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  • Kultursamarbeten och nordisk bidragsgivningBook (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten Kultursamarbeten och nordisk bidragsgivning studeras fördelning av de två stora kulturstöden hos Nordisk kulturfond och Nordisk kulturkontakt – ”Projektstöd till tvärgående samarbeten” respektive ”Kultur- och konstprogrammet”. Rapporten sammanställer en analys av samarbeten inom konst och kultur, och hur den nordiska bidragsgivningen möjliggör för gemensamma projekt. Fokus läggs på utformning av tvärgående samarbeten mellan kulturskapare och genomförande av projekt. En viktig utgångspunkt för studerad bidragsgivning är att den ska bidra till utbyten mellan de nordiska länderna och skapa nordiskt mervärde.  Baserat på intervjuer med bidragsmottagare framkommer erfarenheter av hur det är att söka kulturstöd från Nordisk kulturfond och Nordisk kulturkontakt samt bygga upp nätverk. 

     En återkommande problematik inom nordiskt samarbete kretsar kring geografiska, miljömässiga och ekonomiska hinder som påverkar projekten från planering till genomförande. Geografiska avstånd skapar ojämlika förutsättningar för samarbete, där centrala områden gynnas av goda kommunikationer och stora kulturbudgetar, medan perifera områden står inför svårigheter att inkluderas på grund av bristande resurser. Samtidigt utgör de nordiska kulturstöden ett viktigt komplement till den nationella bidragsgivningen, inte minst för de mindre länderna som på så sätt får möjlighet att skala upp projekt och därmed får del av en större publik och arbetsmarknad.  

     Rapporten är framtagen av Kulturanalys Norden. Kulturanalys Norden är ett nordiskt kunskapscentrum för kulturpolitik som etablerats på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet.

     Rapporten är skriven på svenska med en sammanfattning på engelska.

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  • Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sánchez Gassen, Nora
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Economic Policy beyond the Pandemic in the Nordic Countries2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This comprehensive report delves into the economic policy responses of the Nordic countries amidst the tumultuous period marked by the COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent recovery phase, the energy crisis, and inflation spanning from 2020 to 2023. It provides a critical examination of the macroeconomic strategies employed during these challenging times, highlighting the lessons learned and the effectiveness of different policies. 

    The report raises pivotal questions regarding the outcomes of these policies, their impact on the Nordic economies, and the lessons that these countries can glean from each other's experiences.

    Key Findings and Highlights:

    • Fiscal Support Measures: The report evaluates the unprecedented fiscal support measures implemented by the Nordic countries during the pandemic. It discusses how these measures, while stabilizing the economies, resulted in overgenerous subsidies to firms, indicating areas for future refinement.
    • Job Retention Schemes: An analysis of job retention schemes reveals their critical role in preserving employment during the pandemic. The report suggests that while effective, these schemes should be designed to avoid hindering necessary structural changes within the economies.
    • Fiscal Policy Challenges: The need for fiscal policies that can stabilize the business cycle, provide household income loss insurance, allow for public investment, and address the needs of an ageing population is emphasized. It argues for debt financing beyond current limits to meet urgent investment needs.
    • Energy Crisis and Green Transition: The energy crisis is examined as a case study in balancing immediate relief with long-term sustainability goals. The report discusses the importance of allowing price mechanisms to encourage the green transition while providing timely support to consumers and businesses.

    Overall the report underscores the importance of policy adaptability, advocating for economic policies that can swiftly respond to unforeseen crises without compromising long-term fiscal sustainability. It calls for targeted support measures that aid vulnerable households and firms during economic downturns without impeding structural adjustments. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity for adequate resources towards active labour market policies, including vocational training and subsidized employment.

    Facing intricate trade-offs between maintaining robust economic policy frameworks and adapting to new challenges, the Nordic countries stand at a crossroads. The report advocates for a vibrant exchange of policy insights and impacts, stressing the need for adaptable, targeted, and well-resourced economic policies.

    This report is essential reading for policymakers, economists, and anyone interested in the complexities of economic policy-making in the face of multiple crises. It offers a thorough analysis of the Nordic experience, providing valuable lessons for both the region and beyond.

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  • Evaluation of Nordic Electricity Retail Markets2024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Evaluation of Nordic Electricity Retail Markets analyses their commonalities while also highlighting their differencet advantages and disadvantages. The retail markets in the Nordics are generally competitive and well-run. There is still need for improvement, though, as consumers lack confidence in the industry and are dissatisfied with their suppliers. Here, the study offers specific suggestions: Apart from the overall recommendation to enhance the enforcement of current regulations, you can also learn from your Nordic counterparts: from industry-drafted standard contracts in Norway to a publicly accessible Swedish complaints list. In Finland energy efficiency has increased because of a public awareness campaign, and all the Nordic nations have succeeded in introducing some form of assistance for end users throughout the energy crisis.

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  • Riik, Tomi
    et al.
    Vähämäki, Sonja
    Anttila, Erika
    Vidqvist, Riku
    Digital Maternity Cards in the Nordic and Baltic countries: Report on status and development2024Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the project Achieving the World’s Smoothest Cross-Border Mobility and Daily Life through Digitalisation, the Finnish institute for Health and Welfare in cooperation of Norwegian Directorate of e-Health conducted a study on the status of maternity card development in Nordic and Baltic countries. The aim of this report is to share knowledge between the Nordic and Baltic countries on the stage of development, aims and content of digital maternity cards.

