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  • 1. Barthelmes, Alexandra
    et al.
    Couwenberg, John
    Risager, Mette
    Tegetmeyer, Cosima
    Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands and Climate in a Ramsar context: A Nordic-Baltic Perspective2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in the Nordic Baltic region and elsewhere in the world store large amounts of carbon and are at the same time important for conservation of biodiversity. Thus peatlands are space-effective carbon stocks, but when drained carbon and nitrogen are released as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and as nitrate to the surface water, while methane will be released when rewetting.

    New knowledge reveals that one of the most efficient means to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are the restoration of drained peatlands by reestablish former high water tables on organic soils.

    This project on synergies between climate change mitigation and the restoration of peatlands has been conducted under a regional Ramsar initiative covering the Nordic and Baltic countries (NorBalWet), with support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report contains chapters on peatlands and their role in climate change mitigation, individual country chapters and the role of the Ramsar Convention.

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  • 2. Belgrano, A
    et al.
    Clausen, P
    Ejdung, G
    Gamfeldt, L
    Gundersen, H
    Hammer, M
    Hancke, K
    Hansen, J.L.S
    Heiskanen, A-S
    Häggblom, M
    Højgård Petersen, A
    Ilvessalo-Lax, H
    Jernberg, S
    Kvarnström, M
    Lax, H-G
    Køie Poulsen, M
    Lindblad, C
    Magnussen, K
    Mustonen, T
    Mäen-pää, M
    Norling, P
    Roth, E
    Roto, J
    Sogn Andersen, G
    Svedäng, H
    Söderberg, C
    Sørensen, J
    Tunón, H
    Vihervaara, P
    Vävare, S
    Kallio, M
    Kallio, M (Contributor)
    Biodiversity and ecosystem services in Nordic coastal ecosystems: an IPBES-like assessment. Volume 1. The general overview2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Nordic region, the drivers and pressures affecting them, interactions and effects on people and society, and options for governance. The main report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 The general overview (this report) and Volume 2 The geographical case studies. This study has been inspired by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES). It departs from case studies (Volume 2, the geographical case studies) from ten geographical areas in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) and the autonomous areas of Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. The aim was to describe status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Nordic region, including the drivers and pressures affecting these ecosystems, the effects on people and society and options for governance. The Nordic study is structured as closely as possible to the framework for the regional assessments currently being finalized within IPBES. The report highlights environmental differences and similarities in the Nordic coastal areas, like the inhabitants´ relation to nature and the environment as well as similarities in social and policy instruments between the Nordic countries. This study provides background material for decision-making and it is shown that Nordic cooperation is of great importance for sustainable coastal management and should be strengthened in future work.

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  • 3. Berglund, J
    et al.
    Boström, J
    Clausen, P
    Gamfeldt, L
    Gundersen, H
    Hancke, K
    Hansen, J.L.S
    Häggblom, M
    Højgård Petersen, M
    Ilvessalo-Lax, H
    Jacobsen, K-O
    Kvarnström, M
    Lax, H-G
    Køie Poulsen, M
    Magnussen, K
    Mustonen, K
    Norling, P
    Oddsdottir, E
    Postmyr, E
    Roth, E
    Roto, J
    Sogn Andersen, G
    Svedäng, H
    Sørensen, J
    Tunón, H
    Vävare, S
    Kallio, M
    Kallio, M (Contributor)
    Maps were created by Minna Kallio, Finnish Environment Institute..
    Biodiversity and  ecosystem services  in Nordic coastal ecosystems: an IPBES-like assessment. Volume 2. The geographical case studies2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contributes to a Nordic IPBES-like assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Nordic coastal areas. It is based on ten geographical cases in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) and Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. The purpose is to reflect upon local biodiversity and ecosystem services, e.g. status and trends, drivers of change and policies for governance, and what future we are to expect. The cases describe the situation in the Näätämö area, Kalix archipelago, Quark, Lake Puruvesi, Bay of Lumparn, Öresund, Helgeland archipelago, Faroe Islands, the northern coastline of Iceland, and Disko Bay. It stretches from fresh water areas to ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean and from urbanised areas with heavy pressures on the environment, e.g. Öresund, to sparsely populated areas, like Greenland with a population of around 0.03 habitants/km2.

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  • 4. Cole, Scott
    et al.
    Lindhjem, Henrik
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Angelidis, Ioannis
    Barton, David N.
    Nordic urban nature recreation: How to practically integrate economic values in decision-making2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services.

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  • 5. Daugstad, Karoline
    Agriculture's Role as an Upholder of Cultural Heritage: Report from a Workshop2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial part of the cultural landscape and cultural heritage for many European countries is related to agriculture. Agricultural activity in some form is of vital importance in order to maintain and uphold the cultural heritage related to agriculture, however, intensive farming methods is also a major destroyer of cultural heritage. The role of agriculture as an upholder of cultural heritage was the focus of attention for a European workshop in Norway in February 2005 which brought together representatives from the public agricultural and cultural heritage sectors and researchers from The Netherlands, Austria, Estonia, England, and the Nordic countries of Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Norway. This report presents the status for the link agriculture - cultural heritage in these nine countries and points out some differences as well as mutual characteristics between the national contexts.

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  • 6.
    Enetjärn, Anders
    et al.
    Enetjärn Natur.
    Cole, Scott
    Enviro Economics Sweden.
    Kniivilä, Matleena
    Pellervo Economic Research PTT.
    Hårklau, Svein Erik
    Hårklau NRM Services.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco.
    Sigurdson, Tryggve
    Enetjärn Natur.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Enetjärn Natur.
    Environmental compensation: Key conditions for increased and cost effective application2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impacts are increasing due to human activities. The overuse of the benefits nature provides us is the direct result of our failure to put a price on these benefits. One way of addressing this is to require environmental compensation.

    The purpose of the study is to provide Nordic Council of Ministers and national decision-makers with an overview of key conditions for increased, flexible and cost-effective application of compensation.

    The study shows that for a relatively small cost society can make a significant investment in the provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services by requiring compensation.

    The study outlines three main recommendations on how to increase the use of environmental compensation:

    1. Stimulate supply of, and demand for, compensation

    2. Clarify and supplement guidelines and legal framework

    3. Strengthen Nordic cooperation on compensation

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  • 7. Erkkonen, Joel
    et al.
    Storrank, Bo
    Nordic and Baltic Workshop on Visitor Information Needs and Monitoring Methods (NBW): Final Report2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas are established for nature conservation purposes, but in many cases they also provide excellent opportunities for outdoor recreation. For instance, the national parks of the Nordic countries contain some of the finest sceneries in Northern Europe. An increased focus on protected areas also means that the effects of their recreational use on the nature and environment need to be monitored. As the importance of the specific areas for recreational use increases, a solid basis is needed for planning and management decisions. In order to provide accurate services and allocate resources accordingly, the managers of the areas need information on the visitors, their numbers, behaviour, expectations etc. This is the final report of the workshop "Nordic and Baltic Workshop on Visitor Information Needs and Monitoring Methods (NBW)". The report both summarises the results of the workshop and provides an overview of the status of visitor monitoring in the Nordic and Baltic countries.

