their products which tend to pose constraints to the three innovation activities in the sector. It elucidates several strategies deployed by innovating companies to overcome some of the constraints and points to specific areas for policy interventions needed to effectively enhance innovation activities in the sector.

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  • 32. Enell, Magnus
    Flexible emission fees: An incentive for driving sustainable production and consumption2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the urgent question of how to transition to a green economy. If the price of pollution becomes the same as the price to not pollute, i.e. the investment required for a non-polluting solution, could market forces be harnessed to create a totally green economy? Would the consumer lead the way if pollution fees were simply credited into everyone’s account? Would economic growth and technical development forge ahead? Taking the flexible fee mechanism proposed by Höglund as a starting point, the report examines the academic literature and presents the results of a workshop where leading Swedish economists and environmentalists examine the issues involved in price discovery mechanisms and call for further developments in this field.

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  • 33. Forberg, Knut
    et al.
    Evenset, Anita
    Innsavning og handfaring av vandamiklum burturkasti á sleipistøðum í Norðurlondum2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fo]

    Á sleipistøðum, har arbeitt verður við at umvæla smáar bátar og halda teir viðlíka, verða nýtt evni, ið eru skaðilig fyri umhvørvið. Vandamikið burturkast stendst av virkseminum, og tað kann henda, at evni, ið hava skaðilig árin á umhvørvið, verða latin út í náttúruna. Verkætlanin hevur kannað rakstrarhættir, umhvørvismedvit, vitan og hugburð í Norður-Noregi, Álandi og Føroyum. Har komu ikki fram týðandi munir á teimum trimum økjunum, og úrslitini verða mett at umboða hesa vinnu í Norðurlondum. Til eru bæði góð og vánalig dømi, men sum heild eru stórir møguleikar fyri at bøta um støðuna. Niðurstøðan er, at ynski eru frammi um ein rakstur, ið er betri fyri umhvørvið, men at tey bert í lítlan mun hava við sær ítøkilig tiltøk og ábøtur. Kunnleikin til lógir og reglur og til eginleikarnar hjá evnunum, ið verða nýtt, er ikki nøktandi. Mannagongdir, ið kunnu avmarka útlát, eru so at siga ongar, meðan mannagongdir í sambandi við handfaring av burturkasti eru sera ymiskar. Bæði eigararnir á fyritøkunum og myndugleikarnir kunnu gera sítt til at hækka støðið í vinnuni. Tørvur er á einfaldari upplýsing um reglugerðir. Tað er ynskiligt, at sleipistøðir, smáar og stórar, og stórir bátahyljar samstarva um at økja um kunnleikan og at finna praktiskar loysnir. At fingið eina einfalda góðkenningarskipan í lag kundi eisini gjørt sítt til at minka um skaðiliga árinið á umhvørvið. Tað, sum hevur størstan týdning, er, at sleipistøðirnar fáa útgerð til at savna føst evni, sum annars verða skolað á sjógv, og til at reinsa vatnið, tá ið spulað hevur verið, og at tær skilja og handfara burturkastið á rættan hátt.

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  • 34. Forberg, Knut
    et al.
    Evenset, Anita
    Söfnun og meðhöndlun spilliefna í litlum slippum á Norðurlöndum2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [is]

    Á litlum slippstöðvum, sem annast viðhald og viðgerðir á smábátum, eru notuð mengandi efni sem mynda hættulegan úrgang og geta losað mengandi efni út í umhverfið. Verkefnið kortlagði rekstrarhætti, umhverfisvitund, þekkingu og viðhorf í Norður-Noregi, á Álandseyjum og í Færeyjum. Enginn áberandi munur var á milli þessara svæða og því má ætla að niðurstöðurnar eigi einnig við um slíka starfsemi annars staðar á Norðurlöndum. Þar voru viðhafðir í senn góðir starfshættir og annað sem mætti betur fara en almennt virtust góðar forsendur til úrbóta. Menn létu almennt í ljós óskir um umhverfisvænni rekstrarhætti en minna er um að því sé fylgt eftir. Víða skorti þekkingu á lögum og reglugerðum og eiginleikum þeirra efna sem notuð eru. Starfshættir sem takmarka losun tíðkast nánast ekki og afar mismunandi er staðið að meðhöndlun úrgangs. Eigendur slippstöðva og stjórnvöld geta stuðlað að bættu ástandi í atvinnugreininni. Þörf er á auðskiljanlegum upplýsingum um lög og reglur. Þá er æskilegt að auka fræðslu og koma á samstarfi stærri þjónustuhafna, slippstöðva og lítilla slippa um raunhæfar úrlausnir. Einföld vottunarkerfi geta einnig orðið hvatning til að draga úr mengun. Mestu máli skiptir að litlu slippstöðvarnar komi sér upp söfnunarkerfi fyrir fastan úrgang, fyrir flokkun og meðhöndlun úrgangs og hreinsun frárennslis.