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  • Naturforvaltning og data: Fra indsamling til forvaltning – en oversigt over de nordiske landes nationale naturdatabaser og procedurer for håndtering af data2024Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Dette arbejdspapir har til formål, at overordnet beskrive infrastrukturen for artsdata i de nordiske lande, inklusive dataindsamling, behandling, og hvordan data bliver brugt i forvaltningen. I arbejdspapiret beskrives de nationale artsdatabaser, de systemer som ligger bag, samt eksempler på, hvordan databaserne bruges i naturforvaltning i Danmark, Finland, Færøerne, Grønland, Island, Norge, Sverige og Åland. Notatet angiver mange kilder, hvor læseren selv kan finde uddybet information om de forskellige databaser, deres tekniske baggrund og manualer for brug. 

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  • Key messages on older LGBTI people’s interactions with health and social care: Results from a Nordic high-level meeting2024Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This publication provides an introduction to the state of knowledge in the area of older LGBTI-peoples livingconditions and their encounters with health and social care. It also summarises key messages from a Nordic high-level meeting with experts, key actors, and representatives from the target group, that was related to the launch of the Nordic report: “He went back into the closet”: Older LGBTI people’s interactions with health and social care in the Nordic countries. This publication highlights key messages from this expert meeting about these important matters. 

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  • Haugland, Marthe
    Nordic Blockchain Guide: - For the fashion, furniture and design industries2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Blockchain Guide provides fashion, furniture and design companies with knowledge and tools to start using blockchain technology. The guide shows concrete use cases from the industries and gives examples of solutions on how to use the technology, including checklists and a step-by-step guide. 

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  • Sølgaard, Annette
    et al.
    Institute for vision, hearing and deafblindness, Denmark.
    Nørgaard, Jette
    Residential living for adults with deafblindness, Denmark .
    Krog, Hege
    Statped, Department Combined Sensory Loss and Deafblindness – Congenital, Norway .
    Björnsdóttir, Ásta
    the National Institute for the blind, visually impaired and deafblind in Iceland.
    Þórhallsdóttir, Lilja
    the National Institute for the blind, visually impaired and deafblind in Iceland .
    Racksäter Nerback, Frida
    Mo Gård, Sweden.
    Jensen, Susanne
    Centre for sensory impairment, Denmark .
    Ravinale, Ulrica (Editor)
    SPSM, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Göran Andreas Gregor Caspian (Editor)
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Welfare Centre.
    Re-CHARGE: Voices about living withCHARGE syndrome2024Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Given the right support, persons with CHARGE syndrome can overcome not only medical challenges but also various other obstacles, and lead fulfilling lives. This publication shows, through case studies and interviews, some daily lives, challenges, and achievements of persons living with CHARGE syndrome, emphasizing the importance of understanding and support from their community.   

    Living with CHARGE syndrome can entail different aspects and challenges. Often, the focus revolves around the medical aspects, and less on how individuals can function in their day-to-day lives. There is a lack of case descriptions and interviews, telling the story from the perspective of the persons living with the syndrome themselves.

    In this publication you meet Thomas’s mother who gives a very personal account of how it was to learn that her newborn baby had CHARGE syndrome. Read about Dominic who is in primary school, knows three languages but also struggles with balance and sight, which makes him exhausted at the end of the day. Karl recently got his drivers’ licence and wants to move to the capital to get to know more people who knows sign language. Together with Charlie, Anna, Inga, and Linda they have all let us into their lives, displaying challenges, personal growth, and development.

    The aim of this publication is to show the diversity and give a voice to a group that seldom is heard. Hopefully, parents, legal guardians, and relatives can get a more positive picture of what life with CHARGE syndrome might look like.

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  • Klement, Jonathan
    et al.
    Kuri, Denisse
    Fraenkel, Emil
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    Søgaard Kirkeby, Janus
    Vasquez-Pettersen, Andrea
    Johannessen Gilleberg, Solveig
    Rännäli, Essi
    Ekvall, Tomas
    LCA on reuse of packaging in the Nordics: A case of comparing reusable alternatives to current disposable packaging2024Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study's goal was to understand the environmental impacts of different types of packaging throughout the life cycle, specifically reusable versus single-use ones, in takeaway and e-commerce industries in Nordic countries. It found that reusable packaging can be more eco-friendly, though how it compares depends on various factors, including how often it's reused.

     The study emphasises that there's no one-size-fits-all answer, as specific circumstances greatly influence results. However, with smart design and encouraging correct use, reusable packaging could significantly decrease environmental impact, offering a more sustainable path forward.

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  • Helsingin sopimuksen päivittäminen: Pohjoismaiden neuvoston työryhmän raportti2024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Pohjoismaisen yhteistyön merkitys Pohjolassa ja kansainvälisesti on historiallisessa vaiheessa, kun Euroopassa käydään sotaa ja turvattomuus maailmalla jatkuu ja pahenee. Kaikki Pohjoismaat ovat Naton jäseniä, mikä avaa uusia mahdollisuuksia pohjoismaiselle yhteistyölle. Samaan aikaan maailmalla on edessään useita suuria haasteita, kuten luonnon monimuotoisuuden köyhtyminen ja ilmastonmuutos, tekoäly ja kyberturvallisuus sekä eriarvoisuuden lisääntyminen ja demokratiaan kohdistuvat uhat. 