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  • 8. F. Þóroddsson, Þóroddur
    Landskap i kommuneplanering. Det nya energylandskapet: Nordiskt seminarium i Selfoss Island – samarbete och utmaningar2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 6–9 juni 2012 arrangerades ett nordiskt seminarium om  ELC med tema Samarbete och utmaningar om landskapskonventionen. Arrangerad av Planstyrelsen (NPA), finansierades av Nordiska ministerråds arbetsgrupp om terresta ekosystem (TEG) med bidrag från Miljöverndepartementet i Norge och NPA.Slutsats, förslag till det nordiska planmyndighetsmötet i augusti 2012: Nordiskt ELC-forum är viktigt och det behöver: vara resurspool för ELC´s utveckling i Norden, vägledningsmaterial och projektexempel vara rådgivare om koordinering och samarbete om seminarier och utbildning på alla nivåer (innefattar allmänheten) betona landskapets roll i planering, informera kommunerna om värdet av landskapet för samhället (hälsa och friluftsliv) och stötta kommunerna så att dessa tar hänsyn till det i sin planering ledas av en arbetsgrupp finansieras. Kontinuitet i samarbetet inom ELC är vigtig

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  • 9. Framstad, Erik
    et al.
    Berglund, Håkan
    Gundersen, Vegard
    Heikkilä, Raimo
    Lankinen, Noora
    Peltola, Taru
    Risbøl, Ole
    Weih, Martin
    Increased biomass harvesting for bioenergy: - effects on biodiversity, landscape amenities and cultural heritage values2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy is one important form of renewable energy where Finland, Norway and Sweden have considerable potential. Greatly increased use of biomass for energy will, however, have considerable effects on environmental values like biodiversity, landscape appearance, outdoor recreation, and the cultural heritage. This review concludes that positive or marginally negative effects of biomass harvesting are likely for harvesting of logging residues, clearance of trees under power lines, along roads, and from marginal agricultural land, as well as production of energy crops on arable land. Negative effects are likely from harvesting of stumps, more intensive forest cultivation on logged areas, and harvesting of biomass from currently non-commercial forests. The environmental effects of production of biomass from reed canary grass or short rotation forestry will depend on where and how such production takes place.

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  • 10. Framstad, Erik
    et al.
    de Wit, Heleen
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Larjavaara, Markku
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Karltun, Erik
    Biodiversity, carbon storage and dynamics of old northern forests2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests play a key role in the global climate system. The Nordic countries have extensive forests with large and growing tree biomass that captures substantial amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Nordic forests are also important for biodiversity, with complex ecosystems providing habitats for about half of all known native species and threatened species in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Forests also supply the basis for the economically important forest sector. In this report we review current knowledge on the role of old forests in the carbon cycle, their natural dynamics and importance for biodiversity. Based on evidence in the literature, it is clear that old forests continue to accumulate carbon for a long time, well past the normal logging age. The carbon uptake of old forests represents an important co-benefit for the well-documented value of old forests for biodiversity.

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  • 11. Gisselman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Cole, Scott
    Blanck, Josefin
    Kniivilä, Matleena
    Hansen, Nora Skjeerna
    Fornbacke, Elin
    Economic values from the natural and cultural heritage in the Nordic countries: Improving visibility and integrating natural and cultural resource values in Nordic countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural and cultural heritage represent key assets that deliver different kind of benefits to citizens in the Nordic countries. This report illustrates the economic values at stake and discusses the important and inevitable key trade-offs facing decision-makers charged with managing these assests. The report has three goals: to briefly describe existing conservation measures in the Nordic countries, to illustrate the type and magnitude of economic values generated by these measures, and to discuss key trade-offs and policy implications arising from the selection of measures, which lead to welfare impacts depending on the level of human use. The valuation studies reviewed in the report demonstrate real economic values associated with the experiences that natural and cultural heritage provides both in terms of increased welfare and regional economic impacts.

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  • 12. Groom, Geoff
    Strategic Landscape Monitoring and Information: towards Coordination of Remote Sensing in the Nordic Countries: Final Report from the NordLaM Project, 1999-20032005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of remote sensing interacts in various ways with Nordic programmes for strategic landscape monitoring and the related activities. As yet these activities are established mainly within national contexts and as such there is little formal international coordination in the application of image data. The increasing national and international requirements for information and knowledge on landscapes and landscape changes, such as in connection to habitat and biodiversity, urges movement towards coordination in the use of data gathering methods including remote sensing. This report concludes a four year programme of activities examining the uses of image data within existing Nordic landscape monitoring work and developing possibilities for increased coordination in this area. Towards its goal the programme has seen broad participation from Nordic and other European landscape and related monitoring activities. The result represents groundwork to be picked-up by subsequent initiatives that can also form operational partnerships between Nordic monitoring activities.

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  • 13. Guijarro Garcia, Elena
    et al.
    A. Ragnarsson, Stefán
    A. Steingrímsson, Sigmar
    Nævestad, Dag
    Þ. Haraldsson, Haukur
    H. Fosså, Jan
    S. Tendal, Ole
    Eiríksson, Hrafnkell
    Skúladóttir, Unnur
    Frandsen, Rikke
    Siegstad, Helle
    Bottom Trawling and Scallop Dredging in the Arctic: Impacts of fishing on non-target species, vulnerable habitats and cultural heritage2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been developed within the frame of the Nordic Action Plan 2000-2004 (Nord 1999:29) to review the status and threats of the natural and cultural heritage in Arctic waters. Two of the most commonly used demersal fishing gears in the Arctic are the otter trawl and the scallop dredge. Detrimental effects of bottom gear towed over the seabed include incidental catch and direct mortality of a wide range of organisms and habitat alteration. Any three-dimensional fragile structures rising above the seabed, such as cold-water corals, sponges, geological formations and archaeological remains are easily destroyed. This report reviews the scallop and shrimp fisheries, the distribution and conservation of vulnerable habitats (coral reefs, sponge communities), the status of archaeological remains on the seabed and relevant legislation and the conservation measures and role of protected areas. In addition there are two case studies based on fisheries and survey data from Iceland and recommendations to improve the current situation.