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  • 35. Forberg, Knut
    et al.
    Evenset, Anita
    Uppsamling och hantering av farligt avfall vid småvarv i Norden2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Småvarv som sysslar med underhåll och reparation av småbåtar använder miljöfarliga ämnen, genererar farligt avfall och kan släppa ut miljöskadliga ämnen. Projektet har kartlagt driftsmodeller, miljömedvetenhet, kunskaper och attityder i Nordnorge, på Åland och på Färöarna. Inga väsentliga skillnader upptäcktes mellan de tre regionerna och resultaten kan anses vara representativa för branschen i Norden. Det finns både goda och dåliga exempel, men generellt är förbättringspotentialen stor. Slutsatsen är att det finns en vilja att driva miljövänlig verksamhet, men detta leder i liten grad till praktiska handlingar och förbättringar. Kunskaperna om lagar och regler och om egenskaper hos produkterna som används är bristfälliga. Det finns i stort sett inga rutiner för utsläppsbegränsning, medan rutinerna för avfallshantering är mycket varierande. Både verksamhetsägare och myndigheter kan bidra till att höja standarden inom branschen. Det finns behov av lättfattlig information om regelverket. Ökat informationsutbyte och samarbete mellan större servicehamnar/varv och småvarv om praktiska lösningar är önskvärt. Etablering av enkla certifieringsordningar kan också bidra till att reducera miljöpåverkan. Viktigast är att småvarven inför uppsamlingssystem för fasta ämnen, för sortering och hantering av avfall och för rening av spolvatten.

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  • 36. Framstad, Erik
    et al.
    de Wit, Heleen
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Larjavaara, Markku
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Karltun, Erik
    Biodiversity, carbon storage and dynamics of old northern forests2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests play a key role in the global climate system. The Nordic countries have extensive forests with large and growing tree biomass that captures substantial amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Nordic forests are also important for biodiversity, with complex ecosystems providing habitats for about half of all known native species and threatened species in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Forests also supply the basis for the economically important forest sector. In this report we review current knowledge on the role of old forests in the carbon cycle, their natural dynamics and importance for biodiversity. Based on evidence in the literature, it is clear that old forests continue to accumulate carbon for a long time, well past the normal logging age. The carbon uptake of old forests represents an important co-benefit for the well-documented value of old forests for biodiversity.

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  • 37. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Askham, Cecilia
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Kiørboe, Nikola
    Ljungkvist, Hanna
    McKinnon, David
    Rubach, Synnøve
    The Nordic textile reuse and recycling commitment – a certification system for used textiles and textile waste2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Nordic textile re-use and recycling commitment” certification aims to decrease the environmental impact of textile consumption and to strengthen the competitiveness of the Nordic region by increasing re-use and recycling of textile waste generated in the Nordic countries. The certification system is voluntary, and ensures sustainable and transparent handling of used textiles.

    The certification system assures that certified organizations follow strict criteria on traceability and environmental performance when collecting and handling textiles. The collected textiles will be re-used and recycled in accordance with the waste hierarchy, and all operations are reviewed by an independent third party.

    There are two types of certification. The first is for collection of textiles aimed for re-use only, and the second for collection of textiles for re-use and textile waste for recycling.

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  • 38. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    Løkke, Søren
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin zu
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Collection & recycling of plastic waste: Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first report from the project “Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems for plastic waste from households and other municipal waste sources” is focused on describing the existing situation when it comes to collection and recycling of plastic waste in the Nordic countries. The streams covered are (all from both households and other MSW sources):

    • Plastic packaging waste.

    • Non-packaging small plastic waste.

    • Plastic bulky waste.

    Similarities and differences among the Nordic countries are presented in the report. The findings provide input into the development of suggestions for improvements. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

    The report for Part 2 will be published in December 2014.