    Pohjoismainen yhteistyö ei ole koskaan ollut näin tärkeää, ja pohjoismaisen yhteistyön perustuslain – Helsingin sopimuksen – on käsiteltävä niitä haasteita ja mahdollisuuksia, jotka Pohjolalla on edessään. Meidän on annettava pohjoismaiselle yhteistyölle tilaa kehittyä ja vahvistua. Pohjoismaisen yhteistyön on oltava ajassa kiinni, kun pidetään mielessä tämän hetken ja tulevaisuuden haasteet. Kun mietitään kaikkia suuria muutoksia, joita Pohjolassa ja maailmalla on tapahtunut Helsingin sopimuksen edellisen päivittämisen jälkeen vuonna 1995, mieleen tulee kysymys, milloin sopimusta tulisi päivittää, jollei nyt?

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  • Uppfærsla á Helsingforssamningnum: Skýrsla vinnuhóps Norðurlandaráðs2024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Hlutverk norræns samstarfs á Norðurlöndum og alþjóðlega er á sögulegum tímum með styrjöld í Evrópu og stöðugt og vaxandi óöryggi í heiminum. Öll norrænu ríkin eru aðilar að NATO og það skapar ný tækifæri í norrænu samstarfi. Samtímis stendur heimurinn frammi fyrir ýmsum miklum áskorunum. Minni líffræðileg fjölbreytni náttúrunnar og miklar loftslagsbreytingar. Gervigreind og netöryggi. Aukinn ójöfnuður og ógnir við lýðræðið.

    Norrænt samstarf hefur líklega aldrei verið eins mikilvægt og nú og stjórnarskrá samstarfsins – Helsingforssamningurinn – verður að ávarpa áskoranir og tækifæri sem Norðurlöndin standa frammi fyrir. Við verðum að veita norrænu samstarfi svigrúm til að þróast, eflast og skipta máli með tilliti til þeirra tíma sem við lifum og þeirrar framtíðar sem við stöndum frammi fyrir. Þær miklu breytingar sem orðið hafa á Norðurlöndum og um allan heim frá því að Helsingforssamningurinn var síðast uppfærður árið 1995 gefa tilefni til að spyrja ef ekki er ástæða til að endurnýja Helsingforssamninginn núna, hvenær þá?

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  • Oppdatering av Helsingforsavtalen: En rapport fra Nordisk råds arbeidsgruppe2024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Det nordiske samarbeidets rolle i Norden og internasjonalt er i en historisk tid med krig i Europa og vedvarende og eskalerende utrygghet i verden. De nordiske lande er alle medlemmer av NATO og dette åpner nye muligheter for det nordiske samarbeidet. Samtidig står verden overfor flere store utfordringer. Mindre naturmangfold og store klimaendringer. Kunstig intelligens og cybersikkerhet. Voksende ulikhet og trusler mot demokratiet.

    Nordisk samarbeid har nok aldri vært viktigere enn i dag og det nordiske samarbeides grunnlov – Helsingforsavtalen – må adressere de utfordringer og muligheter som Norden står overfor. Med de mange store endringer som har skjedd i Norden og verden siden Helsingforsavtalen ble oppdatert sist, i 1995, må man kunne stille spørsmålet, hvis Helsingforsavtalen ikke skal fornyes nå – når da?

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  • Nordic Environment Finance Corporation, Nefco
    Nefco Annual Report 20232024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nefco, the Nordic Green Bank's Annual Report for 2023 includes the Report of the Board, the Financial Report and Impact Report.

    Nefco is an international financial institution (IFI) that finances the initial scale-up of Nordic green solutions on international markets. Founded in 1990 by the five Nordic countries, we serve the interestsof our owners, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, support globally set environmental and climate targets and take concrete actions to accelerate the shift to green. 

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  • The Nordic Project Fund, Nopef
    Nopef Annual Review 20232024Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nopef, the Nordic Project Fund, provides financial support for feasibility studies aimed at international establishments and implementation of commercial pilots and demonstrations of green solutions. The funding is intended for small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) based in the Nordic countries. Read more about Nopef activities and results in 2023.

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  • Nordiska rådets årsberättelse 20232024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nordiska rådets årsberättelse beskriver verksamheten under 2023. Den politiska diskussionen har präglats av diskussioner om det nya säkerhetsläget i Norden. I årsberättelsen beskrivs också närmare utskottens och kommittéernas arbete samt Nordiska rådets internationella verksamhet.

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  • Gränshinderrådets årsrapport 20232024Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränshinderrådets främsta uppgift är att vara pådrivare mot de nationella politiska och administrativa systemen så att Norden kan bli en integrerad region där invånare enkelt kan arbeta, flytta, studera och starta företag över gränserna. Under 2023 har sex gränshinder avklarats, varav fem har lösts och ett är avskrivet som olösbart. Gränshinderrådet har särskilt fokuserat på fem temaområden: Digitalisering, Erkännande av yrkeskvalifikationer, Folkbokföringssamarbete, Gränsregional statistik och Skatterelaterade gränshinder. Gränshinderrådet har även, när mobilitetshämmande initiativ tagits på nationell nivå, agerat för att värna den grundläggande fria rörligheten mellan de nordiska länderna.