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  • 14.
    Gundersen, Hege
    et al.
    NIVA.
    Bryan, Tanya
    GRID-Arendal.
    Chen, Wenting
    NIVA.
    Moy, Frithjof E.
    IMR.
    Sandman, Antonia N.
    AquaBiota.
    Sundblad, Göran
    AquaBiota.
    Schneider, Susi
    NIVA.
    Andersen, Jesper H.
    NIVA.
    Langaas, Sindre
    NIVA.
    Walday, Mats G.
    NIVA.
    Ecosystem Services: In the Coastal Zone of the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People are dependent on the ocean and coasts and their resources for their survival and well-being. Coastal ecosystems of the Nordic countries, such as kelp forests, blue mussel beds, eelgrass meadows and shallow bays and inlets, provide a number of supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services to both the local communities as well as the wider population who benefit from them. The study has focused on examining these coastal values through selected examples, and recommend possible applications and relevance for the management of the Nordic coastal areas and their resources. The project has also identified key gaps in the knowledge and suggests where further work should be emphasized.

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  • 15. Hagen, Dagmar
    et al.
    Kotiaho, Janne
    Kareksela, Santtu
    Lindhagen, Anna
    Isaksson, Daniel
    Päivinen, Jussi
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tennokene, Margit
    Hansen, Kjell Tore
    Restoration priorities and strategies: Restoration to protect biodiversity and enhance green infrastructure: Nordic examples of priorities and needs for strategic solutions2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration is a tool to achieve several of the strategic targets of The Convention on Biological Diversity from 2010. Currently, there is no standard for how to set priorities for restoration. The aim of this project was to exchange knowledge between the Nordic countries and Estonia regarding experiences of restoration and priority setting with a landscape perspective. Using case examples, the project explores and discusses approaches for setting priorities, and suggests possible ways of improved approaches for prioritization. This includes how to improve Green Infrastructure and measures for protection of species and habitats in fragmented landscapes. The case examples use different approaches, and provide ideas, reflections and take-home messages to enhance future prioritization. This report show that there is a need for greater emphasis on the prioritization aspects of restoration.

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  • 16. Hagen, Dagmar
    et al.
    Lindhagen, Anna
    Päivinen, Jussi
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristin
    Tennokene, Margit
    Klokk, Terje
    Aarønæs, Maja Stade
    The Nordic Aichi restoration project: How can the Nordic countries implement the CBD-target on restoration of 15% of degraded ecosystems within 2020?2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention of Biological Diversity commits the parties to halt the loss of biodiversity within 2020. For accomplishing this task, the Aichi targets have been established. Aichi target 15 aims at restoring 15% of damaged ecosystems by 2020. The Nordic countries are parties to CBD, and committed to the Aichi targets. This project will establish a basis that may be used by the management and political authorities in the Nordic countries for achieving Aichi target 15 on restoration of degraded ecosystems. The report explores the possibilities, limitations and challenges on how ecological restoration can contribute to the Aichi target, based on available knowledge and existing statistics on degraded land and restoration experiences in the Nordic countries and Estonia. This is intended as a contribution for future work at the national level and in local communities.

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  • 17. Halldorsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Sigurdis Oddsdottir, Edda
    Didrik Sigurdsson, Bjarni
    AFFORNORD: Effects on Ecosystems, Landscape and Rural Development2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic project AFFORNORD studied the effects of afforestation on ecosystems, landscape and rural development in the years 2004–2006. Forests play a major role in the environment and economy of the Nordic countries. In historical times, extensive areas in the southern and western part of the Nordic region were deforestated, followed by afforestation in the past two centuries. There is no doubt that afforestation affects biodiversity, landscape dynamics, rural development and human health in several ways, positive as well as negative. Therefore, the purpose of afforestation must be clear in the planning phase. Proper forest management is also of critical importance. No land-use meets all environmental goals simultaneously. Some negative impacts are inevitable, even if the most conscientious management is employed. Generally, a trade-off must be made between the desire for a pristine environment and the need for a working and operational landscape for the benefit of society at large.

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  • 18. Halldorsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Sigurdis Oddsdottir, Edda
    Eggertsson, Olafur
    Effects of afforestation on ecosystems, landscape and rural development: Proceedings of the AFFORNORD conference, Reykholt, Iceland, June 18–22, 20052007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Forests and forestry play a major role in the economy and ecology of the Nordic countries. This important resource has been heavily exploited throughout the centuries, with the consequence that, in certain regions, forests were almost eradicated. In order to amend this, extensive afforestation has taken place in the Nordic countries. The goals of afforestation are many, among these to re-establish the forest resource and to have a positive influence on rural development. However, afforestation has other consequences, such as changes in ecosystems and landscape. Therefore, it is important to gain an overview over the multi-scale effects of afforestation in the Nordic countries. This is the goal of the Nordic project AFFORNORD. This book contains 43 scientific papers presented in an international conference held in Iceland in 2005 on the effects of afforestation on ecosystems, landscape and rural development. The papers are dealing with different topics related to afforestation, stretching from biology to sociology, from insect communities to human communities, and from microhabitats to landscapes.

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  • 19. Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Nilsson, Christer
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters: Policy Brief2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters – ecological solutions

    Every year, natural disasters cause loss of lives and significant damage in the Nordic countries. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural disasters. However, degradation of natural habitats has in many cases seriously damaged this ability. A recently concluded Nordic project ERMOND—Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters—aimed to facilitate new thinking and new solutions in disaster risk management in the Nordic countries.The main conclusion from the ERMOND project is that Nordic disaster risk reduction strategies should place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management. This may in the long run proof to be cheaper and more sustainable than traditional engineered solutions, such as building levees for preventing floods. Restoration of degraded ecosystem will furthermore provide a wide array of other environmental, economic and social benefits. The ERMOND project was launched in 2014 as a theme project of the Nordic Council of Ministers, appointed by the Icelandic Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources. In total, fifteen institutions participated in the ERMOND project, and another four were part of a wider network receiving information on project activities. Project partners came from all the Nordic countries. The project was financed through the following funding schemes of the Nordic Council of Ministers: NordBio - The Program for the Icelandic Presidency in NCM in 2014 and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Group (TEG). The Committee of Senior Officials for the Environment funded the project NordEcRes, which was linked to the ERMOND project. The results of the ERMOND project will soon be published in a TemaNord report, an ANP Policy brief and several scientific articles.

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  • 20. Hasler, Berit
    et al.
    Ahtiainen, Heini
    Hasselström, Linus
    Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Martinsen, Louise
    Marine Ecosystem Services: Marine ecosystem services in Nordic marine waters and the Baltic Sea – possibilities for valuation2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Ecosystem Services (MARECOS) is an interdisciplinary study that provides relevant information for national, Nordic and international ecosystem services assessments and valuation in the implementation of marine policy.

    This report aims to provide suggestions on how ecosystem condition assessments, being based on the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the HELCOM indicator based assessments for the Baltic Sea, could be used for the assessment of ecosystem services.