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  • 39. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Løkke, Søren
    Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin zu
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Future solutions for Nordic plastic recycling2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future solutions for Nordic plastic recycling contains suggestions on how to collect and recycle more of the generated plastic waste from households and other MSW sources in the Nordic region. The solutions suggested are focused on providing higher availability to collection systems, to focus less on packaging and more on plastic, to have flexible sorting and recycling systems,and to pave the way for a well-functioning, transparent market for recycled plastics that absorbs the collected material. More extensive Nordic cooperation, both on a basis of knowledge exchange and on a practical level, is believed to favour Nordic plastic collection and recycling.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 40. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Løkke, Søren
    Rüdenhause, Malin zu Castell
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Guidelines to increased collection of plastic packaging waste from households2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the guidelines is to inspire, inform and give recommendations on how plastic packaging waste from households can be collected, and how different aspects concerning collection of plastic packaging can be taken into account without recommending a certain collection system in front of another. The aspects considered are: collected amounts, quality of the collected amounts, economic aspects, environmental impact, service level and communication, and flexibility. The guidelines are presented in a separate document and based on Nordic experience. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 41. Fråne, Anna
    et al.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Gíslason, Stefán
    Løkke, Søren
    Rüdenhausen, Malin zu Castell
    Raadal, Hanne L
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Guidelines to increased collection of plastic packaging waste from households: Background information2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper contains background information to the guideline "Increased Collection of plastic packaging waste from households". More facts about the existing collection systems for plastic packaging waste from households used in the Nordic countries is found as well as information about the aspects considered in the guidelines. The actual guidelines are presented in a separate document.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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  • 42. Goldstein, Berit
    et al.
    Helmersdotter Eriksson, Annelie
    Livscykelkostnader: Till vilken nytta för miljön och plånboken?2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten ger en överblick av frågeställningar kring användning av livscykelkostnader som verktyg för en hållbar utveckling. Projektet har fokuserat på att sammanställa exempel där det kan löna sig ekonomiskt att t.ex. minska energi- och resursförbrukning och visa på denna lönsamhet genom att beräkna livscykelkostnader. Av rapporten framgår också erfarenheter kring tillämpningen som möjligheter, svårigheter och framgångsfaktorer med livscykelanalyser. Utifrån detta presenteras förslag till vad som kan göras generellt för att främja användningen och mer specifikt hur Ministerrådet skulle kunna gå vidare.

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  • 43. Grøndahl Kristiansen, Axel
    et al.
    Lau Johansen, Kim
    Mou, Christian
    Johansson, Claes-Göran
    Input to TWG on BAT Candidates for Breweries2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents new BAT (Best Available Techniques) candidates for larger breweries, malting companies and soft drink producers identified within the Nordic brewery sector. The report is prepared as a joint Nordic contribution to the Technical Working Group and is proposed to be used when a review of the BREF for Food, Drink and Milk Industries from 2006 is launched. Larger and IPPC relevant breweries have a production capacity exceeding 300 tons per day or 1,100,000 hl per year. The number of larger breweries and malting companies in the Nordic countries is 10 companies. 8 potential new BAT candidates and 2 emerging techniques are included in the report and all candidates have their origin in the Nordic countries. The BAT described in the report are related to a number of resource saving and optimisation solutions, e.g. like substitution of raw materials and processes, energy and water savings plus production of renewable energy based on brewery waste and side-products.

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  • 44. Gíslason, Stefán
    Sustainability certification of Nordic tourist destinations: Report from an expert workshop in Stockholm 11th September 20122013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An expert workshop on sustainability certification of tourist destinations was held at the Swedish EPA (Naturvårdsverket) in Stockholm Tuesday the 11th of September 2012. The workshop in Stockholm built on a study, conducted in 2011 by Environice for the Nordic Council of Ministers. The aim was to explore and widen the recommendations from the earlier study with the target to create a professional and reliable foundation for further decision and policy making. The workshop was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ group on small communities (Småsamfundsgruppen). This report includes a summary of the workshop’s group discussions, followed by revised recommendations for future work, based on the workshop results. The main conclusion of the workshop was that the Nordic countries should develop a common Nordic system for sustainability certification of tourist destinations.

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  • 45. Gíslason, Stefán
    Svanen och EU Ecolabel. Succéhistorier i nordiska småsamfund: Producenternas erfarenheter2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svanen och EU Ecolabel – Succéhistorier i nordiska småsamfund - Producenternas erfarenheter De nordiska länderna har ett framgångsrikt samarbete med det nordiska miljömärket Svanen, ett av de mest lyckade exemplen på miljömärkningar i hela världen (enligt en internationell studie, som utförts av Evironmental Resources Management i England 2008). EU Ecolabel hamnade på topp fyra i samma studie. I denna skrift presenteras 18 goda exempel (”succéhistorier”) från små företag som drivs i nordiska småsamhällen och fått sina varor eller tjänster miljömärkta med Svanen eller EU Ecolabel. Exemplen visar att miljömärkning är möjlig och lönsam, inte bara i storstäderna, utan också i småsamhällen.