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  • Early Childhood Education and Care – an Investment in the Future: Report of a Nordic Working Group on the Economic Significance of Qualitative ECEC2024Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents results from a Nordic working group under the Nordic senior official´s committee on education and research. The working group was tasked to examine area of early childhood education and care (ECEC) and to compile evidence of qualitative ECEC´s economic significance and even the broader social impact and proof of the return on investment from it.

     The knowledge gathered indicates that ECEC professionals play a key role in assuring quality in ECEC. During a time of challenging public finances coupled with changes in the operational environment, many Nordic countries now face challenges in recruiting and retaining ECEC professionals.

     Research also demonstrates the clear benefits of qualitative ECEC to language and socio-emotional skills development. Participation in ECEC also has positive implications for the welfare and income of families and parents.

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  • Aguiar Borges, Luciane
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    de Jesus, Ana
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    SiEUGreen White Paper with best practices2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the potential of Urban Agriculture (UA) to enhance food security, improve resource efficiency, and promote smart, resilient, and circular cities.

    The discussion is framed within the scope of the Horizon 2020 project ‘Sino-European Innovative Green and Smart Cities’ (SiEUGreen) which explored different pathways to turn waste into resources for growing food in cities through the combination of different technologies. These technologies were tested in five showcases: Campus Ås, in Ås, Norway; World Gardens and Brabrand Fællesgartneriet community gardens in Aarhus, Denmark; Turunçlu greenhouse in Atakya, Turkey; Sanyuan Farm, in Beijing, and Futiancangjun residential area in Changsha, China. 

    The insights and knowledge gained with these showcases were the basis to discuss the barriers and drivers of UA in the transition to more sustainable and resilient circular cities, across five aspects (1) environmental, (2) technological, (3) economic, (4) social and cultural and (5) regulatory and institutional issues. The results suggest that city food provision and UA systems can be designed considering circular economy regenerative cycles, but it is important to promote local research that can highlight policy solutions to address context-related barriers and limitations.

    Among the main lessons learned across the different aspects, we highlight:

    • The need for more evidence-based research, clear monitoring tools and evaluation/assessment of the different UA typologies and their impact on the environment, society and economy;
    • The implementation of innovative technological developments that support and promote UA for reduce; reuse, recycle/recover resources require more experimentation, large-scale tests and validation both concerning their efficiency, positive environmental impacts, as well as economic viability;
    • The need for high investments, difficulties accessing financial support, underdeveloped business case for circular resource models, and limited recognition of the positive and indirect economic, environmental benefits of UA are among the main barriers that limit the uptake of agriculture in cities;
    • Despite the significant role UA can play in advancing a circular economy (e.g., by supporting sustainable local food systems, promoting community resilience and reducing waste), behaviour and cultural barriers were found to have a deep impact when fostering a closed-loop approach to UA, especially concerning overcoming prejudice against waste as a resource,
    • Local governance and public policy play a central role in framing and supporting UA (e.g., incentives, funding, regulatory frameworks) as a pathway that enables close loops in cities.
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  • Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, Johan
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Introduction: The future of the digital media welfare state2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 7-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, comparative media studies have classified and compared differentmedia systems around the world. Analyses suggest that the media systems ofthe Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) sharecertain traits, rendering them media welfare states. In this introductory chapter,we discuss the constituents of the Nordic media model and its contemporary statusand challenges. We then introduce the 14 chapters included in this volume. Thechapters are written by Nordic scholars and deal with a range of aspects connectedto the transformation or stability of the Nordic media system in the digital era.

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    Introduction. Jakobsson et al.
  • Colbjørnsen, Terje
    et al.
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Larsen, Håkon
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Tallerås, Kim
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Liguzinski, Maciej
    Department of Archivistics, Library and Information Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Extending the media welfare state: The role of libraries in the Nordic countries2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 299-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An account of the Nordic media welfare state that does not consider the library sector, its historical mandates, and the role it plays in securing universal access to media content while also contributing to sustaining the media industries, is missing a piece. With this chapter, we aim to contribute to a deeper understanding of the role of public libraries in relation to a wider media context. As holders of collections of media – books, but also audio and audiovisual media – as well as important enablers of public discussions and events, libraries co-exist with media industries in multiple ways: They purchase media content, promote various forms of media, and compete with the mass media for the attention of the public as well as the resources of the state. We ask questions about the intersections between libraries and the media industries: What are their mandates, social remits, and forms of regulation? What are the challenges that face them today? What are their roles within an extended media welfare state?

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    Chapter 14. Colbjørnsen et al.
  • Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Martin
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hallén, Malin
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Ebba
    Media and Communication Studies, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    From reality-TV to rurality-TV: Exploring the genre of idealised rural lifestyles in Nordic public service television2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 277-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces rurality-TV as a genre, and we discuss how public service media, through this genre, contributes to symbolically resolving tensions between the rural and the urban, and we address processes of mobility and urbanisation in the Nordics. Three popular reality-TV programmes depicting rural life are analysed: Bonderøven [loosely translated as The Hillbilly], later known as Frank & Kastaniegaarden (DR), Hjälp vi har köpt en bondgård! [Help we have bought a farm!] (SVT), and Oppfinneren [The Inventor] (NRK). These are approached through three questions: What constitutes public service rurality-TV as a genre in terms of form and content? What values are negotiated in the programmes? How can we understand rurality-TV in the context of public service broadcasting in the media welfare state?