    By describing the potentials of linking data and knowledge describing the status of marine ecosystems and water quality to the values of the services and goods provided, the report offers useful information for policy and decision makers in the domain of the marine and aquatic policies around the Baltic and in the Nordic countries.

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  • 21. Haugaard Nielsen, Rolf
    Natur- og kulturmiljø i Arktis: Grønland, Island og Svalbard2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Utfordringer i Arktis Noen av de siste så og si uberørte områdene i verden finnes i Arktis. I denne storslåtte naturen er det mange kulturminner som forteller en fasinerende historie om menneskers evne gjennom tidene til å overleve i denne kalde og barske regionen. En av nåtidens største miljøutfordringer i Arktis er å sikre at aktiviteter, som utnytter naturens resurser, turisme, friluftsliv og forskning, utføres på en bærekraftig måte. Dette er den eneste måten vi kan beskytte de uberørte naturområdene på, bevare biodiversiteten og sikre de unike kulturmiljøene for framtida. Den nordiske handlingsplanen for natur- og kulturbeskyttelse i Arktis - Grønland, Island og Svalbard ble vedtatt i 1999 med hensikt å fremme en bærekraftig utvikling i Arktis. Intensjonen var å beskytte natur- og kulturmiljøer som helhet gjennom en overordnet innsats. Denne helhetlige tankegangen kan i internasjonal sammenheng ses på som nyskapende. Handlingsplanen initierte ni veldig ulike prosjekter som nå er fullført. Resultatene beskrives i denne brosjyren.

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  • 22. Haugaard Nielsen, Rolf
    Natur- og kulturmiljø i Arktis: Grønland, Island og Svalbard2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Udfordringer i Arktis Nogle af de sidste næsten uberørte områder i verden findes i Arktis, og den storslåede natur rummer mange kulturminder, som fortæller en fascinerede historie om menneskets evne til at overleve i den kolde og barske region gennem tiderne. En af nutidens største miljømæssige udfordringer i Arktis er at sikre, at aktiviteter som udnyttelse af naturens ressourcer, turisme, friluftsliv og forskning sker på bæredygtig vis. Kun på den måde kan vi beskytte de uberørte naturområder, bevare biodiversiteten og sikre de unikke kulturmiljøer for fremtiden. Den Nordiske Handlingsplan for natur- og kulturmiljøbeskyttelse i Arktis - Grønland, Island og Svalbard blev vedtaget i 1999 med henblik på at fremme en bæredygtig udvikling i Arktis. Intentionen var at beskytte natur- og kulturmiljøer som en helhed gennem en overordnet indsats. I international sammenhæng kan denne holistiske tilgang ses som en nyskabelse. Handlingsplanen blev udmøntet i ni meget forskelligartede projekter, som nu er fuldførte. Denne brochure beskriver resultaterne.

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  • 23. Haugaard Nielsen, Rolf
    Nature and Cultural Environments in the Arctic: Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges in the Arctic Some of the last fairly pristine areas in the World are found in the Arctic, and many cultural heritage sites in this magnificent nature tell us a fascinating story of the ability of man to survive in this cold and rough region throughout the ages. Today one of the most urgent environmental challenges in the Arctic is to ensure that activities such as exploitation of the natural resources, tourism, out-door life, and research are conducted in a sustainable manner in order to protect the pristine areas, the biodiversity, and the unique cultural environment. The Nordic Action Plan to Protect the Natural and Cultural Heritage of Arctic - Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard was adopted in 1999 to promote sustainable development in the Arctic. The intention was to protect natural and cultural environments through an overall effort, and this holistic approach may be seen as pioneering in an international context. The action plan initiated nine very diverse projects that have now been carried through. The results are described in this booklet.

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  • 24. Haugaard Nielsen, Rolf
    Nunani issittuni (Arktisimi) pinngortitamut- kultureqarnermullu tunngasut avatangiisit: Kalaallit Nunaanni, Islandimi Svalbardimilu2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [kl]

    Nunani Issittorqarfiusuni Avannarlerni (Arktiskimi) anguniarniakkat unammillernartut Silarsuarmi pinngortitat innarlerneqarsimanngingajattut kingulliit ilaat Nunani Issittoqarfiusuni Avannarlerniipput (Arktisimi), pinngortitarssuamilutassani alianaangaartumiipput kultureqarnermut tunngassusillit eqqaassutissaqarfiit, tupinnangaartumik ukiorpassuit ingerlanerini inuit tamaani isseqisumi tujorminartumilu inuuniarsinnaasimanerannik takussutissaasut. Arktiskimi avatangiisit pinngortitarlu pillugit ulluttinni anguniagassat tassa qulakkiissallugu, suliniutit soorlu pinngortitamit pissamaatitut taasakkatta atornerlunneqarnerat, takornariartitsisarnernik suliaqartarnerit, silamiittarnerit ilisimatusarnerilllu, nungusaataanngitsumik ingerlanneqartarnissaat. Aatsaat taamaaliornikkut pinngortitat allanngorneqanngitsut illersorsinnaassagattigit, pinngortitallu uumassusillit assigiinngiiaarneri atatiinnarneqarsinnaallutik aammalu kultureqarnermut tunngassusillit eqqaassutissaqarfiit asseqanngitsut siunissamut isumannaajarneqarlutik. Nunani Avannarleni Qanoq Iliusissanut Pilersaarusiaq pinngortitaq-eqqaassutissaqarfiillu Arktiskimiittut - Kalaallit Nunaanni, Island-imi Svalbard-imilu akuersissutigineqarsimavoq 1999-mi tunaartarinerullugit Arktiskimi nungusaataanngitsumik ineriartortitsinissat siuarsarneqarnissaat. Siunertaasimavoq pinngortitap-eqqaassutissaqarfiillu ataatsimut isigalugit illersorneqarnissaannut pingaarutilinnik suliniuteqarnissat. Nunat assigiinngitsut akornanni taamak ataatsimut periaaseqarniarneq nutaaliatut isigineqarsinnaavoq. Qanoq Iliusissanut Pilersaarusiq suliarineqarsimavoq assigiinngitsorujussuarni iluarsartuullugu pilersaarusiorluni suliaasimasuni (projektini) qulingiluaasuni, maannakkullu naammassineqareersimasuni. Naammassinerisa inerneri uvani atuagaaqqami allaaserineqarsimapput.