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  • 46. Gíslason, Stefán
    et al.
    Krantz, Venus
    Hållbarhetscertifiering av turistdestinationer: Utredning av möjligheter i en nordisk kontext: Befintliga standarder eller ett nytt nordiskt system?2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett antal olika miljö– eller hållbarhetscertifieringssystem för enskilda företag och produkter inom turistindustrin. Certifierade företag kan dock endast uppfylla en del av de förväntningar som morgondagens turister och framtida generationer kan antas ha till hållbarheten. För att ta steget vidare krävs det ett omfattande samarbete mellan industrin och det lokala samhället, så som kommunstyrelsen och befolkningen. Hela samhället måste delta för att uppnå målet om en så hållbar turism som möjligt. Trots detta finns det nästan inga system för hållbarhetscertifiering av hela samhällen eller turistdestinationer. I denna rapport presenteras en utredning av möjligheter och hinder kring hållbarhetscertifiering av turistdestinationer i en nordisk kontext, antingen enligt befintliga standarder eller enligt ett ev. nytt nordiskt system. Syftet med rapporten är att skapa ett bra underlag till nordiska myndigheter för beslut om ev. miljö- eller hållbarhetscertifiering av turistdestinationer. Rapporten utarbetades av konsultföretaget Environice på Island på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådets Småsamfundsgrupp, som är er undergrupp till ministerrådets arbetsgrupp för hållbar produktion och konsumtion (HKP-gruppen).

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  • 47. Heldbo, Jesper
    et al.
    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt
    Løvstad, Susan Holdt
    Bat for fiskeopdræt i norden2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Indhold

    • Report structure
    • Indledning
    • Sammendrag
    • Livsstadier
    • Landbaseret opdræt
    • Miljøpåvirkninger fra landbaseret opdræt
    • Vandrensningsteknologier til brug i landbaseret opdræt
    • Reduceret miljøbelastning fra landbaseret opdræt
    • Landbaserede referenceanlæg
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  • 48. Hennlock, Magnus
    et al.
    zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
    Wahlström, Margareta
    Kjær, Birgitte
    Milios, Leonidas
    Vea, Eldbjørg
    Watson, David
    Hanssen, Ole Jørgen
    Fråne, Anna
    Stenmarc, Åsa
    Tekie, Haben
    Economic policy instruments for plastic waste: A review with Nordic perspectives2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a high quality of waste plastic materials and recycling processes is a key challenge in closing the resource loops for plastics. This report reviews the status and trends for plastic waste flows and treatment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Furthermore, it gives an overview of existing policy instruments and the main challenges for designing policy instruments for improved recycling of plastic waste in these Nordic countries. The report identifies potential market failures associated with closing the resource loops for plastics. It reviews the economics research literature on policy instrument design for achieving optimal recycling rates and makes policy recommendations from the Nordic perspective. Finally, it presents results from a survey on market conditions to managers in the recycling and plastic manufacturing industry in Sweden.

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  • 49. Hillgrén, Anna
    et al.
    Bröckl, Marika
    Descombes, Laura
    Kontiokari, Venla
    Halonen, Mikko
    Nordic Best Practices: Relevant for UNEP 10YFP on Sustainable Tourism and Consumer Information2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The working group on Sustainable Consumption and Production, under the Nordic Council of Ministers requested consultants from Gaia to identify and write out best Nordic practice cases of sustainable consumption and production to be shared internationally within the UNEP SCP Clearinghouse. This report is the second part and covers in total 19 examples of two particular themes on:

    1) Sustainable Tourism

    2) Consumer Information

    The cases have also been added into the UNEP’s 10 Year Frame-work Program (10YFP) information platform, the SCP Clearinghouse. The objective is to enhance international cooperation in order to accelerate a shift towards sustainable consumption and production in developed and developing countries. The SCP Clearinghouse is a web-based information sharing tool, which can be used by different actors as an inspiration for advancing SCP worldwide.

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  • 50. Hillgrén, Anna
    et al.
    Bröckl, Marika
    Halonen, Mikko
    Nordic best practices: Relevant for UNEP 10YFP of sustainable consumption and production2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The working group on Sustainable Consumption and Production, under the Nordic Council of Ministers requested consultants from Gaia to identify, write out and publish best practice cases of sustainable consumption and production on the UNEP SCP Clearinghouse. This report presents nineteen initiatives that cover two particular themes:

    1) Sustainable Lifestyles and Education and

    2) Sustainable Public Procurement.

    The cases have also been added into the UNEP’s 10 Year Frame-work Program (10YFP) information platform, the SCP Clearinghouse which is a concrete result of Rio+20. The objective is to enhance international cooperation in order to accelerate a shift towards sustainable consumption and production in developed and developing countries. The SCP Clearinghouse is a web-based information sharing tool, which can be used by different actors as an inspiration for advancing SCP worldwide.

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