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    Chapter 13. Andersson et al.
  • Ala-Fossi, Marko
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Lehtisaari, Katja
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Neuvonen, Riku
    Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Finland.
    Public service without broadcasting? Conditions for abandoning terrestrial television in Finland2014In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2014, p. 117-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finnish Yleisradio (Yle) has been one of the most innovative public service broadcasters in Europe. The new tax-based funding system and broad remit have allowed the company to shift its focus from broadcast television and radio to online services without jeopardising its relevance or resources. Now Yle has set preconditions for the future availability of its online television in case digital terrestrial television (DTT) would be switched off and all ultra high frequencies reallocated. This is not because Yle would want to focus only on growing video audiences online, but because the Finnish spectrum policy favouring mobile industries could endanger Yle’s capability to fulfil its public service remit. We argue that Yle’s conditions for abandoning television broadcasting on DTT are so tight they might never be met by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. In this chapter, we also examine what consequences public service without broadcasting could have.

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    Chapter 5. Ala-Fossi et al.
  • Moe, Hallvard
    et al.
    Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Enli, Gunn
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Syvertsen, Trine
    Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, Norway.
    The dark side of the media welfare state: How media policy ignored consumption and climate change2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 241-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits the concept of the media welfare state, a term we coined a decade ago (with fourth author Ole Mjøs). The concept highlighted how welfare state principles influenced media policy in the Nordic countries and how policymakers used regulatory measures to correct negative implications of state and market governance. In this chapter, we consider how policymakers responded to a trend we did not previously discuss: the media’s contribution to overconsumption and environmental damage. Based on an empirical discussion of three phases of Norwegian media policy – early television, early broadband, and early data centre policies – we argue that in facing these challenges, politicians have been less willing to use policy measures to reduce harmful consequences. Instead, there is a tendency towards unquestionably labelling media and digital platforms “a green industry”.

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    Chapter 11. Moe et al.
  • Halvorsen, Lars Julius
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Science and History, Volda University College, Norway.
    Bjerke, Paul
    Faculty of Media and Journalism, Volda University College, Norway.
    Cracks in the foundations? Shifting consensual relations in two media fields in Norway2023In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2023, 1, p. 135-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the Nordic media model is consensual relations between state and industry stakeholders. However, recent studies indicate that these relationships have become less consensual in some Nordic countries. In this article, we investigate the developments and current situation in the Norwegian media and literary field through a comparative case study of the print news media and the book market. In both industries, the regulatory schemes were developed, while democratic corporatist solutions were widespread. Despite large political transformations in other societal sectors, we find that the most important parts of the two systems are still intact, while the state remains predominantly supportive. In the field of news media, intra-industry relations are largely intact, enabling the field to protect their privileges from outsiders and unwanted political initiatives. In the more heterogenous and less organised field of literature, tensions between actors are rising, and this poses a threat to the Norwegian literary welfare state.

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    Chapter 6. Halvorsen & Bjerke
  • Flensburg, Sofie
    et al.
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lai, Signe Sophus
    Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Public goods and private property: A waltz between Big Tech and the Nordic welfare states2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 179-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet’s evolution into a critical societal infrastructure has reconfigured the material conditions for communication and led to the emergence of a wide range of new media and communication platforms. Yet, media system analyses continue to focus on legacy media institutions rather than on the broader digital ecosystem that these are embedded in and increasingly come to rely on. In this chapter, we suggest a new path for analyses of the power structures and dynamics that shape contemporary digital communication environments. Foregrounding the material resources that enable and constrain Internet-based communication, we explore how digital infrastructures are organised and controlled in the four largest Nordic countries. We thereby provide an alternative basis for discussing the mutual influence of the welfare state and the increasingly globalised and commercial communication system, and we conclude that the four media welfare state pillars suggested by Syvertsen and colleagues are theoretical ideals rather than empirical realities.

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    Chapter 8. Flensburg & Sophus Lai
  • Kaun, Anne
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Helena
    Swedish National China Centre, Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    From media welfare to data welfare: Broadening the scope of media welfare2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 261-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter engages with the notion of the data welfare state, extending the discussion of digital media welfare. Our main aim is to address the shifts in welfare provision under the paradigm of datafication. This primarily conceptual contribution puts forward the normative ideal of the data welfare state as a point of departure from the media welfare state. In the chapter, we highlight the current limits of data welfare and outline the prospects of the data welfare state by drawing on two empirical case studies of data-based technologies implemented by 1) a Swedish municipality to automate social benefit applications, and 2) a smart-sensor project of a public housing company to improve public safety. The case studies serve as an illustration of the conceptual arguments being made while shifting the focus from traditional media institutions to broader welfare infrastructures that are increasingly being datafied. To develop a better understanding of data welfare, we suggest revisiting the concept of mediation in the context of the data welfare state, in which the process of datafication is becoming a major way of mediating the social good.