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  • 25. Haugaard Nielsen, Rolf
    Náttúru- og menningarminjar á norðurheimskautssvæðinu2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [is]

    Brýn viðfangsefni á norðurheimskautssvæðinu Á norðurheimsskautssvæðinu er að finna nokkur af síðustu svæðum jarðar þar sem náttúran er nánast ósnortin og í þessari stórbrotnu náttúru leynist fjöldi menningarminja sem er hrífandi vitnisburður um ótrúlega hæfni mannsins til að komast af öldum saman í þessum kalda og hrjóstruga heimshluta. Eitt brýnasta viðfangsefnið á sviði umhverfismála á norðurheimskautssvæðinu er að tryggja að öll starfsemi, svo sem nýting auðlinda, ferðaþjónusta, útivist og rannsóknir, sé rekin á vistvænan og sjálfbæran hátt. Aðeins þannig getum við verndað um ókomna tíð þessa ósnortnu náttúru, líffræðilega fjölbreytni og menningarminjar. Norræna framkvæmdaáætlunin um vernd náttúru og menningarminja á norðurheimskautssvæðinu - Grænlandi, Íslandi og Svalbarða - var samþykkt árið 1999 og hafði að markmiði að stuðla að sjálfbærni á norðurheimskautssvæðinu. Ætlunin var að vernda náttúruna og menningarminjar sem heild í einu samræmdu átaki sem með réttu má líta á sem nýmæli í alþjóðlegu tilliti. Í tengslum við framkvæmdaáætlunina voru unnin níu afar mismunandi verkefni sem lokið hefur verið við. Þessi bæklingur lýsir árangri starfsins.

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  • 26. Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Höjer, Olle
    Jakovlev, Jevgeni
    Kryshen, Aleksandr
    Mikkola, Jyri
    Mikkonen, Ninni
    Paz von Friesen, Carlos
    Virkkala, Raimo
    Improving ecological connectivity in boreal forests of the Barents region: Background, issues and recommendations2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    All Nordic countries are committed to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. According to the CBD Aichi Targets, areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services should be protected through ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas as well as other effective area-based conservation measures. The ecosystems of the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and North-West Russia are very diverse and unique even globally. This region is characterized by extensive boreal forests and vast areas of tundra, intermingled by various freshwater bodies. Climate change and loss of natural habitats due to intensive land-use and unsustainable use of natural resources are the most serious threats to biodiversity in this region, also called the Barents Region.

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  • 27. Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Jansson, Roland
    Nilsson, Christer
    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region

    Climate change may affect biodiversity to a large extent. Its effects have already caused shifts in species distributions and even species extinctions. Since especially high latitude regions are expected to be affected, this publication assesses the impact of future climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region (northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, and Northwest Russia). It reports on the impact of climate change on a large range of species, including amphibians, butterflies, birds, mammals, moths, plants, slugs, snails, and reptiles, of which a few were studied more in depth. It further identifies future hotspots of species diversity and gives recommendations on species that should be prioritized for conservation and on areas that should be included in the network of protected areas in future. Lastly, it provides guidance on which aspects require further study.

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  • 28. Joosten, Hans
    Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation: An issue brief on the importance of peatlands for carbon and biodiversity conservation and the role of drained peatlands as greenhouse gas emission hotspots2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation

     Did you know that

    • peatlands hold more carbon than all forests of the world combined?
    • drained peatlands are responsible for 25% of total CO2 emissions in the Nordic and Baltic countries?
    • rewetting of peatlands substantially reduces these emissions?

     This policy brief pleads for increased commitments to conserving and rewetting peatlands; for abolishing regulations that drive peatland drainage; for changing drained peatland use to paludicultures; and for setting up good practice demonstration projects. It stresses the need for better communicating the benefits of wet peatlands and the costs arising from damaged ones. Finally it highlights the role of peatland rewetting and restoration in reaching national and international policy targets for climate change mitigation, water quality improvement and biodiversity conservation.

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  • 29. Kajala, L.
    et al.
    Almik, A.
    Dahl, R-
    Dikšait?, L.
    Erkkonen, J.
    Fredman, P.
    Jensen, F.
    K. Søndergaard, Karoles
    Sievänen, T.
    Skov-Petersen, H.
    O. Vistad, I.
    Wallsten, P.
    Kävijäseuranta luontoalueilla: Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian maiden kokemuksiin perustuva opas2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Luontomatkailun ja luonnossa virkistäytymisen merkitys kasvaa Pohjoismaissa ja Baltiassa. Tiedot luontoalueiden kävijöistä ovat tärkeitä, jotta alueiden virkistyskäyttöä voidaan suunnitella ja toteuttaa siten, että kävijöille tarjotaan laadukkaita virkistyskokemuksia, kehitetään luontomatkailua, edistetään kansanterveyttä ja hyvinvointia sekä suojellaan luonto- ja kulttuuriperintöä kestävästi.Tämän oppaan tarkoituksena on antaa ideoita ja tietoa eri menetelmistä ja keinoista, joiden avulla luontoalueiden virkistyskäyttäjistä ja käyttötavoista saadaan enemmän tietoa. Oppaan pääpaino on käytännön menetelmissä: kuinka kävijälaskentoja ja -tutkimuksia tehdään, miten tulokset kannattaa raportoida ja kuinka tietoja voidaan hyödyntää. Opas sisältää ohjeita, suosituksia ja esimerkkejä Pohjoismaihin ja Baltiaan soveltuvista kävijäseurantamenetelmistä.Oppaan on laatinut luontoalueiden kävijäseurantaan perehtynyt asiantuntijatyöryhmä, ja sen tarkoituksena on edistää Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian olosuhteisiin muokattujen yhtenäisten kävijäseurantamenetelmien käyttöä. Tämä on ensimmäinen askel kohti yhtenäistä kävijäseurantatietoa, joka luo yhteisen perustan kävijätilastoille ja -tietokannoille näissä maissa.

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  • 30. Kajala, Liisa
    Besökarundersökningar i naturområden: En handbok baserad på erfarenheter från de nordiska och baltiska länderna2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vikten av friluftsliv och naturturism ökar i de nordiska och baltiska länderna. Information om besökare i naturområden är betydelsefull för förvaltning av friluftsliv, för att säkerställa friluftslivsupplevelser av hög kvalitet, för utveckling av turism och för ett effektivt och hållbart skydd av natur- och kulturarv. Syftet med denna vägledning är att förse förvaltare av naturområden med metoder, verktyg och idéer för besökarundersökningar. Vägledningen fokuserar huvudsakligen på praktiska frågor: hur besöksräkning och besökarstudier utförs, hur resultaten redovisas och hur den erhållna informationen kan användas. Vägledningen omfattar riktlinjer, rekommendationer och exempel på metoder för besökarundersökningar som lämpar sig för naturområden i de nordiska och baltiska länderna. Vägledningen har tagits fram av en expertgrupp och är ett försök att få till stånd en användning av överensstämmande metoder under nordiska och baltiska förhållanden. Den är ett första steg mot att erhålla enhetlig information från besökarundersökningar och att skapa en gemensam grund för statistik och databaser med besökarinformation i dessa länder.

