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Economic Policy beyond the Pandemic in the Nordic Countries
Stockholm University.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
Number of Authors: 16
Responsible organisation
2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This comprehensive report delves into the economic policy responses of the Nordic countries amidst the tumultuous period marked by the COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent recovery phase, the energy crisis, and inflation spanning from 2020 to 2023. It provides a critical examination of the macroeconomic strategies employed during these challenging times, highlighting the lessons learned and the effectiveness of different policies. 

The report raises pivotal questions regarding the outcomes of these policies, their impact on the Nordic economies, and the lessons that these countries can glean from each other's experiences.

Key Findings and Highlights:

  • Fiscal Support Measures: The report evaluates the unprecedented fiscal support measures implemented by the Nordic countries during the pandemic. It discusses how these measures, while stabilizing the economies, resulted in overgenerous subsidies to firms, indicating areas for future refinement.
  • Job Retention Schemes: An analysis of job retention schemes reveals their critical role in preserving employment during the pandemic. The report suggests that while effective, these schemes should be designed to avoid hindering necessary structural changes within the economies.
  • Fiscal Policy Challenges: The need for fiscal policies that can stabilize the business cycle, provide household income loss insurance, allow for public investment, and address the needs of an ageing population is emphasized. It argues for debt financing beyond current limits to meet urgent investment needs.
  • Energy Crisis and Green Transition: The energy crisis is examined as a case study in balancing immediate relief with long-term sustainability goals. The report discusses the importance of allowing price mechanisms to encourage the green transition while providing timely support to consumers and businesses.

Overall the report underscores the importance of policy adaptability, advocating for economic policies that can swiftly respond to unforeseen crises without compromising long-term fiscal sustainability. It calls for targeted support measures that aid vulnerable households and firms during economic downturns without impeding structural adjustments. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity for adequate resources towards active labour market policies, including vocational training and subsidized employment.

Facing intricate trade-offs between maintaining robust economic policy frameworks and adapting to new challenges, the Nordic countries stand at a crossroads. The report advocates for a vibrant exchange of policy insights and impacts, stressing the need for adaptable, targeted, and well-resourced economic policies.

This report is essential reading for policymakers, economists, and anyone interested in the complexities of economic policy-making in the face of multiple crises. It offers a thorough analysis of the Nordic experience, providing valuable lessons for both the region and beyond.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Nordregio , 2024. , p. 312
Series
Nordregio Report, ISSN 1403-2503 ; 2024:12
Keywords [en]
economic policy, Nordic countries, pandemic, fiscal policy, job retention, monetary policy, unemployment, labour market, remote work, energy crisis, green transition
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-13150DOI: 10.6027/R2024:121403-2503ISBN: 978-91-8001-099-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:norden-13150DiVA, id: diva2:1851290
Available from: 2024-04-16 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-04-16

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