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    Chapter 12. Kaun & Löfgren
  • Guðmundsson, Birgir
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Valgerður
    Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Iceland’s media policy and the Nordic media welfare model: A fragile support and uncertain future2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, Univeristy of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 155-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Icelandic media system shares many characteristics with the media systems of other Nordic countries. In a Nordic comparison, however, the state has until very recently been less active in the media market, and the consensual characteristic of the Nordic media welfare state model has been largely absent. The media market in Iceland has been in turmoil for over a decade, and most news media companies have been run at a loss or with meagre returns for years. This has led to a fundamental but hotly debated shift in media policy, introducing press subsidies for the first time. It has thus been argued that in Iceland, a market libertarian approach to media policy has been challenged by the Nordic media welfare state model. Findings from an analysis of the legislative debate about the media policy change indicate that support for a Nordic media welfare state model is unstable in Icelandic politics, thus its future is uncertain.

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    Chapter 7. Guðmundsson & Jóhannsdóttir
  • Kvalheim, Nina
    Department of Media and Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Who owns the owners? An analysis of ownership patterns in the Norwegian newspaper market2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 223-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns the structure, and particular ownership patterns, of the Norwegian newspaper market. Newspapers constitute an important part of the Nordic media system, and the press has mostly adhered to the principles of the concept of the media welfare state. The state of the press is thus of importance to the state of the Nordic media system. By analysing the Norwegian newspaper market, I aim to answer the following research question: Who are the owners behind the Norwegian media companies, and what is the relationship between these owners? This is important because it illuminates the hidden power structures that exist behind the most prominent media companies in Norway.

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    Chapter 10. Kvalheim
  • Pöyhtäri, Reeta
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Addressing the hate speech issue in the Nordic countries: A challenge for media welfare states or a chance for their revival?2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 71-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hate speech on digital platforms manifests itself in ways that need to be addressed both in practice and on a policy level, taking Nordic (media) policies into novel areas. For this chapter, I analysed and compared policy documents discussing hatespeech from Denmark,  Finland, Norway, and Sweden, with a focus on how hatespeech is defined, the perceived  harmful functions of hate speech, and the suggested remedies. The analysis shows that hate speech is perceived to endanger societies’ democratic functions, public debate, and freedom of speech. Hate speech targetsspecific minorities and especially those in public positions or participating inpublic debate. The suggested remedies correspond with media welfare state ideals: increased collaboration between all relevant parties, state support for both citizens and media, and adjustments of existing laws. The role of online platforms is crucial, but concrete measures to hold them responsible still wait for the implementation of the European Union’s Digital Services Act legislation.

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    Chapter 3. Pöyhtäri
  • Horowitz, Minna
    et al.
    Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nieminen, Hannu
    Department of Public Communication, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania; Media and Communication Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Communication rights and the Nordic epistemic commons: Assessing the media welfare state in the age of information disorder2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 96-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information disorder occurs when the fact-based, reliable, and professionally validated provision of information becomes confronted by information that attacks previously trusted media platforms, disputes the known or scientifically validated facts, or uses rumours and gossip as sources. Information disorder intensifies during turbulent times, as evidenced by the global rise of xenophobic movements, disbelief in science, and belief in conspiracies. Although Nordic countries fare remarkably well by many measures that assess democratic and robust communication environments, they also face these challenges. In this chapter, we view the Nordic media welfare state as ideally entailing an epistemic commons – a shared forum for trustworthy knowledge and culture – that supports citizens’ communication rights of access to and availability of diverse content, as well as privacy and dialogical public communication. Based on these key principles embedded in the Nordic media welfare state model, we assess its present condition by employing the framework of communication rights as our analytical tool. We argue that rights-based approaches in policy and practice are essential if a Nordic digital media welfare state is to be realised and maintained.

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    Chapter 4. Horowitz & Nieminen
  • Schrøder, Kim Christian
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Kæmsgaard Eberholst, Mads
    Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Nordic media welfare states from a comparative perspective: Unpacking audience fragmentation and polarisation2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 25-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, Trine Syvertsen, Gunn Enli, Ole J. Mjøs, and Hallvard Moe raisedtwo central concerns as to the future of the ideal of the Nordic media welfarestates regarding increasing demographic fragmentation and political polarisation.Using audience data from the Reuters Institute Digital News Report, we offer acomparative longitudinal perspective on how these concerns have played out infour Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) from 2016–2022, compared with the US and the UK. We find that despite some fragmentationaccording to age, fragmentation may not be problematic per se if people’s newsdiets draw substantially on quality journalistic news outlets with a guarantee ofrelatively shared news agendas. A moderate degree of political polarisation existsfor some types of Nordic news media, with public service media showing lesspolarisation than some newspapers and digitally born outlets.

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    Chapter 1. Schrøder et al.
  • Romanova, Randa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergman, Mats
    Swedish School of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Similar media systems, different self-regulation: A closer look at the Nordic media accountability models2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 53-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reviews existing media accountability systems in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and probes how current self-regulatory practices fit the idea of a homogeneous Nordic media welfare state model. This conception implies that Nordic institutions – including users, companies, regulators, and the state – would react to the emerging changes in the digital environment along largely uniform lines. However, a closer look at the systems of self-regulation in the Nordic countries reveals differences between their respective ethical frameworks, which in turn affect how they face perceived challenges of globalisation, digitalisation, and marketisation. Despite several historical commonalities, the Nordic self-regulatory bodies do not necessarily demonstrate a common developmental pattern in thedigital era. The implications uncovered in this appraisal thus offer insights into comparative research on media systems in general and the Nordic media welfare state in particular.