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  • 31. Kajala, Liisa
    Külastajate seire loodusaladel: Pöhjamaade ja Balti riikide kogemustel põhinev käsiraamat2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [et]

    Põhja- ja Baltimaades on loodusturismi ja rekreatsiooni tähtsus tõusuteel. Informatsiooni loodusalade külastajate kohta on tarvis rekreatsiooni korraldamiseks, et säästval viisil kindlustada kvaliteetsed rekreatsioonikogemused, turismi areng, rahvatervise edendamine ning efektiivne looduse ja kultuuripärandi kaitse. Käesoleva käsiraamatu eesmärk on pakkuda loodusalade majandajatele meetodeid, vahendeid ja ideid, mille abil on võimalik saada rohkem informatsiooni puhkajatest ja loodusalade kasutusest. Põhirõhk on praktilistel küsimustel: kuidas korraldada külastajate loendust ja külastajauuringuid, mil viisil anda aru tulemustest ja kuidas saadud andmeid kasutada. Käsiraamat sisaldab juhtnööre, soovitusi ja näiteid külastajate seire meetoditest, mida saab kasutada Põhjamaade ja Balti riikide loodusaladel. Käsiraamatu on koostanud loodusalade külastajaseiremeetodite ekspertgrupp ja eesmärgiks on võtta Põhja- ja Baltimaades kasutusele ühtlustatud meetodid. See on esimene samm ühtlustatud meetodite kasutamise poole külastajate seire valdkonnas ning loob ühtse aluse statistikale ja andmebaasidele selles piirkonnas. Price: 541 Estonian kroons/approx EUR 35

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  • 32. Kajala, Liisa
    Monitoring Outdoor Recreation in the Nordic and Baltic Countries2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report of the project "Visitor Monitoring Methods in the Nordic and Baltic Countries". The goal of the project was to develop visitor monitoring methodologies for Nordic and Baltic land management agencies, the work of which is related to visitor management in protected and recreational areas. The report provides an overview of the visitor monitoring methods and guidelines currently available, including state-of-the-art reports and case studies from the Nordic and Baltic countries. The report concludes that there are certain common variables related to monitoring outdoor recreation that are important to all the Nordic and Baltic countries and that could be standardized. Therefore, the project group continues its work in order to produce recommendations for a common visitor monitoring methodology in protected and recreational areas in the Nordic and Baltic Countries. These recommendations will be published in the form of a Nordic-Baltic manual on visitor monitoring practices.

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  • 33. Kilpi, Mikael
    et al.
    Lorentsen, Svein H.
    Petersen, Ib K.
    Einarsson, Arni
    Trends and drivers of change in diving ducks2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses changes in population size in five species of diving ducks breeding and wintering in the Baltic Sea. Declines in breeding Greater Scaup, Eider and Velvet Scoters on the Baltic coast are verified. Long-tailed Ducks and Eiders have declined in winter. Breeding Eiders have declined in Norway. Monitoring programs in all Nordic countries are partly inadequate for detecting changes in numbers of birds both in winter and during breeding, but large-scale trends appear reliable. The reasons for the declines observed are largely unknown. For breeding Eiders in the northern part of the Baltic Sea a change in predation regimes on the breeding islands may be important. If the negative trends are to be stopped, a deeper understanding of the drivers involved and better knowledge about the ecological status of the Baltic Sea food webs utilized by the diving ducks are needed.

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  • 34. Koksvik, Espen
    Naturopplevelse, friluftsliv og vår psykiske helse: Rapport fra det nordiske miljøprosjektet "Friluftsliv og psykisk helse"2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Prosjektet er forankret i Miljøhandlingsprogrammet 2005 - 2008" der "Miljø og sundhed" var tema. Kap.1.3 "Folkesundhed og naturopplevelse" hadde mål om å analysere sammenhengene mellom friluftsliv og folkesundhed og kap. 3.3 hadde mål om å sikre det tradisjonelle nordiske friluftsliv. Norge lanserte prosjektet  i 2006 for å følge opp programmet på disse punktene. Formålet var å etablere en plattform for arbeidet med friluftsliv og psykisk helsevern. En ville se nærmere på de sammenhenger og utfordringer som knytter seg til menneskets aktivitet i og møte med natur og de psykiske virkningene av dette. Siktemålet var å få fram nordisk kunnskap om de positive helsevirkningene - både forebyggende og terapeutisk. Plattformen har fem elementer: 1) Faglig nettverk. 2) Forskersamarbeid. 3) Tematisk hjemmeside (www.friskinaturen.org). 4 a) Nordisk konferanse sept.-07 i Asker, Norge og   4 b) Konferanserapport (Juni-08.) 5) Prosjektrapport "Naturopplevelse, friluftsliv og vår psykiske helse." (1. juni 2009). Prosjektleder har vært Espen Koksvik fra MD-N og prosjektet ble avsluttet 15. mai 2009.

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  • 35. Kristian Spidsø, Tor
    et al.
    Jakob Sørensen, Ole
    The last large intact forests in Northwest Russia: Protection and sustainable use2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The forests of Fennoscandia have been in human use for many purposes for centuries, and through the last decades industrialized and cultivated in a manner that can change their ecological function with respect to biodiversity at species and ecosystem levels. In Northwest Russia we can still find large, indigenous forests where human impact is low. They represent the last intact western taiga ecosystems of high value for biodiversity preservation in Russia and Fennoscandia as reservoirs and source habitats for future dispersal of taiga species. The Conference and Workshop in Steinkjer 2007 focused on these matters, but also the ecological importance of these forests for rural culture, socio-economic importance, industrial values and how protection and sustainable societies could go hand in hand. Many of the presentations given at the conference and workshop are here presented together with the Summary and Closing Statement worked out at the end of the sessions. The presentations cover many aspects from ecology, history and culture, conservation and management strategies, inventory tools for defining habitats of specific value to biodiversity, as well as implementation of environmental issues into the forestry laws and certification and educational tools for developing sustainable societies in a broad scale.

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  • 36. Kryger, Ida
    Samspil mellem jordejere og friluftsliv2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    De nordiske befolkningers mulighed for at dyrke et sundt og oplevelsesrigt friluftsliv er et væsentligt tema i den moderne samfundsudvikling. Private arealer rummer rige muligheder for udeliv. Nærværende rapport sætter fokus på samspillet mellem friluftsudøverne og jordejerne. Foråret 2007 mødtes jordejere, friluftsfolk, myndighedsrepræsentanter og forskere fra de nordiske lande for at diskutere og dele erfaringer om friluftsliv på private arealer nu og i fremtiden. Deltagerne bragte aktuelle emner på dagsorden, heriblandt "allemandsretten" byudvikling, kommercialisering og fremtidige forskningsopgaver. Denne rapport indeholder udsagn, anbefalinger samt gode praksiseksempler, som deltagerne bragte frem på møderne. I rapporten findes også 7 aktuelle indlæg om friluftsliv og samspillet med jordejerne. Med nærværende rapport ønsker de 60 bidragydere at opfordre til intens og vedvarende dialog om, hvordan vi bedst tilgodeser de forskellige interesser i vores rige nordiske natur.

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  • 37. L. Hass, Julie
    et al.
    Palm, Viveka
    Using the right environmental indicators: Tracking progress, raising awareness and supporting analysis: Nordic perspectives on indicators, statistics and accounts for managing the environment and the pressures from economic activities2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding and using indicators that are most suited for tracking progress, raising awareness and supporting analysis is a challenge. Indicators need to be used in appropriate contexts and should ideally be fit-for-purpose. For example, indicators which are best used for awareness-raising cannot be used for monitoring policy goals. This report presents a short review of different indicators typically encountered by environmental policy makers. General advice is provided regarding their uses. In the second part of the report, an overview of the environmental-economic accounting work of the Nordic statistical institutes is presented. Lessons learned from the development of these accounts as well as ideas for future work are described. These types of environmental accounts provide a framework for developing information about the connections between the economy and the environment. The study was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers and conducted by the national statistical agencies in the Nordic countries, led by Statistics Norway and Statistics Sweden.

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  • 38. Larsen, Eigil
    COPE – Children, Outdoor, Participation, Environment: A Guide on How to Engage Children in Issues Regarding Health, Nature, Environmental Problems and Outdoor Life2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the COPE-project is to develop children's engagement and ability to act upon issues such as health, nature management, environmental problems and space for outdoor life. Important issues included in this guide are children's right to healthy living, experience nature and outdoor life, a clean environment that does not harm their health, developing of competences so that they can take care of their own and others' health, participation, democracy and empowerment. The teaching ideas presented here have been piloted with success in 42 schools and after-school activity centres in nine Nordic and Baltic countries during 2005 and 2006. The guide is useful to teachers in primary and secondary schools and activity centres, by health staff in local communities, institutions for pre-service and in-service training, local authorities (for example in town planning), nature interpreters etc.

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  • 39. Levin, Gregor
    et al.
    J. Fjellstad, Wendy
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Rehunen, Antti
    Münier, Bernd
    Connectivity of nature in the Nordic countries (CONNOR): Assessing landscape structure in habitat monitoring in the Nordic countries - potential approaches, methods and data2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings from the workshop at Roskilde Vandrehjem, Denmark, 14-15 May 2008 The Nordic countries have a common goal to halt the decline in biological diversity by 2010. Changes in the spatial structure of habitats are a major pressure on biological diversity. Spatial indicators can help to describe the development of biological diversity and hence evaluate the 2010-target. At a workshop held in May 2008, approaches and available data for the application of spatial indicators in the Nordic countries were discussed. It was agreed that spatial indicators are useful descriptors for biological diversity. However, indicators must be based on specific knowledge on species' requirements in terms of quality and spatial structure of habitats. Furthermore, applied map-data must contain information, which reflects these requirements. To strengthen the integration of spatial indicators in Nordic nature monitoring, critical research needs were identified. Existing approaches and available map-data need to be evaluated critically. In order to uncover opportunities, limitations and needed actions for a meaningful application of spatial indicators, specific example-studies need to be elaborated. These research activities are crucial for scientifically qualified and sound recommendations for the future design of nature monitoring in the Nordic countries.

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  • 40. Lindhjem, Henrik
    et al.
    Reinvang, Rasmus
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in a Nordic context: Concepts, values and decision-making2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences and the value of landscape impacts in policy assessments and decision-making processes. The project aim has been to synthesize knowledge about the magnitude and value of landscape experiences, and investigate current practices and examples of how landscape impacts are incorporated (or not) in policy assessments and decision-making contexts in the Nordics. The literature demonstrates potentially high unaccounted welfare loss from landscape change. We find clear weaknesses in current practices, that a second phase will try to address. The project was carried out by Vista Analysis in Oslo and Department of Environmental Science at Aarhus University from 2014–15.

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  • 41. Magnussen, Kristin
    et al.
    Hasler, Berit
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Ecosystem Services: In Nordic Freshwater Management2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed.

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  • 42. Mazza, Leonardo
    et al.
    Bröckl, Marika
    Ahvenharju, Sanna
    ten Brink, Patrick
    Pursula, Tiina
    Natural Capital in a Nordic context: Status and Challenges in the Decade of Biodiversity2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report reviews different international approaches for natural capital accounting. The five approaches reviewed are attempts to help create an improved evidence base on the links between biodiversity and ecosystems on the one hand and economic and human wellbeing on the other in view of better informing decision-making in a variety of contexts. The strengths and weaknesses of the approaches are evaluated in the light of the policy goals, institutions and conditions in the Nordic countries. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2012 – January 2013 by Gaia Consulting Oy and the Institute of European Environmental Policy. The project was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

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  • 43. Moilanen, Atte
    et al.
    Kotiaho, Janne S.
    Planning biodiversity offsets: Twelve operationally important decisions2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological damage caused by infrastructure projects or other development activity may, in some cases, be compensated by restoring or protecting habitats elsewhere. This process, which resembles the "polluter pays" principle, is often called biodiversity offsetting or ecological compensation. The frequently-cited goal of offsetting is ecological no-net-loss, which means that all ecological losses must be fully balanced by corresponding ecological gains produced by offsetting actions.

    This publication reviews the principles of offsetting and summarizes a dozen decisions that effectively determine the credibility, feasibility and costs of offsets. These decisions cover the three major axes of ecology, biodiversity, space and time as well as additional considerations inherent to implementation of offsets via habitat restoration and protection measures. Compensation will necessarily take place some distance away from the damage, it will come with uncertainties and a time delay, and lost biodiversity will never be replaced by exactly the same thing, which means that up-front treatment of the degree of flexibility allowed should be fundamental to any offsetting project.

    As ecosystems are different, the twelve design questions described here should be systematically addressed when offsets are suggested for a new type of environment. Doing so will facilitate well-informed and transparent design and evaluation of biodiversity offsets.

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  • 44. N. Barton, David
    et al.
    Lindhjem, Henrik
    Magnussen, Kristin
    Holen, Silje
    Valuation of Ecosystem Services from Nordic Watersheds: From awareness raising to policy support? (VALUESHED)2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of the ecosystem services concept suggests that economic valuation studies are already fulfilling a role in raising awareness by demonstrating the loss of nature’s goods and services using monetary indicators. In order to have future relevance in capturing value and giving support to policy-makers, valuation methods must specifically address resource accounting, priority setting, and instrument design. This report provides an overview of economic valuation methods of ecosystem services from watersheds in the Nordic countries. The study was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers and conducted by The Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, The Norwegian Institute of Water Research and Sweco Norge during the period May – November 2011. The study indicates that economic valuation methods can be applied to watershed management in multiple ways. However, policy makers should be wary of “one size fits all” valuation estimates that appear ready to use across different watershed types and stakeholder interests.