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    Chapter 2. Romanova & Bergman
  • Sjøvaag, Helle
    et al.
    Department of Media and Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Ferrer-Conill, Raul
    Department of Media and Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Digital communication infrastructures and the principle of universality: Challenges for Nordic media welfare state jurisdictions2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, 1, p. 201-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines to what extent the digital communication infrastructure of Norway is subject to regulation of the Internet’s physical infrastructures. To assess how communicative power is distributed, we map the ownership of access networks and backbone infrastructures to ascertain how the Norwegian infrastructure regulation is legally geared to protect universalist principles in media welfare states. Included in the mapping are backbone networks (fibre cables, Internet exchange points, content delivery networks, and data centres) and access networks (broadband wire and electromagnetic radio frequencies). Our findings reveal that backbone infrastructures are essentially unregulated and increasingly controlled by foreign companies and energy companies. This implies an uneven jurisdictional reach of Norwegian legislators, leaving an open gate for large multinational companies to establish infrastructures that generate, store, and distribute data. The result is a potential loss of data sovereignty and communicative power by Norwegian citizens.

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    Chapter 9. Sjøvaag & Ferrer-Conill
  • Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, Johan
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Afterword: What’s next for the media welfare state?2024In: The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State? / [ed] P. Jakobsson, J. Lindell, & F. Stiernstedt, Nordicom, University of Gothenburg , 2024, p. 319-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This final chapter summarises some of the findings presented in the preceding chapters and asks what’s next for the media welfare state. Continuing the discussion from previous chapters about the increasingly precarious situation of the media welfare state in a media landscape dominated by global actors and transnational policymaking, but also adding a discussion about the political challenges from right-wing populism, the chapter nevertheless ends with a positive vision for the future of the media welfare state, with a renewed role for the institution of public service media.

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    Afterword. Jakobsson et al.
  • de Jesus, Ana
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Melander, Sara
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    From Vision to Practice – Insights from Nordic-Baltic 5G applications across sectors2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report builds on the findings of the Nordic-Baltic 5G Monitoring Tool (N-B 5G MT) project ‘Analytical Report’, which focused on mapping 5G activities in the Nordic-Baltic region and analysing their roll-out status. In this follow-up report, we delve deeper into actual 5G applications across different verticals (i.e. sectors), including healthcare, transportation/mobility, industry and media/broadcasting.

    The Nordic-Baltic region faces knowledge gaps in understanding 5G’s full economic impact, despite its role as both a service and an enabler. While there’s notable activity in sectors like transport, smart cities, and health, most 5G projects are still in the early stages, and the business case for widespread 5G deployment is not yet clear. This report examines how various sectors address these challenges and what can be learned from their experiences in advancing 5G development. 

    The report identifies challenges in each sector, such as funding constraints in healthcare, technical hurdles in transportation, market immaturity in industry, and infrastructure investment needs in media, highlighting the complex landscape of 5G deployment.

    The project’s key findings point to a number of cross-cutting challenges that require comprehensive attention and solutions:

    - Uncertain business cases: There is a need for empirical validation of 5G’s potential and specific benefits to encourage investment and innovation.

    - Financial barriers: Challenges include insufficient early-stage funding and high deployment costs, requiring supportive funding and regulatory frameworks.

    - Technical and infrastructural limitations: Regulatory and financial support are needed for better connectivity in rural areas.

    - Regulatory constraints: Complex requirements around spectrum allocation, licensing, data security, and privacy demand tailored regulatory frameworks and close collaboration between stakeholders.

    - Security, privacy, and ethics: These issues are closely linked to regulatory challenges and include concerns about data protection and management, GDPR compliance and cybersecurity.

    - Acceptability and usability: Efforts to simplify 5G technology for broader adoption and overcome infrastructure development resistance are essential.

    - Collaboration challenges: There is a demand to foster collaborative environments through forums, dialogue sessions, and cross-border partnerships.

    Overall, the report emphasises the need for a systemic approach to addressing these challenges. This includes clarifying the business value of 5G; fostering ecosystems for collaboration; and ensuring that policy and regulatory frameworks support the innovative, equitable deployment of 5G technology. Overcoming these hurdles will require concerted efforts from all stakeholders, including governments, industry and the wider community. Only then will the transformative potential of 5G for society be fully realised.

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  • Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindell, JohanDepartment of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Sweden.Stiernstedt, FredrikSchool of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    The Future of the Nordic Media Model: A Digital Media Welfare State?2024Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The media systems of the Nordic countries have for long been characterised by universality, freedom, trust, and cooperation between stakeholders. In comparative media systems research, the Nordic countries have been described as belonging to a single model – the Nordic media welfare state. The future of this model is now more uncertain than ever, as it is under increasing pressure from global tech companies, new digital media infrastructure, and developments in media policy, which all seem to elude domestic regulatory control. These developments raise questions about both the current state and the future of the media welfare state in a digital society – questions that this edited volume seeks to explore through conceptual, theoretical, and empirical analyses.