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  • 45. Nilsson, Daniel
    Aktivera natur och kulturarv: – för hållbar utveckling och tillväxt2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan natur och kulturarv aktiveras för hållbar utveckling och till-växt? Vilka är möjligheterna respektive utmaningarna? Vilka perspektiv, strategier och metoder används i detta arbete och går det att identifiera särskilda framgångsfaktorer? Detta är exempel på frågor som har diskuterats i det nordiska samverkansprojektet Natur och kulturarv som en resurs för hållbar utveckling och tillväxt. Resultat från projektet presenteras i denna rapport. Genom att förmedla erfarenheter och ge rekommendationer och förslag till fortsatt arbete vill projektet förbättra förutsättningarna för att naturens och kulturarvets potential som utvecklingskraft ska tas tillvara. Rapporten riktar sig till myndigheter och organisationer som praktiskt, akademiskt eller politiskt arbetar med kulturarv och natur samt regional utveckling och tillväxt.

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  • 46. Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Hulusjö, Nataliya
    Kulturarv och natur som resurs för hållbar utveckling och tillväxt: En nordisk översikt2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kännetecknar kulturarvs- och natursektorernas arbete med regional och lokal utveckling och tillväxt i Norden? Vilka är utgångspunkterna för detta? Vad finns det att vinna på en vidareutvecklad samverkan mellan dessa intressen? Det är några av de frågor som behandlas i denna rapport som är resultatet av den första etappen i ett internordiskt projekt om naturens och kulturarvets betydelse som faktor för hållbar utveckling och tillväxt.

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  • 47. Normander, Bo
    et al.
    Levin, Gregor
    Auvinen, Ari-Pekka
    Bratli, Harald
    Stabbetorp, Odd
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Glimskär, Anders
    A. Gudmundsson, Gudmundur
    State of biodiversity in the Nordic countries: An assessment of progress towards achieving the target of halting biodiversity loss by 20102009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have agreed on a common target to halt the decline in biodiversity by 2010. This report aims at evaluating the 2010-target by presenting indicators that can describe trends in biodiversity in the Nordic countries. Our results comprise the most comprehensive documentation of land use in the Nordic countries to date. The area of important nature types such as mire, grassland and heathland have decreased significantly over the past one to two decades, whereas the area of constructed habitats, including city areas and transport networks, has grown considerably in all of the Nordic countries. Each of these trends in land use will cause biodiversity to decline. Looking into the quality aspect of biodiversity, our results reveal that two-thirds of the quality indicators presented show declines and the remaining one-third show improvements (or steady-state). Overall, our results indicate that biodiversity has declined in the Nordic countries since 1990. In particular, farmland, mire, grassland and heathland habitats show declines in biodiversity, but also the remaining habitats show negative trends. Therefore, based on the findings from this study, we conclude that it is highly unlikely that the target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010 can be achieved by the Nordic countries. Our results should be perceived as a first attempt to make an overall assessment of biodiversity in the Nordic countries. We believe that if further efforts were directed towards scrutinising existing and historic monitoring programmes and data sources, additional indicators could be calculated and hence a better knowledge base would be achieved.

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  • 48. O'Brien, K.
    et al.
    Tikkanen, S.
    Lindblad, C.
    Flyg, P.
    Olsson, A.
    Uldum, O.
    Aarestad, I.
    Nævdal, D.
    Nordic Blue Parks: Nordic perspectives on underwater natural and cultural heritage2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can natural and cultural values be a resource for sustainable development? That is the question the Nordic Blue Parks project has tried to answer by providing case-studies of regional and local success stories, thereby assessing the possible synergistic effects of cross-sectoral working with both nature- and cultural heritage bodies. Nordic Blue Parks is a new concept that combines underwater nature and cultural trails in four Nordic countries, i.e. Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark.The Nordic Blue Parks project has created an international forum to foster ties not only between the various groups working regionally on this project, but also to engender links between the general public and their own cultural and natural resources. Through this project both natural and cultural administrations from several Nordic countries have for the first time cooperated concerning the underwater environment. The Nordic Blue Parks project ably integrates components of sustainable development and provides new economic possibilities to develop local natural tourism, international cooperation, education and research, as well as cultural identity.

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  • 49. Omland, Atle
    et al.
    Skar, Birgitte
    Fageraas, Knut
    Kulturminner og verdiskaping i Norden: Nordisk workshop, Oslo, 2. –3. mai 20072008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Kulturminner representerer store materielle og immaterielle verdier som forvaltes for dem som lever i dag og dem som kommer etter. Det er en utfordring å bevare og integrere kulturminnene i dagens samfunn. De nordiske land arbeider med strategier for bruk av kulturminner som samfunnsaktiver. Rapporten omhandler en erfaringsutveksling i Norden omkring utfordringer innen feltet verdiskaping. Hvilke verdier skal skapes? Er det tale om økonomiske verdier, eller er det bevaring av kulturminner og styrking av lokal bevissthet om kulturminnene som er målet? Verdiskaping kan føre til bedre bevaring og økt støtte fra samfunnet, men reiser også spørsmål om konsekvensene for lokalsamfunn og virkninger for kulturminnene som følge av press. For hvem skal verdier skapes? Kulturverdier må defineres og synliggjøres gjennom å utfordre samfunnsaktører, næringsliv og planleggere, men også de som lever blant kulturminnene. Forvaltningens verdier kan bli utfordret når de møter lokale verdier på kulturminnefeltet. Slike møter bidrar til å sette spørsmål om ekspertenes rolle som forvaltere i forhold til lokale forståelser av kulturminneverdier.

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  • 50. Pitkänen, Kati
    et al.
    Oratuomi, Joose
    Hellgren, Daniela
    Furman, Eeva
    Gentin, Sandra
    Sandberg, Eva
    Øian, Hogne
    Krange, Olve
    Nature-based integration: Nordic experiences and examples2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention to, and careful planning of the integration of migrants into Nordic societies is ever more important. Nature based integration is a new solution to respond to this need. This report presents the results of a Nordic survey and workshop and illustrates current practices of nature based integration by case study descriptions from Denmark, Sweden Norway and Finland. Across Nordic countries several practical projects and initiatives have been launched to promote the benefits of nature in integration and there is also growing academic interest in the topic. Nordic countries have the potential of becoming real forerunners in nature based integration even at the global scale.

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