    The first section of this edited volume analyses the current state of the media model in the Nordic countries and focuses on some of the challenges that the media welfare states are facing. The section provides a comparative analysis of how the media are used and how they are regulated. It also analyses specific challenges such as disinformation and hate speech and the current measures taken to tackle such issues. 

    The second section of this volume addresses conceptual and theoretical issues regarding the concept of the Nordic media welfare state. Through both historical and contemporary case studies, the section extends the concept of media welfare by attending to digital infrastructures, libraries, environmental issues, as well as the integration of the media with other aspects of social welfare. In the final chapter of the book, the editors propose that the digital media welfare state can be expanded and adapted to the digital media landscape using the public service media companies as a platform to connect cultural institutions and citizens.

    This book is of interest to students, researchers, and anyone seeking to understand developments in the media industries and media policy in the Nordic countries. The chapters in this volume are written by experts in their respective fields and provide the reader with both an overview and detailed knowledge about the Nordic media model. The editors – Peter Jakobsson and Johan Lindell at Uppsala University and Fredrik Stiernstedt at Södertörn University – have collaborated in several research projects that connect to the question of the future of the digital media welfare state.

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  • Kjetså, Maria Valkeneer
    Nordic Council of Ministers, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre (NordGen).
    Ólavsdóttir, Jóna
    Felagið Føroysk Ross.
    Joensen, Maria
    Felagið Føroysk Ross.
    Joensen, Signa Kallsoy
    Felagið Føroysk Ross.
    Honkatukia, Mervi
    Nordic Council of Ministers, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre (NordGen).
    Peippo, Jaana
    Nordic Council of Ministers, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre (NordGen).
    White, Ellen-Louisa Fagerheim
    Nordic Council of Ministers, The Nordic Genetic Resource Centre (NordGen).
    Action Plan for the Conservation of the Faroese Horse2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Horses were brought to the Faroe Islands by Norse settlers in the 9th and 10th centuries. Over the centuries, the geographical remoteness in the North Atlantic Ocean forced these horses to adapt to their surroundings. Only the horses that could withstand the weather survived, and the Faroe Islands became home to a horse breed that was small, strong, hardy, and agile. The small horses were used by farmers for agricultural purposes and occasionally for transport between villages. Most of them roamed the mountains all year and no targeted breeding took place. The oldest record available of horses on the Faroe Islands is from 1857, which counted 844 horses with 396 mares, and 476 foals and stallions.

    Exportation of the horses to coal mines in Britain combined with modernization of the agriculture on the Faroe Islands, resulted in a breed that nearly went extinct. By the 1960s, there were less than ten horses of the breed left alive. A rescue operation was initiated, and suitable horses for breeding were used, however many of them were already related. All Faroese horses alive today, are descendants of only four individual horses.

    In 1978, the Faroese Horse Association (Felagið Føroysk Ross) was established to conserve the Faroese indigenous horse breed and they have kept a studbook ever since. In 2018, the online pedigree registration system Føroya Fongur was created, in which online access is provided to the studbook with extensive information about the Faroese horse breed.

    By the end of 2023 there were 82 living Faroese horses. The breed can thank their survival to the hard work and dedication from individual horse owners and enthusiast through the years, and through the work of the Faroese Horse Association. You could say that the conservation of the Faroese horse this far is a success story as the breed has managed to survive and increase in numbers over the years. However, there are still several big challenges and threats facing this small and hardy breed. There is a critical need to act today to secure that the breed will be around for future generations as well. The Faroese horse is, after all, a living and breathing part of the Faroese cultural heritage.

    All Nordic countries, including the Faroe Islands, have adopted The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources (GPA) established by FAO in 2007. This framework obligates all parties to contribute to the conservation, sustainable use and development of animal genetic resources. One of the main areas of concern expressed in the GPA, is that there is too little research and information about many of the native farm animal breeds. Increased characterization, involving phenotypic, genetic, and historical information on breeds is needed (FAO, 2007).

    The purpose of the Action Plan for the Conservation of the Faroese Horse is to highlight concrete actions and measures that need be implemented to conserve the horse breed for the future.

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  • Nordiska gränsutbyten och mobilitet inom kulturområdet2024Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanställer en analys av Norden som en integrerad kulturregion. Studien baseras på en beskrivning av gränssamarbeten och mobilitet mellan länderna. Fokus läggs på gränsöverskridande arbetspendling i allmänhet och nordisk arbetsmarknad för kulturskapare i synnerhet. Covid-19-pandemin hade en negativ påverkan på gränsutbyten men resultatet visar på en återhämtning. För kultursektorn finns säsongsskillnader där vissa kvartal innebär en mer frekvent pendling, totalsiffrorna är dock blygsamma om man ser till arbetspendling som helhet. Studien visar att Öresundsregionen utmärker sig som en mer integrerad arbetsmarknad, men tillgången till ytterligare pendlingsdata för kulturskapare skulle kunna påverka helhetsbilden. Rapporten innehåller även en analys av handel med kulturella varor och tjänster mellan de nordiska länderna. Under den senaste tioårsperioden har ett skifte skett där handel med kulturella tjänster gått om handel med kulturella varor. 

     Rapporten är framtagen av Kulturanalys Norden. Kulturanalys Norden är ett nordiskt kunskapscentrum för kulturpolitik som etablerats på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet.

     Rapporten är skriven på svenska med en sammanfattning på engelska.

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